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Nelson L. Greene, - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - - Office Manager 

Department Editors 

John E. Dugan - Haddon Heights, N. J. 
DoxALi) A. Eldridge - Middletowii, Conn. 
Hardy R. Finch - - Greenwich, Conn. 

Ann- Gale Chicago, III. 

David Goodman - - New York, N. Y. 
Josephine Hoffman - - - Chicago, III. 
L. C. Larson - - - Bloomington, Ind. 
F. Dean McClusky - Scarborough, N. Y. 
Etta Schneider Ress - New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Adriaory Board 

Ward C. Bowen. Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, X. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gbegory, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland. Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

James S. Kinder. Director PCW Film 
Service, Pennsylvania College for 
Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley. Calif. 

Paul C. Reed. U. S. Office of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Maj. W. Gayle Starnes, Chief, Training 
Division, Signal Corps Depot, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Lelia Trolinger. Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittixghill. Director of Trans- 
portation, Board of Education, Detroit. 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.50 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies 25 


JANUARY. 1944 




Cover Picture— A scenic view from Morro Rock In Sequoia 
National Park, Calif. 

Audio-Visual Aids in the Schools of Tomorrow Alvln B. Roberts 9 

Audio-Visual Aids — A Survey Mary Louise Molyneaux 1 1 

Visual Education in Classes 

Containing Whi+e and Negro Pupils Edwin A. Fensch 15 

Post- War Visual Education Potentialities in 

Latin America .Nathan D. Golden 16 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres 

..Arthur Edwin Knows 19 

The Film and International 

Understanding John E. Dugan, Editor 23 

Various Types of Realism — 

In Hand-Made Lantern Slides Ann Gale 24 

Department of Visual Instruction 25 

School-Made Motion Pictures Hardy R. Finch, Editor 26 

Experimental Research In 

Audio-Visual Education David Goodman, Editor 28 

The Literature in Visual Instruction 

A Monthly Digest Etta Schneider Ress, Editor 30 

News and Notes Josephine Hoffman, Editor 38 

Current Film News 42 

Among the Producers 46 

Here They Arel A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 48 

(Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index) 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontiac, Illinois; Executive Office, bA 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St.. Chicago, III, 

Page 4 

The Educational Screen 

Bertram Willoughby, President of Ideal Pictures Corporation, entered 
the non-theatrical motion picture business on January 1, 1920 . . . 
Thus he is now beginning his 25 TH YEAR of serving the Nation's 
schools with the very best in entertainment and educational films. 

Do you have 
the following FREE literature? 

1. Our general Catalog, 23rd Edition. 

2. Our Catalog Supplement of late releases. 

3. "The Protestant Screen" listing religious pictiues 
for Protestant audiences. 

4. "The Catholic Screen" listing religious pictures 
for Catholic audiences. 

5. Our 1944 Catalog Supplement listing major pro- 
ductions NOT requiring approval of rental con- 

Send for your free copy of any or all of the above. 

The following are a few of our large feature produc- 
tions NOT requiring approval of rental contract: 

in natural color: 



in black and tuhite: 



Twelve well-located offices to serve you: 



Bertram Willoughby Pictures, Inc. 

Suite 600 — 1600 Broadway 

New York 19, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

18 South Third Street 

Memphis 3, Tennessee 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

2408 West 7th Street 
Los Angeles 5, Caliiomia 


and the following branches and affiliates: 

Stevens-Ideal Pictures 
89 Cone Street, N.W. 
Atlanta 3, Georgia 

Ideal Pictures 
2024 Main Street 
Dallas 1, Texas 

Ideal Pictures 
219 East Main St. 
Richmond 19, Va. 

Ideal Pictures 
1739 Oneida St. 
Denver 7, Colo. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
915 S.W. 10th Ave. 
Portland 5, Oregon 

Ideal-Southern Pictures 

2819 Bell Street 
New Orleans, La. 

Ideal Pictures 

Room 1 — Lobby Floor 

Reliance B)dg. 

926 McGee Street 

Kansas City 6, Mo. 

Ideal-Southern 16mm Pictures Co. 

9536 N.E. 2nd Street 

Miami 38, Florida 

January, 1944 

Page 5 























in radio (ommunitotion between 
planes and ground 

{hanging or to d-c for electrir 
transporlotion lysrems 

in X ray exominotion of giont rostings. 
to delect flows 

moking oir super-rleon, wisere delicate 
instruments ore monufoclured 

these things ore based on the six fundo 
mental functions of the electronic tube 















Other films also availitble ; 

"What is Electricity?" 
"The Ramparts We Build" 
"This, too, is Sabotage" 


^^/7(/ /7?otm p/ctc/r^ ^J^es ^/;e 
//7y^Ce/y oc/i!^ of e/ec£^omes 

Electronics is so much a i)art of everyday living, that a 
broad understanding of its basic fac-ts is highly important. 
Electronics is at work all around us. It is the basis of the 
radio, of the "electric eye", of x-ray devices. Electronic 
devices perform hundreds of tasks in industry. 

In the new sound motion picture "Electronics at Work," 
electronics is taken out of the realm of magic or of abstruse 
.science, and is shown as an easily-understood tool, em- 
ployed in a thou.sand u.seful ways. 

With animated diagrams and simple description, this 
film explains the |)rinciples of the electronic tube and 
shows its .six basic functions. Striking [)hotography in 
factories shows what various tubes do in indu.stry and 
how they do it. 

"Electronics at Work" will be of value to all high .school 
students. It is loaned free to schools, runs 20 minutes, 
and is available on either 16 mm or 35 mm film. 

School Service, We.stinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, 306 Fourth Ave., P.O. Box 1017, Pittsburgh 30. 


OHifs Cvmrywtfrm 

School Service 


306 Fourth Avenue, P.O. Box 1017 

Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania 

D I would like to show the sound motion picture "Etectronics at Work" on 


D 16 mm D 35 mm 

(Sound film can not be run in silent projector) 
Ship film by fD Express Q Parcel Post 

D Please send desk copy of the 4U-page booklet, 
"The ABC of Electronics at Work." 

I would also like to show the films checked below — 

D "What Is Klpptrifity?" 


D "The Ramparts We Build" 
D "This, Too. Is Sabotage"^ 






Page 6 

The Educational Screen 

January, 1944 

Page 7 


Castle Films' 

Students of this generation have an op- 
portunity never before open to others— 
that of viewing great historic episodes as 
they actually happened! In Castle Films 
"News Parade of the Year" your students 
can see history filmed on the spot ... in 
all its realism, drama, and grim fury! 
Here is a priceless record of a year of con- 
flict ... an invaluable reference work for 
years to come! Obtain it for your school 


French Scuttle Own Fleet! 
Normandie Roisedl (u.s.s. lofgyitt*) 
Allies Invade! 

Africa . . . Sicily . . . Italy! 
Bombs Blast Germany! 
Battling the U-Boats! 
Russia's Might Astounds World! 
iWacArthur's Smashing Offensive! 
Hull in Moscow! 

£,0^ £ Own 16 mm. Silent Version for .. . $8^^ 
(^0$'' Own 16 mm. Sound-on-Film for . . . $17^^ 

CASTLE FILMS' fducationaf Sub'ieets 
are of permanent value to every school movie library! 



^Y^Vfr ^*'*"" '*''°»o O"" Visual Aids 
^f ^rV' Dealer about the various titles 
under these and other heads, or write our 
Educational Department. 




World's Largest Distributor of 8 mm. and 16 mm. movies 


Page 8 

The Educational Screen 

Antt-Aircrajt Gun Cre-u.' — OJjitial U. S, Navy Photograph 

^^Fire when ready V^ 

Dramatic seconds pass while the 
enemy plane approaches. It must be 
brought down or a U. S. ship may sink 
below the waves. Accurate marksman- 
ship literally becomes a life-or-death 
matter. And accuracy depends on many 
factors — chief among them being the 
gunsights such as supplied by Spencer. 

The Navy and Army have entrusted 
the manufacture of some of the most in- 
tricate optical devices to Spencer because 
of a long record of success in producing 
scientific optical instruments of great 

In addition to thousands of standard 
microscopes and other instruments being 

made for the armed services and war in- 
dustries, Spencer's production includes 
periscopes, telescopes, aircraftgunsights, 
prism binoculars, azimuth instruments 
for directing artillery fire, tank sights, 
and telescopic alidades for navigation. 

optical instruments art so 
•vital to tvar and public health 
that the nation's needs absorb 
practically all of Spencer's 
greatly increased production. 




January, 1944 

Page 9 

The Raleigh Lawn — Arrival of post-rider 

Audio- Visual Aids in 
the Schools of Tomorrow 

Brief Resume of the possibilities, 
problems and dangers that will 
confront the post-'war visual field. 

ALVIN B. ROBERTS. Principal 
Haw Creek Township High School, Gilson, 111. 

SINCE Pearl Harbor every l)ranch of the 
armed services has stepped up its training 
program through the use of audio-visual aids. 
The time required to develop a certain degree of 
skill has, in many instances, been materially 
reduced by using specially prepared audio-visual 
aids. The number of commissions offered and 
granted to men experienced in the preparation and 
use of these aids is indicative of the importance 
given to this type of education by government of- 
ficials. If one looks back to the dark days following 
the attack on Pearl Harbor he can readily see and 
appreciate how far on the road to victory his 
country has come, and take pride in the progress 
of ditTerent branches of the service in every theatre 
of the war. Specifically, the armed forces of The 
United Nations would not now be on the offensive, 
but for the marvelous production record of the 
United States. .Audio-visual aids were and are be- 
ing used to speed up that production in numerous 
branches of industry. Again, motion picture film 
is used to acquaint our allies with methods of as- 
sembling .American-made products. Hence, when 
the material arrives on foreign shores the assemb- 
ling crew is ready to go to work. Such instances 
could be multiplied almost indefinitely. 

-As a result of this extensive use of audio-visual 
aids by the armed services and bv industry, many 

Four scenes from "Eighteenth Century Life 
in Williamsburg," Eastman classroom film. 

educators are predicting ".Audio-\ isual .Aids will be 
used more than ever before as a regular part of the 
educational jirogram in schools of tomorrow." What 
are the factors that seem to point to this conclusion? 
They are : 

1. Many instructors who have been in the service 
and trained by audio-visual aids, will return 
to the classroom bringing with them a desire 
to use these aids in their own teaching pro- 

2. ]"'arents. who have been in the service or in 
industry, and have been instructed by these 
new aids, A\ill urge their more extensive use 
in the schools. 

3. Projectors may be available (from the govern- 
ment) at prices that will come within the bud- 
get of the smallest schools. In addition pro- 
ducers are promising new and superior 
equipment after the war at prices below those 
of prewar days. 

4. Film producers will have had considerable 
experience in techniques of preparing films 
for a specific teaching purpose. 

5. Sale and rental prices of slides and films will 
probably be reduced consideral)ly after the 
war, as a result of experience gained during 

Page 10 

The Educational Screen 

the war and by the increased demand for 
films and sHdes for educational jnirposes. 

6. More films will be available for instructional 
purposes after the war, especially in the fields 
of social science, various fields of vocational 
training, and physical education. 

7. Many valuable books and articles have lieen 
prepared which are and will l)e of great helj) 
in setting up the visual program, such as : 

Selected Educational Motion Pictures, prepared by the Com- 
mittee on Motion Pictures in Education and i)ublished by 
American Council on Education, Washington, D. C. 1942. 
An excellent book in that it gives not only description of 
films, but suggestions concerning their use as well. 
Selected Films for American history, by W. H. Hartley. 
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 1940. A helpful book to the .■\merican History 
teacher because all films listed may be used in an Ameri- 
can History class. Consequently the teacher's job in seek- 
ing film material is greatly simplified. 

Teacher Education through Films, by William H. Hartley. 
Educational Administration and Supervision, 29:168-76, 
March 1943. .-X brief discussion of the values in the use 
of motion pictures to illustrate to teachers in training 
various methods of classroom procedures, how pictures 
should be selected, presented and studied, and methods of 
securing suitable films. Concludes with a suggested list of 
films, by subject. 

In view' of all of these factors one may justly 
feel that at last visual education is coming into its 
own, and that in the years to come audio-visual 
aids will be a normal part of classroom equipment. 
However, much remains to be done before this goal 
can be achieved. Even before our entrance into 
the war we were talking of winning the peace. So if 
the schools are to have this expanded program of 
audio-visual instruction, plans should be formulated 
and carefully considered now. 

What are some of the problems that must be 
considered, if this goal is to become a reality? 
Some of the more important are : 

1. Providing trained directors to administer and 
supervise the audio-visual program. With the exception 
of a few who will have acquired this training in some 
branch of the service, very little is being done to 
provide adequate training in this field, .^s long as it 

Early settlers of the Ohio Valley — from the Erpi 
instructional film, "Flatboatmen of the Frontier." 

From "City Planning," a Gutlohn film, 
which visualizes the city of the future. 

is necessary to depend upon some or se\eral outside 
sources for many of the best audio-visual aids the 
success of any program will depend to a certain de- 
gree upon the director of this program. He is not 
only needed to secure materials but to provide edu 
cational leadership in coordinating the whole audio- 
visual program. To meet this need teacher training 
in.stitutions should prepare to train students as compe- 
tent directors. 

2. Give the director a place on the Curriculum Com- 
mittee. The experienced director should be able to sug- 
gest means of enriching the curriculum as well as 
attaining the established goals. 

3. Training teachers is still one of the major prob- 
lems retarding the audio-visual program. The teacher 
of today who is not interested in using visual aids 
is not going to be interested in using them after the 
war, unless some training is provided. 

Teacher training institutions should oflfer more 
courses, and should offer these courses during the 
regular term as well as in the summer session. Ex- 
tension and worksho]) courses should be made a jiart 
of the in-service training program. 

Audio-visual Directors should be able to carry on a 
training program for their own teachers through ade- 
quate demonstration and supervision. This training pro- 
gram should be broad enough to acquaint the teacher 
with the scope and function of the various aids, as well 
as to provide training in the operation of machines. 

4. Producing films jor classroom use will be one 
of the major problems after the war. When a training 
film for some branch of the service is to be produced 
the objectives are definite. Can teachers set up 
definite objectives and give help in planning films that 
will attain these objectives in educational fields? Many 
excellent films are now available in science and in 
several vocational fields. In some areas few films 
are available. In the field of social science such films 
as "Kentucky Pioneer," "The Flatboatmen" (Erpi) 
"Give Me Liberty," "Old Hickory" (Warner Bros.) 
and "Eighteenth Century Life in Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia" (Eastman) are examples of films well suited 

(Concluded on page 18) 

January, 1944 

Page 11 

Audio -Visual Aids - A Survey 

Observations of current practices in Visual Education Departments 


Supervisor of Elementary Education 
Public Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

OF tlie twelve school systems visited, eleven 
liave DeiJartnients of Visual Aids. Eight of 
these departments have directors^ whose duty it 
is to administer only that department. In three 
systems the person in charge has additional re- 
sponsibilities : in Cleveland Heights his duties 
are combined with curriculum, in Providence with 
nature study, and in Newark with library. 

Scarsdale has no department of visual aids. A 
committee of teachers is responsible for the selec- 
tion of materials and the discussion of common 
problems. The chairman of this committee is 
also a teacher. Each school has a visual aids chair- 
man who assists the teachers in the building in 
the selection and use of materials. 

Organization and Administration 

The directors are statT othcers. The department 
personnel generally consists of an educational 
assistant-, a secretary, booking clerks, order and 
filing clerks, mechanics, film inspectors, delivery 
truck drivers and helpers. In smaller systems 
some of these duties are combined. Where a 
mechanic is not employed, machines are sent out 
for repair. At the present time this is not en- 
tirely satisfactory as the return of the equipment 
is generally delayed. 

The services rendered by the de]iartments in- 
clude selection, i)urchase, rental, maintenance, 
distribution and use of materials and equipment. 
In some systems it includes the preparation of 
exhibits, slides, films, photographs, and record- 

Most systems have been affected by the loss of 
personnel due to war conditions. Positions are be- 
ing filled by women and high school boys and 
girls.. The women are doing any or all of the 
above named types of work except the repair of 
machines. High school boys are doing booking 
and filing, packing materials, and loading trucks. 
High school girls are working as booking and 
filing clerks, and tj'pists. All students work on 
a part time basis during or after school hours and 
are paid about $.35 per hour. 

Delivery in most schools is made by Board 
trucks. Because of tire and gas shortage, de- 
liveries have been curtailed slightly in some places. 
In the various systems they are made daily, four 
times weekly, three times weekly, twice weekly, or 
weekly. In Xew York City the department film 
storage has been decentralized into districts foi 
greater proximity to the schools. 

Visual Equipment 

The equipment found most generally in the 
schools is the 3Vi" .x 4" slide machine and the 16 
mm. silent projector. The 16mm. sound projectors 
are being used in most junior and senior high 
schools, but are a part of the permanent equip- 
ment in a very small proportion of the elementary 
schools. The 35 mm. sound machines have been 
placed in some high schools, and are operated by 
licensed faculty members. 

The other types of equipment vary. Combina- 
tion 2" x 2" slide and film strip projectors have 
been added to the high school equipment in many 
systems. Some schools have opaque projectors. 

Equipment housed permanently in the school is 
purchased by the visual department, the school, 
or a community organization such as the Parent- 
Teacher Association. When equipment is pur- 
chased by other than the department, most di- 
rectors prefer to designate the type most desirable 
so that it will be standard. All equipment i.« main- 
tained and serviced by the department after its 

Utilization of Equipment 

Visual equipment is used in the classroom, pro- 
jection room, and auditorium. Although a slide 
machine may be used in any room with an electrical 
outlet, motion picture projection requires a screen and 
dark shades for good results. As only a small pro- 
portion of the classrooms are so equipped, films are 
generally shown in projection room or auditorium. 
Sound projectors are a part of the auditorium equip- 
ment, and are seldom used in the classroom. 

Teachers are taught to operate equipment by 

1. Director is used to signify the person in charge of the 
department. The term Supervisor or Secretary is used 
in some systems. 

2. Detroit, Cleveland, Xcwa-W, Philadelphia, Boston. 

This is a report of a trip made through the gen- 
erosity of the H. C. Frick Educational Commission 
by Miss Louise Molyneaux, Supervisor of Elemen- 
tary Education. It covers a period of four weeks, in 
the spring of 1943, during which twelve representa- 
tive cities, large and small, east of the Mississippi and 
North of the Ohio, were visited. 

The school systems covered were Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Cleveland Heights (Ohio) ; Boston, (Mass.) ; 
Providence (R.I.); New York City, Scarsale, Roches- 
ter (N. Y.); Newark, Montclair (N. J.); Detroit 
(Mich.); Philadelphia, (Pa.). 

I would like to express my own personal apprecia- 
tion to the many persons in each of the twelve school 
systems visited who extended so many personal and 
professional courtesies to Miss Molyneaux and enabled 
her to bring back to the Pittsburgh Public Schools 
many ideas which, with proper adaptations for Pitts- 
burgh, will be put into effect gradually through the 
coming years. 

Superintendent oi Schools 
Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania 

Page 12 

The Educational Screen 

Above: Children study a model from the 
prehistoric exhibit of the Children's Museum 
in Detroit. 

Left: A bulletin board from the Museum on 
the history of Detroit is a background for the 
dramatization of an early school. 

skilled operators or mechanics sent from the visual 
department, or by teacher operators within the build- 
ing. Teacher projectionists are the most desirable, but 
because all are not trained, principals and itinerant or 
student projectionists^ go from school to school on call 
to show films ordered by the teachers. Student pro- 
jectionists are found to be highly satisfactory in 
most high school situations when the teacher in 
charge sets and maintains high standards of opera- 
tion and care of equipment. These boys and girls 
are put through a thorough training, then are as- 
signed as operators during study periods. New- 
operators are assigned as apprentices to good ex- 
perienced operators. Those assigned to a job de- 
liver equipment and films, clean, set up, and run 
the projector, then return it to the storeroom or 
next assigned classroom. A few directors reported 
good student projectionists in the elementary school 
although in most cases the machines are operated 
by adults. 

Visual Materials 

Visual materials most commonly distributed 
by the department are 16mm. silent films and 3j4" 
X 4" slides. The number of 16mm. sound films is 
increasing, although fewer in number than silent 
films. Some departments distribute habitat group 
cases, dioramas, exhibits, maps, charts, and flat 
pictures of natural history and social study sub- 
jects. In other systems this service is supplemented 
or replaced by city museum service. Much of the 
school owned material was prepared through the 
W.P.A. Art Projects. The number of filmstrips and 
2" X 2" slides is increasing. 

Cleveland Heights is making excellent use of 2" x 2" 
slides photographed by the teachers. The subjects are 
largely of a local nature and tie in very well with such 
curricula as bird and insect study, and geology. .\ 
teacher who turns in 18 frames of 2" x 2" pictures is 
given a roll of 35mm. film. 
3. Three systems Iiavc such operators. 

Most departments circulate musical and speech 
recordings. These have been purchased or made 
by the school. Radio scripts of school broadcasts 
are put into circulation in some systems using radio. 
Boston and Montclair circulate science experiment 
material cases for use in performing simple experi- 
ments in elementary science. 

Most school systems have made some school- 
made motion pictures for public relation purposes, 
but Cleveland Heights probably has done more 
than most schools in this field. The films are made 
by the head of the department in consultation with 
the supervisor concerned. Some are teaching films, 
others are primarily for public relations. They are 
widely used within the schools and community, and 
are considered effective aids. 

Most departments own most of the material used 
in the schools. Some is obtained on long term loan 
from state departments, bureaus, and government 
agencies such as the O.W.I. A few departments 
rent most of their film materials on the grounds 
that this prevents depreciation or obsolescence of 
that material in their departments, and the newest 
is always available. Other systems rent no material 
on the grounds that if it is good enough to rent, it 
is good enough to buy. 

Opinion on the acceptance and use of commercial 
films by the schools is divided. Generally, the at- 
titude is that the material produced recently is of 
greater educational value than in the past, and the 
advertising element is being reduced to a minimum. 
Under such conditions, it is being accepted for use 
by many schools. Others use none at all. 

Integration of Visual Materials into the Curriculum 

Directors are attempting to aid teachers in the 
.-election of the visual materials that will best as- 
sist or supplement the teaching of classroom units 
of work. Two methods are most common. One is 
the .selection of new materials in cooperation with 
the directors or supervisors of the departments con- 

January, 1944 

Page 13 

cerned. In some instances, the director concerned 
calls in a committee of his teachers to preview the 
material and make the selection. The second device 
is to list in the unit of work in the course of study 
the visual aids that are suitable for that unit. 

Other devices are used also. Some visual aid 
catalogues are listing films under school subject 
headings so the teacher of each subject may find 
quickly the materials suitable to his supbject. The 
sound film catalogue of the Philadelphia schools 
in describing the films suggests ways in which some 
of them may be used effectively. It suggests also 
whether it is best adapted to elementary, junior, or 
senior high school. Several other systems follow 
this latter practice. Cleveland Heights has indi- 
cated in its catalogue of visual aids a correlation of 
3%" X 4" and 2" x 2" lantern slide sets with the 
course of study according to subject, grade, and 
unit. Montclair is preparing its catalogue in terms 
of units of work in various subjects, and lists all 
available visual aids for that unit regardless of 
the type of aid. 

In Newark a trained teacher and librarian is 
located full time in the visual department to act 
as a consultant for teachers and principals. She 
gives advice on the best materials available for 
the desired purpose. A teacher on the substitute 
list works full time selecting slides suitable for 
the grade and unit desired by the teacher as the 

' individual orders are received. 

The most specific integration into the curricu- 
lum is in Providence, R. I., where films are grouped 

I in primary, elementary, junior and senior high 
school classifications, and then are allocated to 
the units of work, to which they are best suited. 
Each school is offered a group of films at a cer- 

tain time. The teacher selects which films she 
wishes, and is sure tiiat they will be available for her 
at that time. 

Some directors are members of all course of 
study committees. Some others are provided with 
drafts of the course of study as it is formulated 
so that suggestions for visual aids can be included. 

Use of Films for Entertainment Purposes 

The use of instructional films for entertainment 
purposes is discouraged. Although it is agreed that 
at times entertainment film have a place, many di- 
rectors feel that some teachers still are showing 
instructional films with the entertainment approach. 

Four school S3'stems are operating a regular high 
school lunch period recreational program for those 
students who wish to attend. In two of the four 
systems two cents a day is charged. In a third 
system the children voluntarily pay one cent a day 
as they leave the auditorium. The fourth system 
provides 0.\\'.I., commercial, and free films ex- 
clusively as it does not permit rentals. In most 
cases any school desiring such a program must 
order and pay for all films used. Lunch period pro- 
grams are looked upon with disfavor in most sys- 
tems for the following reasons : 

1. Rental material is too costly. 

2. Not enough good free material is available to con- 
tinue such a program indefinitely. 

3. As lunch periods are short, children rush through their 
lunch too quickly so as to get to the program on time. 

4. Student tastes are lowered by the type of recreational 
material that is available to schools. 

6. Fresh air and sunshine are more helpful than a dark 
auditorium. This, of course, is in sections where enough 
ground surrounds the school to make it advisable for 
the children to go outdoors. 

In-Service Training in the Use of Visual Materials 

The greater percentage of teachers today had 
finished normal school or college before visual 
aid courses were given. Many directors stated that 
a number of teachers have taken such courses in 

U^hotos by Mrs. Ray Garner) 

The Brooklyn Children's Museum provides 
study materials for elementary puipls. 

Page 14 

The Educational Screen 

Assembling lantern slides for elementary schools, 
at Cleveland Educational Museum. 

recent years — some of which were taught by the 
directors themselves. 

Some systems are attempting to aid the teacher 
in making more effective use of materials. The 
visual education director of the Montclair Schools 
is particularly conscious of this problem, and spends 
much time counselling with teachers individually 
concerning the use of materials. Demonstration 
lessons and meetings of teachers to discuss mater- 
ials and their uses were reported by several others, 
but seemed more incidental than part of a planned 
program. The curriculum centers in Cleveland 
oiTer an excellent opportunity for teachers to see 
visual materials used in relation to their particular 
subject or grade, and provide an opportunity for 
experimentation in the use of materials. Cleveland 
also has developed the use of slides in connection 
with radio lessons. This illustrates to the class- 
room teacher certain techniques in the use of slides. 
Cleveland and New York City make available for 
service in the schools a regular classroom teacher 
who possesses an interest and ability in using visual 
materials. She aids the teacher in using materials 
effectively, lioth systems report it as highly suc- 
cessful. Cincinnati encourages teacher planning 
and becoming acquainted with the film content and 
its use by sending the producer's teacher's guide 
for the film three days before the film delivery 
date. This is possible because of a daily delivery 

Public Museum Service to the Schools 

Most school .systems have a cooperative arrange- 
ment with the public museums or have a children's 
museum operating as a part of the school system. 
Most public museums have a school or junior de- 
partment that cooperates with the schools by pre- 
paring and distributing museum materials, by re- 
ceiving classes at the museum for instruction, and 
by setting aside certain rooms as junior rooms 
where children may come after school hours and 
on Saturday to participate in club activities, to 

view or study exhibits prepared especially for 
them, or to take ])art in voluntary instructional 

In Cleveland the program set up by the Museum 
of Xatuial History seems particularly effective. It 
is conducted by a teacher from the Cleveland 
Schools who arranges each semester a series of 
lesson suggestions that are integrated with the 
science course of study of the schools. Teachers 
indicate when they wish to come and which of the 
lesson suggestions they prefer. 

The Children's Museum in Detroit is a part of the 
school system. Its various rooms have exhibits 
which attempt to convey to the children a central 
idea in art, social studies, natural science, etc. The 
museum is responsible, also, for preuaring for use 
in the schools materials that will fit into the school 
jMogram. This is done usually in cooperation with 
the directors of the departments concerned. 

Curtailed transportation has seriously restricted 
class visits to the museums. However, several 
places have devised ways of overcoming this dif- 
ficulty to a certain extent. Some museum teachers 
are on call to go to the schools with such materials 
as may be easily transported. 

The Brooklyn Children's Museum is confining 
its class visits ver}- largely to the schools within- 
walking distance. A plan of work is decided upon 
by the museum and the school, and the group 
comes on the average of once a week over a period 
of time. This is showing signs of being quite satis- 

The materials prepared by the museums for cir- 
culation to the schools are historical dioramas, flat 
pictures, copies of famous paintings, natural his- 
tory habitat groups, nationality dolls, and small 
packing boxes of types of clothing, pottery, weav- 
ing, utensils, toys, etc., of early peoples or children 
of other lands. Several have interesting dioramas 
and exhibits of local historical significance. 
Radio in the Schools 

Three systems^ have developed extensively the 
classroom use of radio. Most of the others are using 
it in a limited way for public relations broadcasts 
and the reception of network educational programs 
in the schools. Cleveland has a full time director 
and operates its own station which is on the air 
the entire school day. The Detroit program is under 
the direction of the director of visual education, 
but is operated by a specially trained staff. Local 
stations give regular time each day for school 
broadcasts. Rochester also is given time by the 
local stations, and broadcasts are under the direc- 
tion of the director of visual education. Programs 
are prepared by the directors of the different fields 
and a teacher, who at present is spending full time 
in the observation of classes and preparation of ele- 
mentary science broadcasts. 

The principle upon which these programs are 
presented is that broadcasts by school people are 
prepared in the subject areas desired, are written 
especially to fit the local school situation, are re- 

y I 

4. Cleveland, Detroit, Rochester 

January, 1944 

Page 15 

ceived more nearly at a suitable time, and may act 
as an in-service training device for teachers. Listen- 
ing is voluntary and no class should receive more 
than approximately two programs a week. The 
programs may be tied into the course of study, 
supplementary to it, or of a general interest. They 
may be of the lesson type, dramatic presentations. 

talks, discussions, or stories. Radio staft', depart- 
ment directors, teachers, students, and occasionally 
laymen participate. Teacher's guides usually are 
sent to the schools before the broadcast day sug- 
gesting activities to precede and follow the broad- 

(To be concluded in February) 

Visual Education in Classes Containing 
White and Negro Pupils 

DOING a good job of teaching the Social 
Sciences is none too easy under the best con- 
ditions. Dealing as they do with human 
nature, these sciences demand the finest work from 
the teacher and the best that can be afforded in 
equipment to help the student gain understanding 
in these areas of knowledge. 

The modern Social Science teacher does not, 
of course, pass by the opportunity of using any 
teaching aids that will make daily lessons more 
clear. Of all such aids available today, perhaps 
none surpass visual or radio equipment so far as 
the Social Sciences are concerned. Nothing except 
actual, personal contact with the problem will 
teach this subject so efficiently as the modern 
motion picture accompanied by sound. Here the 
student sees and hears the living problem. Stated 
so simply, the method seems quite free from compli- 

The writer has been teaching in a secondary 
school in which there is an average Negro popula- 
tion of eight to ten per cent. The teacher who has 
never been confronted with such a situation might 
not see any ])articular difficulties in using class- 
room films in such a school. And yet, there are 
dangers present in many films that serve to ag- 
gravate the problem of the colored student in school 
instead of helping to ease it. An examj)Ie of a film 
for history classes, presented by a state department 
of education, illustrates this point. 

The particular film referred to was ])roduced to 
illustrate the condition oi the ante-bellum South. 
Alidway in the film are shown slave quarters of 
that period and then intimate glimpses of slaves 
in their everyday lives. In their leisure hours, 
slaves are seen dancing like jitter bugs, an "old 
mammy" is smoking a corncob pipe while clapping 
enthusiastically in time to the music and little 
children are dancing with might and main in their 
stocking feet. Need there be any comment on the 
effect of these scenes on Negro students? One 
might even go so far as to ask: What value is 
there in such a picture for white students in a day 
when the leaders of our country are trying to teach 
racial toJerance for the benefit of our Negro 
citizens? This film, instead of furthering the ideals 
of democracy, actually causes ill feeling on the part 
of both colored and white pupils in the class. The 
Negroes resent the pictures and the white students 
have a tendency toward that adolescent sadism in 
which secondary pupils often indulge. 


School Psychologist 

Public Schools, Mansfield, Ohio 

Classes that include Negro students retjuire care 
and judgment in the selection of films for class- 
room use. Unless the Negroes in the school come 
from such a high social and economic class that 
they are not bothered by racial intolerance to a 
marked degree, several precautions must be ob- 
served in the selection of films for teaching 

First of all, the film must not depict Negroes in 
a derogatory manner. The history film mentioned 
above portrays adult Negroes and their children 
acting like a bunch of happy morons ; this results 
in a negative reaction b)' the colored pupil in the 
class. Second, Negro students object to Negro dia- 
lect customarily associated with the colored race. 
While engaged in a research ])roblem' the writer 
interviewed Negro students and adults and dis- 
covered that colored children object to Negro dia- 
lect even when performing before their own race. 
They feel that this is a reflection on their intelli- 
gence. Third, colored students especially resent 
the movie, radio play or story that presents the 
Negro as a comical, ignorant or shiftless charac- 
ter. Wit is one thing; buffoonerv another. The 
latter stirs up resentment among colored pupils. 
Similar reactions occur when the colored person 
is so treated in poetry, cartoons and the like. This, 
like the first example, jjroduces an antagonistic 

Since our country is fighting its greatest struggle 
in its history to preserve our democracy, we must 
be consistent with our stated beliefs. We must 
give our Negro citizens and their children the 
respect and the opportunities for participation that 
our laws apportion to them. It follows, then, that 
we must be careful to teach and practice toler- 
ance. Films that violate such principles as stated 
above will defeat these aims and therefore have no 
place in our classrooms. The teacher selecting 
visual aids must bear these warnings in mind and 
be careful that such offerings are not included in 
the visual program of his classes. 

'.An unpublished doctoral dissertation, "A Critical Study of 
Negro Pupils in the John Simpson Junior High School, 
Mansfield, Ohio." The Ohio State University, 1942. 

Page 16 

The Educational Screen 

Post- War Visual Education Potentialities 
In Latin America 


Chief, Motion Picture Unit, Bureau of 

Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Washington, D. C. 

Concluding (from the 
December issue) the 
summary of the status 
of visual aids in each 
Latin American country, 
with some forecasts as 
to probable future de- 

An audience of 
South American 
school children 
at a screening 
of some CIAA 
health films. 

El Salvador — The Ministry of Public Education 
has an educational film department which has 
charge of showings in all public schools, and also 
produces a few films. Seven schools use films for 
teaching and four maintain film libraries. Eight 
silent and one sound 16mm projectors are in use, 
but no 35mm. Slide-films are used by schools to a 
slight extent, but very few schools maintain slide- 
film libraries. This market is very small but will 
probably increase slowly during the next few years. 

Guatemala — Although the Guatemalan Govern- 
ment has issued regulations lowering the duties on 
educational films, little has been done with visiml 
instruction in schools and colleges. Lack of funds 
again. There seems to be little opportunity for 
development here. Only two schools are known 
to have motion picture projectors, and these are 
used principally for entertainment. The local Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs has two port- 
able 16mm projectors with sound equipment and 
makes regular showings of educational films at all 
the schools. These showings have received many 
favorable comments from the authorities, press, and 

According to local dealers in photographic su])- 
plies and equipment, approximately seventy-two 
16mm silent projectors have been sold here in the 
last ten years, and many of these are old models 
and not in use. All purchases have been made by 
individuals, and the market for this line is very 
limited. The market for 8mm silent eciuipment ap- 
pears to be better, since more people can afford the 
lower price. 

Haiti — Educational institutions in Haiti are but 
slightly interested in the use of films. The Medical 
.School in Port-au-Prince and Agricultural School at 
Damien are the only educational institutions using 
films at present. They have 16mm sound and silent 
projectors, but limited budgetary allowance pre- 
vents establishment of a library. United States 
Government films are borrowed from time to time 
and are very well received. 

Honduras — The only commercial film known to 
be shown in Honduras are those exhibited by Ster- 
ling Products, International. This firm uses mobile 
equipment which travels constantly throughout the 
Republic, giving exhibitions in many places where 
there are no regular movies. There have been no 
developments within the country along the lines 
of educational motion pictures, and none are dis- 
tributed in the schools. The Coordination Com- 
mittee for Honduras in cooperation with the Lega- 
tion puts on shows three times weekly in Teguci- 
galpa using films furnished l)y the Coordinator of 
Inter-.American Affairs. Most of these are of an 
educational nature. 

Mexico — There is no production of educational 
or commercial films in Mexico. However, a certain 
number of educational films have been brought in 
by various industries operating in Mexico and a 
limited number have been distributed through tlie 
American Embassy by the Ofiice of the Coordinator 
of Inter-American .MTairs. For the most part, the 
educational films are 16mni films and are usually not 
shown in the regular motion picture theaters, but 
are rather shown in clubs and recreation halls, as 

January, 1944 

Page 17 


well as by sound trucks traveling through the ct>un- 
try. Thus far the number has been very small but 
there appears to be considerable interest on the part 
of the public, particularly when no admission is 
charged, for travel films and features showing the 
development of the war industries in the United 

Comparatively little development has taken place 
in Mexico in the screening of 16mm motion pic- 
tures. So far as is known, only the new General 
Hospital has anj' 16mm equipment. It is using it 
for teaching medical and operating technique. Edu- 
cational institutions are interested in the medium 
but the Government cannot furnish the necessary 
equipment. It may be said, therefore, that there is 
a potential market in Mexico for educational motion 
picture services. There are some si.xty 16nim pro- 
jectors, both silent and sound, in Mexico, probably 
nine-tenths of them silent. 

Nicaragua — There have been no develo]iments in 
educational films in Nicaragua and no indication 
that educational institutions are contemplating any 
move in this direction. There are relatively few 
projectors in the country and virtually all of them 
are privately owned. 

Panama — It is estimated that there are about two 
hundred 16mm projectors in Panama, practically all 
silent. The Educational Film Program of the Office 
of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in- 
volves the distribution to the twenty Republics of 
Latin America of selected 16mm films on a wide 
range of subjects. These are shown to relatively 
small audiences in schools and public buildings. 
The Embassy has given several 'aich showings re- 
cently. The Embassy suggested to the Coordina- 
tor's Office that these educationals would reach a 
far greater audience in Panama if the 16mm films 
were "blown up" to 35mm for presentation at regu- 
lar motion picture theaters. Exhibitors would be 
only too glad to include them on their programs. 

The Embassy has three 16mm sound projectors 
which are used to show educational shorts in schools 
and public buildings under the Educational Film 
Program. In addition, Kodak Panama, S. A., has a 
16mm sound projector which is loaned out to inter- 
ested groups. All other 16mm projector* are silent 
and are privately owned. There is no projection 
apparatus in schools or public buildings. 

Paraguay — Educational films are not in use. Edu- 
cational institutions are thinking along these lines 
but nothing has been done so far. No schools or 
colleges use films for teaching purposes and there 
are no film libraries. There is one 35mm sound 
projector in use and about three 16mm silent pro- 
jectors in the schools. There are no slide-films 
used. Government has no film library nor does it 
produce films. Prospects for selling films or equip- 
ment to educational institutions are fair. They 
might be interested if they had an opportunity to 
see films which met their particular needs from 
both the subject and language standpoints. 

Peru — There has been considerable development 
during the past two years. The Peruvian Govern- 
ment has created under the Miiiisterio de Educacioit 
Publica a bureau known as the Scccion Radio fusion y 
Cine Educative. This bureau encourages visual educa- 
tion in Peruvian schools and colleges. It has at its 
disposal a sound truck, employing a full time opera- 
tor, which was presented to the Government by the 
International Petroleum Company. The Govern- 
ment, in cooperation with the office of the Coordi- 
nator of Inter-American Affairs, is now showing 
educational films in schools and colleges, clubs, and 
in the public squares of the principal provincial 
towns. The subject of employing motion pictures 
as an integral part of the school curriculum has 
been long under discussion in Government circles 
but no definite program has materialized. There 
are no schools or colleges that maintain film libra- 
ries but the Coordinator's office will supply educa- 
tional films upon request. It is estimated that there 
are about 400 35mm sound projectors in use. There 
are perhaps seven 16mm sound projectors in opera- 
tion in Peru. 

Silent 16mm projectors are, with few exceptions, 
owned by private individuals, and number about 400. 
Several mining companies, medical societies, and 
government departments have purchased 16mm pro- 
jectors for the purpose of showing educational, in- 
dustrial, and professional films. The number of 
8mm projectors in use is estimated at about 250. Slide- 
films are not used in Peruvian schools. Some of the 
larger American firms accompany their sales cam- 
paign with film presentations, and some progress 
has been made by the Government in the use of 
educational films in institutions of higher learning 
in Peru. Most of such films are of American origin. 

Uruguay — Considerable progress has been made 
in the use of educational films. About four films 
are shown each year on 35min stock by the Seccioii 
Cineiiiatografia del Miiiisterio de Instniccion Publica. 
which has shown aiwut 50 films since its establishment 
in 1922 and maintains a film library. About three films 
are shown per year on 16mni stock by Seccion Cinema- 
tografia de Eiiseiiaiiaa Primaria y Normal. The Uni- 
versity of Montevideo is the only institution of 
education which uses films for instructional pur- 
poses, but others are interested. Small film collec- 
tions have been accumulated by the American Em- 
bassy and the British Legation. Very few standard- 
sized projectors are yet found in schools or public 
buildings. It is estimated that there are 553 silent 
16mm projectors in Uruguay, used mainly in private 
homes, and 21 sound 16mm projectors. There is a 
potential market in Uruguay for motion picture 
equipment and films to the educational institvitions. 
Inquiry in this regard should be directed to the 
Ministerio de Instrnccioii Publica, or to the University 
of Montevideo, or to the American Embassy. 

Venezuela — The Venezuelan Ministry of National 
Education instituted a program for films in the 
schools several years ago, but it has never attained 
any substantial development. The activity so far 

Page 18 

The Educational Screen 

has been confined largely to Caracas and a few 
neighboring- areas. So far as can be ascertained, no 
35mm or 16mm projectors are in use by the govern- 
ment. Schools do not have their own projectors. 
The Educational Radio Service of the Ministry of 
Education has, however, twelve 16mm sound pro- 
jectors which it makes available, together with com- 
petent operators, to schools who are interested. 
Special showings for student groups are also given 
at some theaters in Caracas. The Ministry of Edu- 
cation follows a policy of sending films to technical 
supervisors in the different States of the Republic 
who arrange for their projection with equipment 
provided by the State Government. 

It may be said that educational institutions in 
Venezuela are thinking along visual lines but lack 
of funds still hampers any substantial development. 
Here again, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs is carrying out its program of dis- 
tribution of educational films, with projection equip- 
ment, and this should materially enhance interest 
and should effect a possible market in this country 
after the war. 

There are some slide projectors (for glass lantern 
slides) in several of the experimental schools in 
Caracas, but their use is not widespread in other 
parts of the country. No extensive film libraries 
are maintained by either the schools or the Govern- 
ment Educational Offices. The Government has 
produced several educational, or documentary, films 
in Venezuela which were of good quality. These 
films, three in number, were produced in Venezuelan 
studios which have shut down, and no important 
documentary or educational films have been pro- 
duced by the Government since. Many of the large 
American firms in Venezuela, representatives of 
American automobile companies, electrical com- 
panies, and so on, make extensive use of educational 
films, both motion and slide, in their programs of 

Audio-Visual Aids in the 
Schools of Tomorrow 

{Concluded from page 10) 

for classroom use. However, many more are needed 
in order to bring more vividly to the student the social, 
political, economic, and international phase of our 

5. Distribution has long been one of the major prob- 
lems where it is necessary that audio-visual aids sucli as 
motion picture films, slides, recording and transcrip- 
tions, be stored at some central source. What is being 
done to meet this problem ? Is the answer fewer sources 
with larger numbers of prints, or more local sources 
servicing smaller areas such as one or two counties. 
The success of the post war program will be deter- 
mined to a certain extent by the way this problem is 

6. Architectural and physical needs of an expanded 
audio-visual program must be carefully considered. 
Poor conditions for projection (light and acoustics) and 
lack of sufficient equipment will discourage the teacher 

in regard to using these aids. No matter how large 
or how small the school, a room should be provided 
for preview purposes if the instructor is to get the 
maximum value from the films. 

7. Teaching helps, suggestions, descriptive material, 
and sources of audio-visual aids may well be simpli- 
fied and condensed. The books mentioned in point 
seven above, are excellent steps in this direction. These 
will be a valuable help to the already over-worked 
director of Visual Education, or the classroom teacher. 

In a recent issue of the magazine Education for 
Victory an article entitled "Recent Contributions to 
the Use of Visual Aids in Education" lists 43 books 
and bulletins which deal with some phase of audio- 
visual aids. This list was by no means complete, 
and yet much of the material discussed in these var- 
ious books or bulletins is essential if one is to have 
a good perspective of the part that audio-visual aids 
can play in our educational program of tomorrow, hence 
one can readily see the need for condensing and simpli- 
fying this material. 

8. Audio-visual aids should be classified not only in 
subject fields but in units within that subject field. 
Such a classification will be of untold help to the in- 
experienced as well as to the experienced teacher in 
planning a well rounded audio-visual program. 

9. One or two national meetings should be held per 
year, where the leaders can get together and discuss 
the main issues and as a result provide the dynamic 
leadership that is needed now. Similar meetings 
might also be held in each Zone, of the D.V.I., there- 
by reducing travel to the minimum. 

In view of the factors favoring an expanded audio- 
visual program, and considering the things that must 
be done, what of the audio-visual program in our 
schools of tomorrow? The use of the motion picture 
as a teaching device received a serious setback follow- 
ing the other war. Portable 35mm. projectors produced 
for use in army camps, were unloaded on the schools. 
After buying the projectors the school men found that 
few if any films were available for classroom use, and 
the price was prohibitive on those that were. It re- 
quired years to overcome this setback. Will a similar 
mistake be made again when not only projectors of all 
description, but hundreds of slide, film strips, and films 
are thrown on the market? Thousands of slides and 
hundreds of films have been prepared for certain 
specific teaching purposes for armed services. When 
the war is over, if these films are put on the market 
at very low cost, no doubt many of them will be bought 
by the schools and again many of the school men 
will have made a serious mistake. For while they 
find these films well suited for the purpose for which 
they were made, they will contribute little if anv- 
thing to the school program. 

The part audio-visual aids will have in our schools 
of tomorrow gives rich food for thought to the De- 
partment of Visual Instruction of the N.E.A., as to 
how to meet the problems with which it is confronted. 
It is a challenge to every person interested in seeing 
audio-visual aids used more extensively in our edu- 
cation program. And the question still stands: "What 
will be the place of audio-visual aids in the schools of 
tomorrow ?" 

January, 1944 

Page 19 



Installment 53. — Non-theatrical history was 
made indeed by the advent of modem talking 
pictures. They came nearly twenty years ago 

Chapter XII-And Now They Must Talk 

WE ARE ACCUSTOMED to Speak loosely 
about the "sudden" coming of 
talking pictures. As a matter of 
fact, even from the time of the first suc- 
cessful demonstration until widespread 
acceptance, there was a long period of 
vacillation — about three years for many 
of the lesser theatres^and the places 
of non-theatrical exhibition were, with 
a very few well-to-do exceptions, the 
last to be "wired for sound." Writers 
presumably authoritative declared clint 
the growing popularity of sound films 
was only a fad, and would subside to a 
normal state in which silent pictures 
also would hold their own. To this 
prophecy clung many teachers, ministers, 
clubmen and industrial users, fearful 
that their hard-won mute equipment 
would be rendered useless, and unable 
to afford the new. So far as they were 
concerned the prophecy was not alto- 
gether without force. Upwards of a 
dozen years after the fear loomed im- 
portantly on the horizon, film rental li- 
braries were still doing a substantial 
business in 16mm prints of old silent 

The Parts oi Speech 

There had been talking pictures since 
before the close of the nineteenth century. 
One of Edison's first efforts, after his 
invention of the Kinetoscope, had been 
to combine it with his phonograph. In- 
deed, much of the apathy with which 
the modern talking picture was at first re- 
ceived, undoubtedly was because numer- 
ous sound film devices of different sorts 
had actually appeared in the theatres for 
many years without working even slight 
changes in the prevailing form of popular 

Whenever a type of apparatus showing 
unusual promise was brouglit forth, a 
conglomeration of others also rushed 
upon the market. Leon Gaumont came 
to America in 1913 to supervise a New 
York demonstration of the talking pic- 
tures for which a French patent had 
been granted him in 1901, and showed 
them in colors into the bargain. He 
came mainly because, in January, 1913, 
Edison's improved (but by no means 
perfected) Kinetophone talking pictures 
had been received with favor by a few 
leading theatres. William A. Brady, ever 
eager to set sail upon the tide of pop- 
ularity, contracted in the same year for 
Webb's "electrical talking pictures," and 
exhibited them at the Fulton Theatre, 
New York, in May, 1914; and a little 
before that the public was regaled with 

Dr. Isadore Kitsee's "vocal pictures" 
of Harry Lauder, produced at Phila- 

There were the Whitman Camera- 
phone, revealed in 1904 and exploited 
by Mark Dintenfass, a prominent Inde- 
pendent producer, in 1907 ; the Powers 
Fotofone of 1910 ; the Vivaphone, and 
Greenbam's Synchronoscope, which is 
said to have represented a passing in- 
terest of Carl Laemmle in 1908. Look 
into the New York Dramatic Mirror of 
March 19, 1913, and see an advertise- 
ment by John W. Mitchell : "Wanted — 
sketches and scenarios for Talking 
Motion Pictures," and. on Page 24 of 
the issue of May 28, 1913, behold the 
already casual use of the term "talkies." 

This picture of Thomas Edison's plan 
to make the world's first talkies by 
joining phonograph and kinetograph 
was originally published in Harper's 
Weekly, in the issue of June 13, 1891. 

Nor did the Edison Kinetophone pic- 
tures at once die out. I was chatting 
recently with Charles Gilson, an Edison 
cameraman of those hectic pioneer days. 
He told me that, until the outbreak of 
World War No. 1 Edison maintained 
talking picture studios, by license and 
using operators provided by his own 
American company, at Vienna and Mos- 
cow. Gilson was at Moscow. He was 
there when the World War began, with 
one other operator and an interpreter — 
three, out of only about nineteen Ameri- 
cans, it is said, in the city at that time. 

The popular notion that what held 
the achievement of the modern talking 
picture back was because voice and pic- 
ture could not be synchronized, was mis- 
taken. Wliat actually retarded the de- 
velopment was the need of sound ampli- 
fication, a problem which was not solved 
sufficiently until the perfected invention 


of the audion tube, the same which sig- 
nalized the popularization of radio. It 
was invented by Lee De Forest in 1904 
and sold by him for further develop- 
ment to the Western Electric Company 
in 1907. Then, for the first time, a real 
quality reproduction of original sound be- 
came possible, as did the raising of its 
volume without distortion. .'Vs far as 
films are concerned, this step was im- 
portantly begun about 1919, when De 
Forest, then a figure notable in "wire- 
less." is said to have turned his at- 
tention for the first time to the talking 
picture device which became associated 
with his name. 

To keep away from the prying eyes 
of inquisitive fellow-.^mericans and at 
the same time to avail himself of trained 
technological assistance, De Forest 
carried on his experimental work in Ber- 
lin, Germany, until about 1922, when he 
felt that he had overcome his major ob- 
stacles. He then returned to the United 
States, where, with the backing of a 
South African theatrical magnate. M. A. 
Schlesinger, whose headquarters were in 
New York City, he incorporated his firm 
of General Talking Pictures. 

I first met De Forest in this period 
through Frank A. Tichenor, who had 
been made general manager and treas- 
urer. His original offices were in space 
sublet from Tichenor in the Candler 
Building, 220 West 42nd Street, precisely 
where the American Red Cross had had 
its film center in wartime. The Simplex 
Projection Room, belonging to Tichenor, 
was outfitted for private demonstrations 
of DeForest's Phonofilm, and some of 
De Forest's first pictures I was per- 
mitted to see and hear in that place. Un- 
fortunately, De Forest was an inventor 
primarily and not also a shrewd busi- 
ness man, a combination which really is 
a little too much to expect ; and a sharp 
divergence of opinion over management 
of the corporation led to Tichenor's res- 

Early in 1923 De Forest gave a public 
showing of his Phonofilm at the Rialto 
Theatre in New York. Hugo Riesenfeld, 
then the director of that house, had 
watched the more recent developments 
with great interest, and he opined that 
while the invention would be popular as 
an occasional program novelty, it could 
not, of course, affect the established 
powers of "the silent screen." The Will 
Hays office was quoted at about the 
same time by a New York Times reporter 
as stating warily that students of the 
film were generally confident that "speak- 
ies" would never supersede the movies, 
and Edison, who surely had had much 
painful experience, declared flatly that 
the public had demonstrated that it did 

Page 20 

The Educational Screen 

not want talkies. Edison said it em- 
phatically again as late as May. 1926, 
when the industrial revolution had 
actually begun. I note tliese expressions 
as curiosities, not as criticisms. No 
person could have known the ama7ing 
future for a certainty then. 

The widespread, truly mushro(>m 
growth of the modern talking ])iclure 
was thus sudden enough after all, a 
surprise to every observer, includinj; 
the engineers themselves who could not 
have anticipated its immediate jiopularity 
even while they worked upon it. .And. 
looking backward, one can see readily 
enough that the main stress of its evolu- 
tion belonged naturally in the premises 
of the Bell Telephone System. 

It had been part of the Bell operating 
plan for many years to conduct a re- 
search division for the purpose of con- 
stantly improving the telephone service. 
In the course of such work it had mailo 
notable contributions to acoustical appa- 
ratus of all sorts, including phonograph 
recording and radio broadcasting. 
Naturally it drew into its employ for 
such accomplishment all needed outside 
patents. It had needed the principle of 
the audion three-element tube, invented 
by De Forest for radio, for amplification 
of the human voice in long distance tele- 
phony. And, having acquired the tube 
from De Forest, the Bell System quite 
consistently and properly cultivated pos- 
sible further applications through its 
manufacturing division, the Western 
Electric Company. The modern talking 
picture, then, was essentially one of the 
useful, normal by-products of the tele- 
phone. But the telephone officials, them- 
selves, were as much astonished as any- 
body at the tremendous success of the 
completed apparatus. 

Of course, De Forest's Phonofilm coin 
liany did not go out of existence merely 
because the inventor had made side coi.- 
tracts, and short subjects were produced 
at his New York studio by his own 
process until well into the popular sound 
fdm period. There were promises the 
establishment of a Phonofilm Library at 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washing- 
ton, the National Museum ; and one ot 
the subjects said to have been destined 
for the collection was a Phonofilm of Ed- 
win Markham reciting his Man With n 
Hoe. This was actually produced in 1926. 
Herbert Hall Winslow, playwright and 
director for World Film in the pre-war 
days, a neighbor of mine, wrote and pro- 
duced several Phonofilm one-act plays 
after that, one or two for industrial 

In 1922, while De Forest was telling 
representatives of the press in New York 
City about the coming marvels of his 
Phonofilm, word seeped out that the 
General Electric Company, heavily inter- 
ested in radio devices, was also develop- 
ing a sound picture apparatus. Upstate 
there, at Schenectady, the distinguished 
scientist, Irving Langmuir, ■was working 
on amplification tubes of other sorts, and 
the Company's Dr. C. A. Hoxie had 
evolved a strange-looking afTair called 
the Pallophotophone, employing, oddly 
enough, a principle developed by Alex- 
ander Graham Bell years before, for 

simultaneous recording of voice and ap- 

Late in 1922 the Company even re- 
leased a picture of it, showing Miss 
Mabel Boardman making a speech to it 

were so indifferent, was Charles John- 
son Post, a passing earlier figure in these 
pages. And probably the first of the 
"all-talkies," made by the Bell Telephone 
process — representing the invention of 

In December, 1922, Mabel Boardman, American Red Cross Na- 
tional Secretary, appealed for funds through General E!ec- 
tric's Pallophotophone. Recording was done at Washington 
and her words were broadcast thereafter from Schenectady. 

lor the benefit of the American Red 
Cross. To develop the Ho.xie apparatus 
further, when the Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories struck a bonanza with the device, 
the General F'lectric Company pooled 
patents belonging to Westinghouse, the 
Radio Corporation of America and them- 
selves directly. 

Research activities of the General 
Electric Company had many aspects 
resembling those of the Bell Telephone 
Laboratories, but the two organizations, 
recognizing that their aims were es- 
sentially diiTerent, (the former being 
interested primarily in light, heat and 
power, and the latter chiefly in communi- 
cation ) entered during the National emer- 
gency needs of W'orld War No. I, into 
an agreement permitting their joint ac- 
cess to discoveries applicable to their 
main, non-conflicting purposes. Factors 
which comprised the talking picture bore 
heavily on the respective leading in- 
terests of both companies, so both shared 
in its exploitation, choosing slightly dif- 
ferent avenues to the same result. The 
theatres and studios, therefore, were 
given their choice of the Western Elec- 
tric recording and reproducing system, 
belonging to the Telephone Company, 
and the R.C.A.-Photophone system, which 
was controlled by General Electric. 
But sound films produced for either sys- 
tem could be reproduced satisfactorily and 
with full permission of the patent owners, 
on the other. 

I shall not try to relate the dramatic 
circumstances in which the producers of 
theatrical silent pictures were persuaded 
to attempt the production of modern 
talkies, for that has been done volumi- 
nously in other places and also by many 
other hands. It is of interest here, how- 
ever, that the special agent of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories who first induced 
prominent theatrical men to come and 
see the marvel to which they at first 

the telephone by .\lexander Graham Bell 
and his demonstration to Dom Pedro, 
emperor of Brazil, at the Philadelphia 
centennial exposition of 1876 — was pro- 
duced in 1926 under the direction of 
Howard Gale Stokes. It was exhibited 
that year in the Telephone Company's 
display at the Philadelphia sesqui-cen- 
tennial exposition. 

Another bit of human interest in the 
introduction of modern talking pictures 
which seems to have escaped the his- 
torians, is that as soon as Albuin Mari- 
ner heard of the interest of the powerful 
sponsors, he was seized with a great 
desire to be the first to photograph 
an actual talkie for public release. He 
applied to those in charge at General 
Electric and was taken on. Howard 
Stokes at the Telephone Company was 
first. But Mariner was one of the first 
nevertheless. He produced the admirable 
four-reel lecture by Irving Langmuir 
entitled "Oil Films on Water," still to 
be found importantly on the General 
Electric educational list. 

Walter J. Rich, a second special agent 
of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, con- 
tracted with Warner Brothers for the 
first Western Electric theatrical talking 
picture license late in 1925, and experi- 
mental production began at once in the 
Flatbush studio which had come to 
Warners the preceding spring with their 
purchase of the 'Vitagraph Company of 
.America. August 7, 1926, at the former 
Knickerbocker Theatre, in New York 
City, they presented their first public 
sound program. It opened with a talking 
picture of Will Hays, who expressed 
his belief to the audience that the in- 
vention would revolutionize the film in- 
dustry. The actual turning-point in the 
industry, however, is commonly agreed to 
have been the presentation of "The Jazz 
Singer," starring W Jolson, October 6, 

January, 1944 

Going Into Business 

Of course, the Bell Laboratories were 
first established in talking pictures 
through their tlieatrical contracts, but 
they had a further advantage because 
the innovation was acoustical more than 
a mere matter of picture projection or 
synchronous motor drive, these aspects 
having been developed in the main be- 
fore. They pursued the advantage ener- 
getically. To keep the new by-product 
distinct from telephone interests, the 
Western Electric Company, the manu- 
facturing division of tlie telephone sys- 
tem, organized a wholly owned sub- 
sidiary called Electrical Research Pro- 
ducts. Inc., and equipped it to exploit 
the patents. Its headquarters were es- 
tablished in the Fisk Building, 250 West 
57th Street, New York City, and it 
quickly acquired a shorter, though un- 
oflicial name, made of the initial letters 
of tlie title — Erpi (pronounced "urpy" ) 
which became current as one of the most 
mystifying words in the new studio 
lingo of the "talkies." 

Charles W. Bunn, the sales manager, 
experienced in prevailing theatrical mo- 
tion picture methods, was exceedingly 
efficient; but the desire for equipnient. 
stimulated by the avid public demand 
for sound films, was so tremendous that 
his job became one of trying to fill orders 
rather than securing them. By March 
.^(1. mi.) there were 5,200 theatres in the 
United States "wired" with the Wes- 
tern p:iectric system alone. There was 
a known saturation point, however, there 
being a given number of motion picture 
theatres in the world, and, when all the 
worthwhile theatres and studios had 
been supplied, it was necessary to lay 
l)lans to provide further work for the 
large selling force. Attention of the 
executives therefore turned to non^thea- 
trical possibilities. In anticipation of this. 
Western Electric and R.C.A.-Photo- 

phone had made a further agreement sug- 
gesting that by which a pope had once 
divided the Western Hemisphere be- 
tween Portugal and Spain, whereby 
Western Electric should have the edu- 
cational and industrial market, and 
R.C.A.-Photophone should be permitted 
to exploit talkies in the home.. 

At that time, in view of the then 
recent mad scramble of theatrical 
men to lease all possible sound equip- 
ment, it was inconceivable to the execu- 
tives of Erpi that, when portable equip- 
ment was provided for non-theatrical 
use, it would not sell in the same speedy 
manner. Plans were made in the confi- 
dent assumption that it would. So, 
while the Bell Telephone Laboratories 
fitted the sound attachments into approved 
silent 3Smm silent models, such as the 
Holmes Projector and the Super- De 
Vry, and the Western Electric Com- 
l)any began regular manufacture in that 
department also. Erpi set up an elaborate 
non-theatrical sales organization. Its 
headquarters remained in the Fisk Build- 
ing, New York, and formal branch 
offices were opened in Pittsburgh, De- 
troit, Washington and Los Angeles, in 
addition to the incidental representation 
in regular theatrical branches. 

Lists were compiled of all the pre- 
sumedly possible places (exclusive of 
homes) where the portable equipnient 
might be used — schools, clubs, hotels 
hospitals, passenger boats and many 
more — and the field representatives, 
armed with promotional literature and 
lessons in proper approach, advanced 
to attack them. T!ie necessarily high 
introductory price, saddled with all of 
the preliminary costs of development, was 
an obvious barrier, but it was believed 
that meeting this was a matter of edu- 
cation, the user to be made to see that 

'My God, It talks!" exclaimed Dom Pedro of Brazil in 1876 
when Alexander Bell showed hi-n his telephone at the Phila- 
delphia Exposition. Fifty years later H. G. Stokes repro- 
duced the scene for Bell System's first industrial talkie. 

Page 21 

cheap equipment could mean only shoddy 
results, and that, with these superior 
Western Electric implements, increased 
returns would soon compensate for the 
added costs. 

What seemed graver was the need 
of talking pictures to keep the equipment 
working ; but prospective customers were 
assured, in all good faith, that the lack 
was being met rapidly with a growing 
supply. The quantity was growing, in- 
deed, but scarcely enough, as yet, to 
constitute an important non-theatrical 
sales point, and encouragement was 
needed there, too. It thus became quickly 
evident that the non-theatrical division 
had especial demands, and attention was 
directed to the so-called non-theatrical 
producers to stimulate their output. 

It had been decided to give production 
licenses, for use of tlic Western Electric 
recording system, to those non-theatrical 
organizations which would pay $300,000 
apiece per year for the privilege. Theo- 
retically this sum would accumulate 
through the making of 600 reels of finally 
assembled negative per annum, w ith a $500 
royalty on each. It was argued that a 
studio which could not sustain that much 
business had little excuse for being. The 
non-theatrical producers to whom this 
proposition was presented generally 
laughed at it as out of all sense. But 
Erpi already held larger licensing con- 
tracts with the theatrical studios, and 
was wary of setting dangerous prece- 
dents in a lesser, uncertain field. 

One may think of the non-theatrical 
producers in this period as generally 
peering forth from their storm-proof cel- 
lars, to which they had retired pre- 
cipitately at the first sign of the talkie 
tornado, waiting to see what might hap- 
pen to the world at large before per- 
fecting any plans of their own. Their 
business was at a standstill in the main. 
They were marking time; and this was 
true, too. of even the smaller labora- 
tories. There were no real exceptions. 
Those who could in some way afford the 
new equipment, could not obtain it as 
long as orders from theatrical establish- 
ments were unfulfilled. For even those, 
the factories, working night and day, 
could not keep up with the demand. 

.\nd, as for the word-minded non- 
theatrical customers, they required time 
in which to recover from their own first 
enthusiasm for the new talking pictures 
which now could mouth their most 
fulsome verbal arguments and self- 
praises. What had checked these cus- 
timers were the astoundingly high price, 
as compared with what they had been 
accustomed to pay, and the necessarily 
brusque attitude of busy talkie equip- 
ment manufacturers who had plenty of 
other customers that were willing to 
meet any price if they could only have the 
machinery. To recover from this stunned 
surprise the non-theatrical clients now 
needed pause to decide that perhaps their 
wants might be met by the old kind of 
silent films after all— and in the interval 
they bought nothing. Every person 
everywhere, with a motion picture con- 
tact, was readjusting his grasp of the 

Page 22 

The Educational Screen 

On the eve of Carpenter-Goldman's 
greatest triumph Arthur Carpenter 
sold out, ending one of non-thea- 
tricals' best known partnerships. 

Later years were to bring upon the 
Bell System inevitable charges, by un- 
worthy enemies, that it had used its 
giant's strength tyrannously in this en- 
tirely accidental, virtual monopoly of 
talking pictures ; but the non-theatrical 
industry (and the theatrical industry, 
too) may be eternally thankful that it 
was the Bell System, instead of some 
other less scrupulous form of Big Busi- 
ness, which held the power. That it 
was so was, to my mind, nothing short 
of a divine interposition, for there is no 
Big Business in America with better 
sense of public responsibility than the 
A. T. & T., and. moreover, with its 
attention centered primarily on telephone 
service, it had no wish to remain longer 
than ordinary prudence demanded in the 
making and distribution of films. Even 
in its final leave-taking, it did not pull 
out suddenly, but gently, that there 
might be no disrui)tion of the industry's 
proper service. 

While Western Electric was turning 
out equipment in those first formative 
years of 1926-1930. the sales heads of 
the fortunate talkie enterprise found 
some opportunity to coordinate their 
own first impressions of the non-theat- 
rical field. For reasons sufficiently ap- 
parent to the reader who has followed 
this record of their growth, the effi- 
ciency of even the foremost non-theatrical 
producers was not impressive to the first 
view of really Big Business, and the 
Erpi executives became convinced that 
if the field was to be made to pay, it 
needed not only encouragement but sup- 

The Adopted Son 

They would prove the case by 
molding one of these non-theatrical pro- 
ducing units along Big Business lines, 
showing how the work should really ! e 
conducted instead of in the old, waste- 
ful fashion, and thus, with an enlight- 

ened, hai)py, prosperous field, creating a 
new market for their product and serv- 
ice. This was not an unknown method 
in the motion picture industry at large. 
Years before, 1915 or thereabouts, the 
new Paramount organization had told 
those theatre managers, who had de- 
clared that they could not afford to pay 
the prices which had been set by expert 
study of each given situation, that they 
would prove the trouble to lie in ineffi- 
cient operation by putting in its own 
highly-trained specialists to run the 
business for awhile and show the man- 
agers how to do it. 

But Erpi did not wish to spoil any 
potential customers by this well-intended 
paternalistic interference, and besides, a- 
mong the com])anies generally, there was a 
truculent attitude at the idea of a 
newcomer telling men of their own 
tough, practical experience what they 
ought to do. Moreover, it was not 
then certain that the market for silent 
films would cease. For Erpi there was, 
again, the question of what producer 
could make a non-theatrical picture best, 
because, if any film maker was to be en- 
couraged, it was imperative that he 
should be an able one. On this point 
Erpi naturally deferred to its engineers, 
who had been studying films. And to un- 
destand that deference one must remem- 
ber that in those early days of the modern 
talking picture, the authority of the 
acoustical engineers from the Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories in New York was 
absolute, even in the great studios of 

The engineers down at West and 

For more than a decade Francis 
Lyle Goldman's creative ability 
was chief asset of the firm in 
which he was the technical head. 

Bethune Street, being men who obviously 
preferred mental pursuits, were really 
more interested in educational and re- 
search possibilities of the new apparatus 
than in the amusement phases which 
were paying such heavy dividends. Early 
in 1927, Dr. E. B. Craft, executive vice- 
president of the Bell Telephone Labora- 

tories, lectured before the New York 
Electrical Society, and, showing his 
audience a specimen talking picture, he 
suggested, as food for their imagination, 
the possibilities of a medium which, had 
it been available earlier, might have 
presented lectures on physics by Faraday, 
on painting by Michelangelo, literature 
by Shakespeare and electricity by Bell. 
But, when most of those Bell engineers 
who had the new apparatus actually in 
hand, became specific in their ideas, they 
thought of non-theatrical pictures in their 
own terms, namely, moving graphs and 
charts. They thought next of the men 
who had made a great deal of this sort 
of product — Carpenter and Goldman, 
whose scientific animation ranked high, 
and who actually had produced some 
intricate screen demonstrations of the 
sort for the Telephone Company. 

Although Arthur Carpenter had moved 
out of the concern by now (he was pres- 
ently to sign up with Warner Brothers 
as a research assistant), his share had 
been bought over by an elderly inven- 
tor named George Lane, and Lane had 
been trained as an engineer and could 
talk the laboratory language. More im- 
portantly in the situation as it stood, 
one other member of the favored concern. 
Joseph Coffman, could not only talk the 
laboratory language, but he could dis- 
course authoritatively about film emul- 
sions, optics, developers, trick photog- 
raphy and (as a former director of vis- 
ual education), educational standards. 
Here surely was the non-theatrical unit 
which was worthiest of support, and, hap- 
pily, too, it was situated right in New 
York where its growth might be care- 
fully measured. 

The Carpenter-Goldman Laboratories, 
however, while not insensible of this 
interest, had been wishing for expans- 
ion for some time, and had other plans 
afoot. These were partly to sublet 
space to Max Fleischer, who was plan- 
ning a series of sound cartoons for 
Paramount release, but chiefly to take 
over an idea with which Charles Urban 
had toyed when he had moved his Kin- 
eto Laboratory to Irvington-on-Hudson. 
This involved a "home"' motion picture 
projector called the Spirograph, the pic- 
tures for which were printed in a spiral 
on a transparent disk about the size of 
that used on an ordinary photograph. 
My recollection is that the period of 
a single showing equalled the screen 
time of approximately seventy-five feet 
of regular theatrical film, or one and 
one-quarter minutes at the projection 
speed then standard. To handle this 
new expansion, and also to add labora- 
tory facilities forbidden them by the fire 
laws at the Madison Avenue address in 
the Canadian-Pacific Building, Carpen- 
ter-Goldman had moved to a detached 
structure across the East River from 
midtown Manhattan, in Long Island 
City, the Borough of Queens. 

(To be conf/nued) 

January, 1944 

Page 23 

The Film and Interndtional Understanding 

The Film in New China in a New World 

DR. JOHN E. DUGAN, Editor 
Haddon Heights, New Jersey, Schools 


THE motion picture is destined 
to play an important part in 
the rehabilitation of China 
and in her position in the new- 
post-war world, according to T. Y. 
Lo, president of the China Motion 
Picture Corporation of Chungking. 

"When this war is over, China's 
450 millions of people will require 
a knowledge of modern science 
with the view of opening up the 
country's unlimited natural re- 
sources and utilizing her potential 
manpower," Mr. Lo said, "and the motion picture, with 
its efficiency and the ease and speed with which it 
serves the masses, will play no insignificant role in 
this enlightenment and education." 

Mr. Lo p(jinted out that in China toda)', in spite 
of bombings and lack of equipment, production of mo- 
tion pictures, both for entertainment and informative 
purposes, is being maintained by Chinese directors, 
actors and technicians. 

"We are combating almost insurmountable ob- 
stacles in bringing these movies to our people, so im- 
portant do we consider them. Because there are at 
present only 112 theatres in Free China, and some of cannot be kept going because of bombings, the 
Chinese government and its agencies operate mobile 
cinema units so that films can be shown to the soldiers 
and the people. These mobile units travel from city 
to city and village to village : to the battle front, and 
even to the rear of the Japanese lines, with their pro- 
grams of shorts, features and documentaries. Some 
of the units that go into the remote regions carry a 
])rogram for one year. This requires careful planning 
of production in advance and astute selections of sub- 

"While the Chinese motion picture industry is 
working heroically now to kee]) up the flow of pictures, 
it is much concerned with the future use of films in 
the reconstruction period after the war. An ambitious 
jirogram of visual education has been outlined. Its 
main include the training of thousands of 
technicians for reconstruction work ; imparting gen- 
eral scientific knowledge to the people so they may 
be able to take full advantage of modern inventions 
and improvements related to a progressive life ; to let 
the people know the plans for reconstruction so they 

Kodachrome Seriets on European Culture 

Anticipating the increasing interest in an under- 
standing of central Europe, the Society for Visual Edu- 
cation has issued a list of 217 selected Kodachromes 
for use in teaching the culture and languages of cen- 
tral Europe. 46 of the Kodachromes deal with Yugo- 
slavia, mysterious and intriguing tinder box of the 

As an international medium 
of education the motion pic- 
ture has a wider appeal than 
literature, a more emotional 
appeal than radio, and pro- 
vides the easiest and speed- 
iest method of instructing the 

-T. Y. Lo 

will develop a sense of individual 
responsibility ; to acquaint the 450 
millions of people with the political, 
economic, cultural and social affairs 
of the rest of the world ; and to 
educate the people in a practical way 
toward creating a better world in 
which their responsibility is to co- 
operate with others. 

"This is a large order, but we, in 
China, believe that the power of the 
motion picture cannot be over-esti- 
mated. The motion picture is of 
more absorbing interest to the young than to the old, 
and since it will be the young people of today who will 
make the world of tomorrow, films will be a great factor 
in shaping the future.'' 

Philadelphia Museum of Art Film Programs 
On International Understanding 

"This Is Your World," a free film program series 
revealing the culture and character of the peoples of 
other nations, is being presented during the present 
season at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The series 
presents a diiTerent program each week, and each pro- 
gram is devoted to a different nation or area. Each 
weekly program is presented on Saturdays and Sundays 
at 1 and 3 p. m. 

Typical of the programs ])resented are a Chinese 
program which included the films Out of a Chinese 
Painting Brush and China's 400 Million, and a Slovak 
program presenting the Slovak film classic Janosik. 

The programs were planned with the cooperation of 
Brandon Films Inc.. distributors of the films. They 
include full length and short films on Belgium, China, 
Czechoslovakia, France, England, Scotland, Ireland, 
India, Germany, Mexico, Ecuador, Guatemala, Brazil, 
Chile, Holland, Soviet Russia. Spain, and the United 

Canada Pools Projection Resources 

To facilitate the use of films by organizations in 
Canada, projector pools have been set up in several 
large centers. They are under the jurisdiction of vol- 
unteer film officers who undertake to coordinate ar- 
rangements for film showings in their communities. 
They will refer requests for films to the most conveni- 
ent library, arrange for the loan of a projector, and 
if necessary supply a qualified volunteer projectionist. 

It is the hope of the National Film Board to see 
projector pools established in every town where sound 
projectors are available and where there is a demand 
for film service. The Board oflfers its services to ar- 
range details of such a service at the request of any 
community which possesses at least one sound projec- 
tor available for free loan. 

Page 24 

The Educational Screen 

Various Types of Realism — In Hand-Made Lantern Slides 


HIGH school children find it difficult to understand 
modern, primitive, and Oriental art. because they are 
living back in the ideals of Renaissance artists. The children 
try to make things look photographically real while most 
western artists, since the development of the photograph, 
have gone on into other kinds of realism. This series of 
slides will help to broaden their art experience. 

1.) The Egyptians developed a style of perspective repre- 
senting distance by putting the nearest object at the bottom 
and building u\i ,the fartliier things on top. Important people 
were represented larger. 

2.) The Persians, Indians, and Japanese made their objects 
get larger diagonally as they disappeared, giving a cross-wise 
projection in the picture. 

Roosevelt High School, Chicago 

.^.) The Chinese and the 19th century impressionists used 
aerial perspective showing the blurry outlines and the 
bluer color of objects in the distance. 

4.) Florentine artists of the early Renaissance developed 
the rules of perspective to show receding solid forms in a 
picture. These rules were developed by succeeding Western 
artists for almost five centuries. 

5.J Early 20th century artists with photographs highly 
developed have gone back to older types of realism by using 
some of the Oriental diagonal projection and the Egyptian 
method of showing both top and side views at the same time. 

6.) Other artists have delved into another kind of realism. 
They have tried to crystallize the peculiarly unreal reorgani- 
zation of past experiences that takes place in dreams. 

The sim- 
plest type 
of h an d - 
made slide 
is made by 
drawing or 
tracing on 
finely fin- 
ished etched 
glass with 
medium lead 
pencil. Col- 
or, by spe- 
cial crayons 
or inks, en- 
hances the 
slides great- 
ly. Fine ef- 
fects are ob- 
tained by 
with cray- 
ons. About 
one - third 
inch margin 
should be 
left all 
around the 
slide. The 
slide is read- 
ily cleaned 
with soap or 
powder to 
a new pic- 







January, 1 944 

Page 25 

Department of Visual Instruction 

PROBABLY no Department v,f tlie National 
Education Association has suffered such dis- 
ruption by war conditions as the Department of 
Visual Instruction. The extraordinary use of vis- 
ual methods of teaching and training, as developed 
in the past two years for Army. Navy, and Air 
Forces, is a phenomenon without precedent in 
American education. It required a heavy draft of 
talent and experience from the whole visual field. 
The number of DVI members thus called away 
from their peacetime posts is not known, but it 
comprises a very considerable proportion not only 
of regular members but particularly of the Staff 
Officers of the ten Zones. New appointees to such 
vacancies are themselves often called into service. 
To keep the Staff personnel complete and efficient 
is impossible under such conditions. Smooth 
functioning, therefore, of the national Department 
of \'isual Instruction during the war emergency 
is out of the question. Incidentally, this situation 
should be cause for immense satisfaction to every 
DVI member — for the exigency of war has brought 
"visual education"' into the limelight as never be- 
fore in its history. 

For the benefit of DVI members, old and new, 
we give below the latest corrected list of National 
and Zonal Officers, with but one vacancy still ex- 
isting. It is hoped that it may stand for the 

Our primary aim — when annual meetings are 
suspended and membership campaigns are seriously 
interrupted — should be to maintain DVI member- 
ship at the maximum possible during the war 
period. Present members can play a major role to 
this end — simply reneiv your mernhership now. 
It is not worth wondering or inquiring "when your 
membership expires." What possible difference can 
that make? With the brilliant promise now ahead 
for the visual movement, every DVI member must 
want his membership to be continuous and per- 
manent. Don't risk even an approach to your ex- 
piration date. Move it ahead, constantly, and keep 
your membership safe against carelessness or over- 
sight. Send in another $2.00 fee to your Zone 
Secretary now, and keep present DVI membership 
at its present figure, ready for real growth to record 
totals in postwar days. N.L.G. 

Zone II to Meet with School Administrators 
In February 

Word has just been received that there will be 
a meeting of Zone II, with the Metropolitan New 
York Branch as hosts, at the Penn.sylvania Hotel 
on the afternoon of February 23r<l, in conjunction 
with the regional meeting of the American As- 
sociation of School Administrators. 

The session will be devoted to a discussion of 
the - topic : "'Visual Education, Today and To- 
morrow." A dinner meeting at Town Hall Club 
will follow the afternoon program. 

National Officers 

President : Mrs. Camilla Best, Director, Division of 
.^udio-Visual Aids, Orleans Parish School Board, New 
Orleans, La. , 

Secretary-Treasurer : Miss Lelia Trolinger. Director, 
Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Col. 

Zonal Officers 
Zone I (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) 
President: Edward F. Wheeler, Department of 

Education, Bristol, Conn. 
Secretary: Miss Dorothy A. Allard, 8 Wells 
Road, Reading, Mass. 
Zone II (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Virginia) 
President: Miss E. Winifred Crawford, Mont- 

clair City Schools, Montclair, N. J. 
Secretary : James S. Kinder, Pennsylvania Col- 
lege for Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Zone III (Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, 
West Virginia) 
President: H. B. Allen, West Virginia Uni- 
versity, Morgantown, W. Va. 
Secretary : William G. Hart, Fordson Board of 
Education, Dearborn, Mich. 
Zone IV (Illinois. Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin) 
President : Alvin B. Roberts, Haw Creek Town- 
ship High School, Gilson, 111. 
Secretary: H. L. Kooser, Iowa State College, 
Ames, la. 
Zone V (Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota) 
President : Dr. Ella C. Clark, Winona Teachers 

College, W'inona, Minn. 
Secretary: V. F. Ellies, Winona Public Schools, 
Winona, Minn. 
Zone VI (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington) 
President: Alan Finstad, Fife School, Route 2, 

Tacoma, Wash. 
Secretary: Miss K. S. Klise, Sunnyside High 
School, Sunnyside, Wash. 
Zone VII (Arizona, California, Nevada, New 
President: Boyd B. Rakestraw, Extension Divis- 
ion, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Secretary: George M. Jamieson, Jr.. 815 South 
Hill St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Zone VIII (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, 
President: Dr. J. R. MacNeel, University of 

Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. 
Secretary: Leo Arnoldi, University of Wyoming, 
Laramie, Wyo. 
Zone IX (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas) 
President: Dr. B. F. Holland, University of 

Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Secretary: D. W. McCavick, Bureau of Visual 

Instruction, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Zone X (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi. 

North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee) 

President: (to be appointed to succeed Oscar Sams). 

Secretary: Mrs. H. L. Harris, University System 

of Georgia, 223 Walton St. N.W. Atlanta, Ga. 

Page 26 

The Educational Screen 



Head of the English Department 
Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

THIS Ix'ing tlie first issue of a new year, it is a good 
time to review the contents of this column since its 
birth in October. 1941. and to index the questions and 
answers whicli liave appeared here under the auspices 
of Air. Godfrey ElHot and the present writer, who, re- 
gretfully, is forced by the pressure of other duties to 
make this liis last contribution. The following index, 
it is hoped, will be of particular value to newer readers 
of The Screen; it may he lielpful to 
our older friends, as well. Items are arranged topically, 
with brief annotations and reference to the issues in 
which the full discussions are to be found. 

I Distribution 

Customs rcgulation.s (Canadian): Sept., 1942, p.272. 
Exchange agencies: information on how to exchange 
school fihns: Feb., 1942. p. 7i 

II Editing, splicing, etc. 

Film wastage: amount to plan for, etc; May 1942, p. 199: 

Jan. 1943 pp. 22-24. 
Re-editing old films to make new ones: Jan., 1943, p. 24. 
Responsibility for: who should do it, and why: Feb., 1943, 

pp. 62-64. 
Splicing: how to do it: April, 1943, p. 140. 
Transitions: their importance, various techniques, etc.: 

May, 1943, pp. 176, 178. 

III Equipment and accessories 

precautions to be observed in i)urchasing; Feb., 1942, 

p. 7i. 
value of various camera speeds, -April, 1942, p. 150. 
Dark room — portable: for re-winding film to make double 

exposures, etc: May, 1943, p. 178. 
Exposures meters: iinportance of, use of: Oct., 1941, 

p. 350; Nov., 1941, p. 401; Nov., 1943, p. 346. 
Film cleaners: kinds, use of: April, 1942, p. 150. 

use of various kinds, including haze filter with Koda- 
chronie: April, 1943, p. 142; Sept., 1943, p. 258; Nov., 
1943, p. 346. 
Gloves: for handling film: Sept., 1942, p. 272. 

recommended for purchase with school camera: Jan. 

1942, p. 2,i. 
tables for hyperfocal distances, lens fields, etc: May, 

1942, p. 199. 
importance of such tables: June, 1942, p. 235. 
ampere rating and use of various sizes: Dec, 1941; 

p. 438; .April, 1942, p. 150. 
"Daylight blue" type: use in mixed natural and artificial 

light: Nov., 1941, p. 400; Dec, 1941, p. 438. 
mixture of photofiood and natural light; why to avoid: 

Nov., 1941, p. 400; Nov.. 1943, p. 346. 
over-loading of electrical circuit, checking of fuses, etc: 
Dec. 1941. p. 438. 
References to literature on the subject: Nov., 1941, p. 401. 
Sound recording equipment: cost of: Sept., 1942, p. 272. 
Summary of equipment and accessories needed for general 

school film production: Oct., 1941, p. 350. 
Titling devices: Oct.. 1943, p. 300. 
Tripods : 

essential need for and use of : Oct., 1941. p. 350; May, 
1942,' p. 199. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Donald A. Eldridge, Secretary 
to the Board of Admissions of Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Connecticut, has asked to be relieved of 
the responsibility of continuing the monthly Question 
Box he has been conducting. His work on a PhD. at 
Yale University is consuming all of his additional time. 
Your editor wishes to thank Don for the splendid 
help that he has given. 

Captain Godfrey Elliott, who will conduct the 
Question Box again after the war is over, is now 
stationed with the Training Aids Division of the 
Army Air Forces in New York City. 

tripod triangle: how to make or buv one: Sept., 1942, 
p. 272. 
War's effect on supply of equipment: Jan., 1942, p. 33. 

IV Film stock 
Color film: 

filters, types and uses: Nov., 1941, p. 400; Nov., 1943, 

p. 346. 
interior use of: Nov., 1941, p. 400; Nov., 1943, p. 346. 
titles made with color film: Oct., 1943, p. 300. 

duplicate scenes, where same scene is to be used in 

different parts of same picture: Feb., 1942, p. 73. 
prints (copies): cost and sources: May, 1942, p. 199. 
Types of film 

black and white, color: characteristics and limitations of 

each; reversal compared with negative, advantages 

and disadvantages of each: Oct., 1941, p. 351; Nov., 

1941, p. 400; June, 1942, p. 237; Nov.', 1943, p. 346. 
8mm. compared with 16mm: thier relative cost and 

eiTectiveness: March, 1942, p. 113. 

Sub-standard or "cut rate" film: cautions in use of: 
June, 1942, p. 235. 

War's effect on supply: how to get it: Jan.. 1942, p. 33; 
Jan., 1943, p. 22; Nov., 1943, p. 344. 

Weston speeds of Kodachrome, orthochromatic, pan- 
chromatic, etc: Nov., 1941, p. 400. 

Work print: defined; its uses and cost: Sept., 1942, 
p. 272. 

V Organization and operation of school film projects 
Contests: all schools eligible: Mar., 1942, p. 113. 
Exchange agencies: for exchange of ideas and fihns: 

Feb., 1942, p. 73. 
Organization of production personnel: fixing responsibili- 
ties, division of labor, etc : Feb., 1943, p. 62. 
supervision and guidance: Feb., 1943, p. 62 
training and practice in techniques of production; 
how to organize training courses: March, 1943, pp. 
100, 108. 
Pre-requisites: equipment, financing administration: Oct., 

1941, p. 350. 
Public relations films: 

detailed suggestions on planning, writing, subject- 
matter, filming, presentation, etc: Feb. 1943, pp. 62-64. 
advice for the novice: March, 1942, p. 113. 
References to literature on the subject: Nov., 1941, p. 401; 
Feb., 1942, p. 73; June, 1942, p. 235; March, 1943, p. 100. 
Subjects for films: 

Exchange of ideas: Feb., 1942, p. 7i. 
Selecting idea for a first film: June, 1942, p. 235. 
Re-editing old films to make new composite films: 
Jan. 1943, p. 24. 

definition of synopsis, continuity, scenario, script: Jan., 

1942, p. 33. 

of scene: Sept., 1942, p. 272. 

{Concluded on page 28) 

January, 1944 

Page 27 

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Page 28 

The Educational Screen 



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( Concluded from paiic 26) 

VI Script-writing, scenarios, etc. 

Definition of terms: script, scenario, synopsis, continuity: 
Jan. 1942, p. 3,3; of scene: Sept. 1942, p. 272. 

Organization and preparation of subject matter, in de- 
tail: Feb., 1943, p. 63. 

Sample sequences: ."Kpril, 1942. pp. 149-50; Feb.. 1943, 
p. 63. 

Script clerk's records: May, 1942, p. 199. 

Titles: Oct., 1943, p. 300. 

VII Sound films 

Cost of adding sound to 16mm, film: Dec. 1941, p. 438. 
Cost itemized and further discussed: Dec, 1943, p. 394 
Cost of 16mm. sound recording equipment: Sept. 1942, 

p. 272. 
Methods of recording: discs, direct, etc.: Feb., 1942, p. 73; 

Mar., 1942. p. 113; Dec, 1943, p. 394. 
References to literature on subject: Dec. 1941. p. 438; 

Dec. 1943, p. ,394. 

VIII Techniques 

Blackboards: how to overcome troublesome reflections: 

Nov., 1941, p. 400. 
Color photography: use of camera, lighting, etc: Nov., 

1943, p. 346. 
"Dolly" shots: how to improvise: Jan.. 1942, p. 33. 
Duplicating scenes: how to make duplicate scenes for 

use in different parts of same picture: Feb., 1942, p. Ti. 
Exposure meter: use of: Nov., 1941, pp. 400-1; Nov., 

1943, p. 346. 
Films: characteristics of various types and special tech- 
niques required for their use: (See I\', Film stock, 
Film wastage; how to plan for: Mav, 1942, p. 199: Feb., 

1943, p. 63. 
Filters; use of: April, 1943, p. 142; Sept., 1943. p. 258; 

Nov., 1943, p. 346. 


importance of lens fields, hyperfocal distances, etc: 

June, 1942, p. 235. 
References to literature on the subject: May. 1942. 
p. 199. 
Lighting: selection of proper lights and application of 
principles of good lighting; Nov., 1941, p. 400; Dec, 
1941, p. 438; April, 1942, p. 150; Nov.. 1943, p. 346. 
References to literature on techniques; (See references 
under V. Organization and operation of school film 

Special effects: 

fade-ins, fade-outs, wipes, dissolves, double exposures, 
etc: how to add after processing: Dec, 1941, p. 438. 
how to film them: June, 1942, p. 235; May, 1943. 

pp. 176, 178. 
their use and value in making transitions: May, 1943. 
pp. 176, 178. 
Splicing: basic principles of process: April, 1943, p. 140. 
Slow motion photography: April, 1942, p. 150. 
Titles: October, 1943, p. 300. 
Training and practice in techniques: March, 1943, pp. 

100, 108; Nov., 1943, p. 346. 
Transitions: (See special effects, above.) 
Tripod: importance and use of: Oct., 1941, p. 350; May, 
1942, p. 199. 

D. A. E. 

Experimental Research 

in Audio- Visual Education 



Investigator: Jck Park— .Abstract of doctoral thesis com- 
pleted for degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University 
of Michigan. 

Purpose: To determine the vocabulary and comprehension 

difficulties of frmntX motion pictures. 

Since it would have been impossible to follow all the 
lines of inquiry opened up by the problem it was decided 
to limit the investigation and endeavor to find answers to 
the following specific questions: 

1. Is the vocabulary burden of classroom sound motion 
pictures excessively heavy? 

2. Is the average sentence length of the sentences used in 
the verbal accompaniment to classroom films too long? 
Authors of investigations on the vocabulary burden of 

textbooks often had made a word count or an analysis of 
sentence length but seldom had they gone into the prob- 
lem of how well pupils understood the material presented 
in the textbooks. In this investigation it was decided to go 
further, by means of tests, than these authors had gone 
and to find out what difficulties pupils actually encountered 
and the influence of these difficulties on comprehension. 
This led to the inclusion of the following questions: 

3. Do pupils believe that if easier words were used they 
would understand the films any better? 

4. Do pupils recognize the supposedly diflficult (infre- 
quently used) words presented in the verbal accom- 
paniments to films? 

5. What is the relationship of pupil opinion of vocabulary 
difficulty and difficulty as measured by vocabulary tests 
containing the infrequently used words which appear 
in the sound track? 

6. Do children learn vocabulary from the presentation 
of sound films? 

7. Is the meaning of difficult words clarified in the verbal 
accompaniment to sound films? 

The issue of interest, its bearing upon and its relationship 
to vocabulary burden led to the addition of the following 
three questions: 

8. Are pupils interested in didactic sound films? 

9. What is the relationship between pupil interest in 
viewing films and the vocabulary burden of films? 

10. What is the relationship of interest in films to gaiii 
in vocabulary? 

Because it was expected from the data obtained to be 
able to compare the vocabulary burden of films with as- 
sociated comprehension difficulties, it seemed wise to in- 
clude questions 11 through 18. 

11. How well acquainted are children with the content of 

films before viewing them? 

12. Does the viewing of a film give pupils a better under- 

standing of the topic involved than they have had 

13. Do children learn content from viewing film? 

14. What is the relationship of pupil opinion of vocabulary 
difficulty and gain in content? 

15. What is the relationship of sentence length of verbal 
accompaniments to gain in knowledge of content? 

16. What is the relationship of the mean vocabulary level 
of films to gain in knowledge of subject matter? 

17. What is the relationship of pupil interest in films to 
gain in knowledge of content? 

18. What is the relationship (correlation) between vocabu- 
lary difficulty encountered by pupils and gain in 
knowledge of content? 

(Continued on pa^e 36) 

January, 1944 

Page 29 



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Page 30 

The Educational Screen 

J^ns. JLitE^xatuxE in ^ l/LiuaL lJn±txuaiion 

A Monthly Digest 

New York University Film Library 


How to Use Audio-Visual Aids: Part I. Films, Filmstrips 

and Lantern Slides— Elizabeth Goudy and Lt. Francis W. 

Noel, USt^R— Business Education World, 24:144 November. 


Two basic reasons underlying the poor use of educational 
fdms by teachers are, first, that there is a carry-over from the 
entertainment film that suggests that films are a novelty and 
do not involve any participation or follow-up on the part of 
the observers ; and secondly, that the setting up of a film pro- 
jector and the darkening of the room often involves such 
a change in the usual classroom routine that it is regarded 
as a diversion. 

A pattern of use is suggested in the articles as useful in 
promoting good teaching technique : the pattern includes teacher 
preparation, class preparation, utilization and follow-up in 
which the students participate during the three latter stages. 
A very practical and sound teaching illustration is given in con- 
nection with the use of a film on the use of the typewriter. 

How to Use Audio- Visual Aids: Part 2. Flat Pictures. 

Charts, Posters, Blackboard, Field Trips— Elizabeth Goudy 

and Lt. Francis W. Noel, USNR— /J»ii)icj.s Education World. 

24:201 December, 1943. 

The pattern of use suggested in the preceding article 
should be applied to the use of other types of teaching aids 
that are very helpful to good learning. Flat pictures may be 
selected and mounted with student assistance. One technique 
would be to display a series of pictures singly on a bulletin 
board, so that each picture receives adequate attention. Small 
pictures should be projected. 

Practical experiences with charts and graphs are recom- 
mended, as an organizational chart of the class or a flow chart 
of steps in some process. As for posters, they can serve a 
useful purpose in pointing out good work habits for com- 
mercial students, especially if they use some humor in making 
the point. 

Helpful hints are then given on the use of blackboard and the 
school journey. 

Films Aid Learning— Carolyn Nunn, Los Angeles County 

teacher and Mrs. Laura E. Jones, Supt. — Sierra Educational 

News, December, 1943. p.ll. 

A group of second and third graders was shown a film 
on the motor police. Some preparation had been made by the 
listing of questions that might be answered in the picture, 
as the teacher had not previewed it. After the showing, 
there was a discussion of what had been seen and the film 
was shown a second time to help answer further questions 
which came up during the follow-up. 

Booklets, charts and rules were developed as the result of 
this interest in the police service. Dramatic play came into 
the study and the children measured part of the playground 
to illustrate traffic rules and proper habits 

Films Stimulate Discussion — William S. Hockman, Lake- 
wood Presbyterian Church, Lakewood, Ohio — Int'l Journal 
of Religious Education, 20 :8 December, 1943. 
Film-forums were held during the summer with the com- 
bined intermediate and high school students at this religious 
school. Fifteen minutes were allowed at each session for 
discussion. Some films were found to be more provocative 
than others. Among the most successful were: "It's the 
Brain that Counts" a (a WCTU anti-alcohol film) ; "Peoples 
of Canada," "Toward Unity" and others. 

The author concludes that films are useful for discussion, but : 
"There is a tendency for our audiences to have the readiness 

of spectators rather than the readiness of learners. They tend 
to be passive, and in the mood for entertainment, rather than 
to be active and in the mood for inquiry and critical thought. 
This means that before the film is shown the audience must 
be managed in such a way as to lower its passivity and in- 
crease its alertness and mood for thought and inquiry. If this 
is not done, what would have been an educational experience 
will turn out to be just another picure .show." 

The Three R's Go to War— Major Paul .^. Witty and 
Captain Wendell W. Cruze — Pro</rcssi7'c Education, 20:36.^ 
December, 1943. 

No small portion of the success of the army's program 
to teach reading quickly and efficiently to the illiterate en- 
listed men has been the use of specially prepared filmstrips 
that build up a vocabulary based on concrete, common ex- 

A Cooperative Community Program at Manzanar (Cal.'l^ 
— Education for I'ictory, 2: no. 10, November 15, 1943. 
The report of a project in vacation-time community educa- 
tion is described for the Manzanar Relocation Center where 
people of Japanese ancestry are housed. In a population of 
10,000 hemmed into a mile square area, crowded living condi- 
tions provided a play problem especially during the summer 

Schools in the community are used for various out-of-school 
groups and during the summer a program of all phases of 
education and recreation was developed for children as well as 
adults. Exhibits showing fine arts, science materials and war 
posters were prepared and were satisfactorily used in reaching 
adults, regardless of their educational background or knowledge 
of English. The report of the entire project credits the use of 
visual aids as an important contribution to the success of the 


FM Radio and the Schools — James Lawrence Fly, Chair- 
man, FC:C— A'./i..). Journal, 32:269 December, 1943. 
A summary of the official regulations regarding the allnca- 
tion of FM channels for educational purposes. The five chan- 
nels over the nation can accommodate all educational bodies 
that apply. The five are among the choicest channels in 
the spectrum; they adjoin the 35 channels set aside for com- 
mercial broadcasting. But unless educators make use of these 
channels it will not be possible to keep them open, as there 
is too much pressure from commercial sources. 

FM Radio in San Francisco Schools — James C. Morgan. 

station K.WJW—Schoot Executive 63:20 December, 1943. 

A description of the broadcasting program now under way 
in San Francisco. 

Tracy, Superman et Al Go to War — John K. Hutchens— 
Ne'a- York Times Magazine, November 21, 1943. p. 14. 
A description of the kinds of programs to which .America's 
children aged 7 and up, are listening to from 5 o'clock on every 
week night. Most of the programs are serials, and the heroes 
have all been going through daring war exploits. 

The article gives something of radio's point of view in the 
planning and execution of children's programs. There is some 
history of serials on the air, and then a list of the highly- 
qualified pcr.sons who arc now in charge on the major networks 
of the programs suited to child audiences. Miss Josette Frank of 
the Child Study .Association, for example, serves as consultant 

(Continued on page 32) 

January, 1944 


Page 31 

Which One You Teach 

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Fundamentals of Electricity (PIT 101) is composed 
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drawings and diagrams. This set of 1,581 pictures 
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Such slidefilms help teachers carry heavy teach- 
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Easy to use, technically correct and authoritative, 
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The Educational Screen 


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on the production of several serials. She is quoted as follows : 
"I was never concerned that serials were terrifying. It 

was simply that they weren't good enough. .\iiy good 

program, per se, is educational." 

The children's serial, it is concluded, is harmless and often 
better than that. The writer then summarizes the kinds of 
programs that are preferred at different age levels : fantasies 
for the young ones and serials for those above 10. In a recent 
survey, children in 29 cities were asked to list their preferences. 
The Lone Ranger was tops for the 8-10-year group and the 
next seven in their preferences were adult programs. Boys of 
11 to 12 ranked Lone Ranger low; girls at that age mentioned 
no children's programs, but preferred Mr. District .Attorney, 
Aldrich Family, Bob Hope, and others. 

A significant trend in broadcasting for young people is men- 
tioned in the Voice of Democracy program on Sunday after- 
noons, given by Youth-builders for 10-16 year olds, in which 
children within that age range discuss current problems. 

The radio specialists agree that American radio is not serv- 
ing children best, and Miss Frank believes tliat we can only 
do so by offering programs on a juvenile level, with artistic 
integrity but containing also those elements of excitement, sus- 
pense, even horror and slapstick comedy which they so strongly 


How to Make Graphs — Paul V. West, Xew York L'niversity 
— Nation's Schools. 32:56 December, 1943. 
Instructions with appropriate illustrations for making line 
and bar graphs. No consideration is given to the pictorial type 
of graph. The article does give some basic information and 
should be very useful in assuring the proper interpretation of 
statistics in graphic form. 


Sight and Sound, October, 1943. British Film Institute. 


In "The First Ten Years" (p. 56), Oliver Bell of the 
British Film Institute reviews the history of that organiza- 
tion and its present activities. The Institute was established 
as the result of a report made to the British Institute of 
Adult Education on 'The Film in National Life", in which 
some kind of national film institute was recommended. 
Finances for this organization were proposed from the 
charity contribution tax that is levied on all Sunday movies, 
and is administered by the Privy Council. 

The British Film Institute's governing body is made up 
of 3 representatives of the cinema industry, three of the 
educational world and three of the general public. The 
present chairman is Sir William Brass, M.P. The activities 
of the Institute include: serving as a clearing house of in- 
formation on all subjects connected with the cinema; publi- 
cation of a monthly Film Bulletin, in which theatrical films 
are appraised for suitability for young audiences, and teacher 
committees evaluate new educational films. As for the use 

of films in schools, the Institute does not deny the value of 
other types of visual aids, but recommends films only when 
and as they are judged the most suitable medium. The 
Institute has attempted to direct educational thought from 
"whether" to "how to use films." 

.■\ ten-year plan for school administration of audio-visual 
aids has been proposed to the Board of Education. The 
Institute also publishes listings of films on various subjects, 
and advises on progrannning w-here requested. 

(irowing out of its responsibility for selecting films to 
preserve the history and art of the motion picture medium 
for the National Film Library, the Institute has promoted 
the film appreciation movement. From the films in the 
archives, a course has been prepared to give information and 
to develop an appreciation for the cinema. These films are 
circulated to schools teaching film appreciation. 

"The Cinema in Latin .\merica" (p. 58) by Ramon del 
Castello tells the inside story of the motion picture in- 
dustry in the Latin .American countries. .Attendance at 
movies there has been estimated at 40 million a week. 
Most of the subjects shown are made in Hollywood, and the 
native productions come from .Argentina and Mexico- -the 
latter producing films of high artistic merit. In the bitter 
rivalry between the two countries the Hollywood movie 
makers have shown preference for Mexico by the method 
in which they ration raw stock, loan out film stars and so 
on. This is due to the decided |)ro-.Axis bias of the .Argen- 
tine movie industry and to the fact that Nazi films and 
Spanish Fascist films continue to be shown there, with 
official sanction. 

The influence of Hollywood films on Latin American 
life can be noted in various ways. On the one hand .Ameri- 
can movies have helped in the emancipation of women: 
on the other they have helped to fan racial intolerance 
where none had existed previously, as in Brazil. An inter- 
esting point is made of the fact that the people prefer to 
liear an English sound track, with superimposed Spanish 
or Portuguese titles instead of the Spanish sound track that 
was formerly used. 

"An Experiment in Pupil Appraisal" by .Andrew W. Pat- 
erson (p. 70) describes a study in evaluation using children's 
own reactions as a basis for judging films and their ef- 

The study was carried on with six films shown between 
September and January (pupil age-level not indicated), 
and the criteria for evaluation were those of the Scottish 
Council for Research in Education, "Pupil's Film Appraisal 

Some of the questions asked on this form are: record 
the main facts of the films in the order in which they 
appear; would you like to know more about this subject? 
Which part of the film would you like to have repeated? 
Which part is most uninteresting to you? most amusing? 
too long- too short? too difficult? Give your general 
opinion of the film in words; check your rating of this 
film as very good, good or poor. 

The six films dealt with human geography and nature 
study. The only introduction to each film was the listing 
of guide questions to direct observation to important parts 
in the film. Five or six days later, the students were given 
the appraisal form to fill out. The results are briefly de- 
scribed in the article. Only a few can be mentioned here. 
Questions asked by the pupils seeking additional infor- 
mation were such as: What happened to the grain when 
it had been put in sacks and stored? and When do the 
trawlers leave, and in what month do they return? Where 
the pupils asked for a second showing of a film, it was 
seldom because the content had not been clear, but most 
often for the reason that the film had been very interesting 
and was worth repeating. The free expression of opinion 
by the pupils throughout the study revealed the large j 
extent to which they are capable of critical discrimina- 1 
tion where they themselves are concerned. 

In analyzing the study, the pupils agreed that it had 
helped them to think for themselves, a desirable experience 
in education for democracy. j 

(Concluded on page 45) \ 

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Page 33 

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A doctor in a trailer combats 
a strange malady which strikes 
a defense town. 



The thrilling saga of the men 
who keep our lifelines open 
on the high seas. 



Private Smith becomes an o£fi- 
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See our own Navy doctors and 
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Page 34 

Film Presents the Schools' Case 

How tcchnol(ij,ncaI devel()])inent.s resulting from 
the war, and the approacli of the air-age i.s mak- 
ing, and will increasingly make new demands iij)on 
the schools of the Nation, is the theme of a new sound 
motion picture titled Pop Rings the Bell, which will 
be shown nationwide to special groups of tax-j)a3Trs, 
civic societies, service clubs, parent-teachers organi- 
zations and others with the aim of securing bencr 
pay for teachers and of ]jro\iding more adequate e(|ui])- 
ment and facilities for the schools in the postwar 
era. Sponsored In The National School Service In- 
stitute, this film was produced by the Jam Handy 
Organization of Detroit. 16mm. prints of this two- 
reel picture will be available for showings nationaIl\ 
in cooperation with school systems, educators, educa- 
tional organizations and civic groups interested in 
bringing our schools up to the growing demands. 

Pof> Rings the Bell is dedicated "To America's 
future — the Youth of Today," and is primarily directed 
to the American tax-payer whose dollars sustain our 
educational system, yet who .so frequently fails to 
realize that teaching today is no longer a mere matter 
of text-book study and home-work assignment: that 
technology, upon which the future so largelj- relies, 
demands more adequate equipment for schools and that 
the successful application and use of this modern equi])- 

The Educational Screen 

ment de])cn<Is largely upon skilled tcacliers. The film 
brings out these points, in the simple story of a typical 
school in a ty])ical American commuinty, wiiose prin- 
cipal. Mr. For.sythe, is fully alive to the new respon- 
sibilities of his teaching job. The central figure in 
the story is "Pop" Gregor, the school's cu.stodian. 
a well-known old-timer in the town. 

Opening scenes in the principal's office on the eveniijg 
of a "back-to-school" gathering show Mr. Forsythe 
confronted by four typical local tax-payers who question 
the request for more school taxes, and demand reasons 
for a larger school operating budget. He presents 
the case of the school's new and growing responsibilities 
dramatically and convincingly. "Pop" steps into this 
somewhat stormy .scene to break down the viewpoint 
of the taxpayers by recalling what the Middleton School 
has done for all of them over the years. The meeting 
is the main episode in the picture, reflecting realistically 
a very common conflict of viewpoint between educator 
and tax-pa}'er. 

The gist of Principal Forsythe's "defense" may be 
summed up this way. Students of today face new 
problems in living and earning in the coming age of 
air-travel, television, electronics and plastics, and it is 
U15 to the schools of the community to prepare them for 
the new kind of world to come. Such an educational 
program demands modern and adequate physical facili- 
ties in classrooms and workshops, as well as highly 
(|ualified teachers who must be adequately paid. The 
investment in tax-dollars to improve education brings 
rich rewards to every one in the communitv. 

The film contains impressive shots of students at 
work in the classroom, in the school sho]), and in the 
domestic science department. Further information 
regarding Pop Rings the Bell and showing schedules 
can be secured from the National School Service In- 
stitute, Shop 307, Palmer House, Chicago. 111. 


Top: Class in global geography — new equipment essential. 
Bottom : Teaching is no longer a mere matter of text-books. 

Lockheed P-38 

1 reel, 16nini sound. Available free from Lockheed Air- 
craft Corporation, Rurbank, California.) 

This is a vivid picturizatioii of the newest model Light- 
ning P-38, in color, with narrative and sound accompaniment, 
It is more than a thrilling exhibit of speed, manoeuvera- 
bihty and tremendous chmbing power of this famous 

The film opens with scenes of pilot-training, the pig-a- 
back method whereby the trainee perches in the cockpit 
behind a veteran pilot. The gadgets of the elaborate in- 
strument board are explained — the plane then starts down 
the runway — a perfect take-off — landing-gear retracted — air 
manoeuvers — guns in action. Then, assuming one engine 
shot away, one propeller stops, but the other continues 
with amazii'.g efficiency to drive the plane, to bank, to 
climb, and return safely to base. With necessary prelimi- 
nary training complete, the budding pilot repeats the per- 

The narrative is well managed, and avoids what is 
perhaps the gravest error in narrative, that of talking a 
continuous stream. Numerous pauses permit the spectator 
to reflect, observe, digest both picture and narration. The 
film is carefully calculated not only to portray the merits 
and performance of Lockheed's latest contribution to 
.America's war potential, but to inspire confidence in the 
minds of all who view it that American flyers are prepared 
for their high service with the utmost attention to their 
safety as well as their ultinate efficiency when the great 
moments shall come. (Reviezved by N. L. G.) 

January, 1944 

Page 35 

The Office of War 
Information, Bureau 
of Motion Pictures 





A Timely Film of Lasting Imporfancel 

THE DUTCH TRADITION is a comprehensive documentary film of our Allies, 
the people of Holland and the Indies: their background in time of peace, their 
contribution to our common fight against the Axis. It is an inspiring informa- 
tional picture of the tradition of mutual progress through mutual endeavor. 

THE DUTCH TRADITION portrays and goes 
beyond the Holland of tulips and windmills, 
cheese and wooden shoes. The film is distinctive 
for the clear presentation of the rise of modern 
Holland, its progress in industry and interna- 
tional relations. Nine times the winner of Nobel 
Prizes, the Dutch have also created something 
that is an outgrowth of their culture: a moral 
strength. That is the "Dutch Tradition". The 
people who reclaimed large areas of farm-land 
from the sea by bloodless conquest, also con- 
tributed to the founding and growth of America. 
in a colorful exposition of the varied peoples, 
cultures and industries of these vital islands. The 
70 million people of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, 
Celebes and 3,000 smaller islands, take an active 
part in the community life. The native arts and 
crafts are pictured; also the industries of world 
strategic importance: tin, oil, rubber, rice, spices 
and quinine. 

carry on the fight against the Axis, are a rich 
combination of modern industry and ancient 
island culture. Here, oil from Venezuela is re- 
fined in Aruba and Curacao; bauxite from 
Surinam supplies aluminum for planes. Dutch 
and U. S. troops stand guard. 


This film is a visual aid of lasting importance 
because it provides an integrated background 
for better understanding of the Netherlands and 
its international relations. This basic background, 
together with the portrayal of the Netherlands 
Fighting Forces all over the world, and the Dutch 
resistance at home, are combined in a United 
Nations film of stimulating impact. 

THE DUTCH TRADITION should be shown 
at all types of meetings and rallies to aid 
the winning of the war. It is also ideally 
suited for classroom and assembly use. 
Wherever it is shown it will contribute to 
appreciation of, and closer relations with, 
our Dutch Allies. 

Produced by Mr. Ferno in 
cooperation with the Nether- 
lands Information Bureau and 
The National Film Board of 


16min Sound Black & White 


Consult your nearest distrib- 
utor of O.W.I. 16mm Films. 



Prints may be purchased at 
$22.74 Net, F.O.B. New York 
City. Price includes mounting 
on 1200 ft. reel and con. 

Order From 




Office of War Information, Washington, D. C. 

Page 36 


Triple -Purpose 
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This new easter-to-operate 
projector simplifies your pro- 
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Provides clearer visibility for 
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When writing, 

Developed to meet today's needs 
in training centers and schools. 
Cooler-operating . . , for long 
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please address DEPT. C 

The Educational Screen 




HORACE HEIDT, his Musical Knights and 

Orchestra & Chas. Winninger 


(194 1 United Artists release) 


130 W. 46 ST. NEW YORK 19. N. Y. 



Experimental Research 
in Audio- Visual Education 

(Continued from page 28) 

Finally it was considered advisable to include two other 
questions to which the data gathered in connection with the 
other questions might help give an answer. These two 
questions were: 

19. Do pupils believe a class discussion or a study period 

would enable them to understand films better? 

20. Is the wide grade span for sound films usually recom- 
mended by producers justifiable? 


The data gathered to answer these questions were 
gleaned from a careful analysis of the verbal accompani- 
ments to the films (word count, and analysis of sentences 
and the administration of especially constructed tests to 
640 pupils from 22 classes ranging in grade levels from 
four through twelve. The pupils were selected from three 
schools located in Evansville, Indiana. The pupils may be 
said to be of average intelligence and having average edu- 
cational opportunities. 

The eight sound classroom films used in the study were 
tlie Erpi films: Theory of Flight, Problems of Flight, Sun- 
fish, Grozi'th of Cities. Il'estii-ard Movement. Chile, Brazil 
C hiiia. 


In so far as these data were adequate and accurate, the 
following conclusions seem valid. 

1. Only a minority of the pupils believe that easier words 
would make films easier to understand. 

2. All of the children do not know all the difficult words. 
The\' do learn some of these difficult words from view- 
ing a film once. The lower grades made the most gain 
in vocabulary. Pupils are more likely to learn the 
words that are illustrated or defined in the films. 

3. Words on which the various groups ijarticipating in 
this investigation made the most improvement were 
from the upper levels of the Thonulike list rather than 
from the lower levels. 

4. Pupil interest in films corresponds rather closely to 
mean vocabulary level of films. Interest in films and 
.gain in vocabulary are apparently not closely related. 
Interest in films and gain in content are closely re- 

5. Children gain a fair understanding of films from one 
viewing. Thoy seem to learn content of films. This 
is particularly true for the lower grades. 

6. There is apparently a close relationshii) between 
sentence length in films and gain in knowledge of 
subject matter being presented. Likewise there is a 
close relationship between mean vocabulary level of 
films and gain in knowledge of content. 

tmuary, 1944 

Page 37 


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Some of the Outsfanding 

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We wish to thank the many educators through -whose kind 
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7. The vocabulary burden of films does not seem exces- 
sively heavy. The vocabulary of some films could, 
however, be reduced in the interests of learning. 

8. The sentences used by the narrators in verbal ac- 
companiments seem long and probably should be 
shortened where feasible. 

9. Pupils seem to think that further study and class dis- 
cussion on films would lead to a better understanding. 

10, The grade placement recommendations of producers 
does not seem to be too wide. 
These conclusions have certain inferences for teachers. 
These are: 

1. Films contain many words not known bj' pupils. These 
words, wherever it seems advisable, should be explained 
and defined for children. This of course presupposes 
that teachers will preview films before showing them. 

2. Pupil interest seems closely related to the mean vocabu- 
lary burden of a film. If pupils show a disinterest in a 
film it may be due to its vocabulary being too difficult. 

3. Pupils believe that further study and class discussion 
would give them a better understanding of the films. 
Teachers should therefore relate films to classroom 
work and use them as a teaching device. If a classroom 
sound motion picture is worth showing it is worthy 
of study and discussion. 

4. Reliance upon pupil belief of vocabulary burden seems 

5. The wide grade placement of films seems justifiable. 
Hints, to producers. 

1. Films with long sentences and a heavy vocabulary burden 
are the films from which pupils seem to learn the least. 

2. Interest appears to be higher where the vocabulary 
burden is not too heavy. Children learn most from the 
films in which they are most interested and which have 
lower mean vocabulary burdens. The use of the mean 
vocabulary is suggested as a means of checking the 

vocabulary burden of a film and in turn related teach- 
ing value. 

3. Films contain words which are difficult for pupils. 
The number does not appear to be great. However, a 
simplification of vocabulary in certain films, where a 
sacrifice of meaning will not result, would appear wise. 

4. The sentence length of the verbal accompaniments to 
films seem long. Children learn most from films with 
short sentences. 

5. If it is the desire to teach a word, the word should b.e 
defined and illustrated. 



you may win $50-00 JUbJkity 

For the film Outline selected by our Production Staff 
A K|Y member of the feaching profession may 
enter their outline for a movie to be pro- 
duced by Audiofllm Studio for school showing 
CMD IC^T curricular or non-curricular in sub- 
I stance. It will be judged on wide 
appeal, long term value, originality and production 


■ 6ive a DETAILED OUTLINE of a movie you would like 

most to see made for the school screen. It may become a 


U Only one will be selected from this contest. You may send 

more than one idea. 

Address: 1614 Washinqton Street 
Vancouver, Washington 

Page 38 

The Educational Screen 

Now Available in 16MM Sound Film 

(^Desert Victory 


Acclaimed by American critics 
and fheafre audiences as 


Desert Victory is a British docu- 
mentary sound film made under 
fire. It captures the full impact of 
modern warfare, and dramatically 
records the British Eighth Army's 
smashing victory at El Alamein and 
its triumphant 1300 mile advance 
across the desert to Tripoli. 

Desert Victory shows how the Royal 
Engineers went ahead to clear the 
deadly mines, the vital part the Gen- 
eral Sherman tanks played and how 
the infantry, the armored divisions, 
and the air force worked together 
to shatteir Rommel's best Panzer 

Produced by 26 battle photogra- 
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cost the lives of four cameramen, 
while seven were wounded and six 

Progress and tactics of the battle 
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^ar± an 

Northwest Panels on Visual Education 

The Idaho Conference of the Northwest Society 
of Supervi.sion and Curriculum Development, which 
was held at Lewiston State Normal School Octo- 
ber 26 and 27, included a Panel on the topic "Utili- 
zation of Visual Education," in which visual educa- 
tors from several Northwest states participated. 

The recommendations drawn up by the group are 
.summarized briefly as follows : 

(1) Wider use of the simpler audio-visual aids. 

(2) Endorsement of the statement of McKown 
and Roberts : "Although there are departments of, 
and courses in, audio-visual instruction, yet in its 
applied form it is not a subject separate from the 
other subjects of the curriculum. Like composition, 
it has no content of its own. It permeates all in- 

(3) Appointment of a director of audio-visual 
aids in each school system. 

(4) Only methods of good teaching and careful 
preparation be recognized. 

(5) Courses in audio-visual instruction at the pre- 
service level or, at least, use of audio-visual aid.= in 
teaching subject matter courses, or instruction in 
their utilization in established methods courses. 

(6) Use of the motion picture as a teaching tool 
— not a fad or frill to be used as entertainment. 

(7) Development of larger collections of basic 
materials for an audio-visual program by both cen- 
tral visual aids libraries and individual school 

(8) Reports to the community and parents par- 
ticularly on use of audio-visual aids in the schools. 

(9) Listing of appropriate audio-visual aids in 
bibliographies of curricular materials. 

A similar Panel was conducted at the Western 
Washington Conference of the Society, November 
1 and 2 in Seattle. Their recommendations largely 
duplicated those adopted at the Idaho Conference. 
In addition, however, it was recommended that the 
State Department of Public Instruction appoint a 
state committee to supervise and develop audio- 
visual aids in education, as leadership is essential 
to a well balanced and coordinated state wide pro- 
gram for visual teaching. 

Projector Requirements Proposed by Teachers 

To aid equipment manufacturers in the production 
of the type of school projectors which will be needed 
when the war is won, the British Film Institute called 
together a group of practicing English teachers, edu- 
cation authorities and members of film advisory com- 
mittees to consider and formulate suggestions as to the 
characteristics which school projectors should possess. 
The conference was of the opinion that three distinct 
types of apparatus are necessary for use in schools and 
other educational establishments: (1) a silent projector 
for general classroom use, but capable of being used 
also in large lecture rooms ; (2) a sound machine of 


January, 1944 

Page 39 


semi-portable tyi>e for use in classrooms, lecture rooms 
and small halls; (3) a sound machine of largjer dim- 
ensions for semi -permanent installation in a projection 
room of a large hall. 

Features of projectors which came under discussion 
included : controls, mechanical noise, portability, run- 
ning speed, intermittent drive, threading, inching de- 
vice, focussing, framing, still device, light output, pilot 
ght, transformer, reverse, rewind, levelling and tilting, 
'trip device, accessibility, accessories, lubrication, and 

An 8-page pamplet containing this informati<jn in 
condensed form titled '"The Design of Projectors for 
Educational Purposes," has been issued by The British 
institute, 4 Great Russell Street, London, W'.C.I. 

State Depcrtment Plans Post- War Film Education 

The December 4th issue of Motion Picture Herald 
reported on the plans which the United States De- 
partment of State is considering for the use of films 
in the ]30st-war education of the peoples of occupied 
Europe and enemy territories. There are indications 
in \\'ashington that there probably will be a permanent 
film official api)ointed to function under the Secretary 
of State, who would be concerned with both the com- 
mercial entertainment film and .special. Government- 
financed, educati(jnal pictures. Such films as those on 
health, medical care, child care, nutrition, agriculture, 
home and factory construction, would be particularly 
needed to aid in the rehabilitation of Europe. 

Tlie motion picture industry, it was indicated, would 
produce the films suggested by the .State Dejiartmenl 
and tiie department would handle the distribution 
through dii)lf)matic film attaches stationed in the various 
countries. This may be accomplished through expansion 
of the work of the Department's present Division of 
Cultural Relations and the attaches now abroad, or, 
perhaps, an entirely new film organization would be 

Fset up. 

p Ralph Turner, assistant to Charles R. Thompson, 
chief of the Division of Cultural Relations, has re- 
turned from London, where he spent two months 
conferring with British officials and other United 
Nations leaders for the preparation of a .special re])ort 
on post-war education. This report will be i)art of a 
general survey the department is making of cultural 

jjiiedia for the post-war period. 

The recent appointment of Dr. Grayson N. Kefauver. 

'dean of the School of Education of Leland .Stanford 
University, as a si)ecial adviser on educational recon- 
struction, is a further step in the development of the 
government's contemplated visual education program. 

New Company May Take Over CIAA Film Work 

A new. non-profit organization, Hemispiiere l'"ilms. 
Inc., has been formed by Nelson Rockefeller to take 
over the functions of the motion picture bureau of the 
Coordinator of Inter-American AtTairs should that 
agency be abolished by the Government. Such action is 

^ecu^Ue^ Jlike. the 



Req. U. S. Pot. Off. 



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Dept. 1 E.S., 2723 N. Crawford Ave. Chicago 39. Illinois 

Page 40 

The Educational Screen 

Because the greatly enlarged wartime production oi Holmes 
Projectors is still entirely absorbed by our Government tor 
distribution to training centers, combat areas and recreation 
posts — where their mechanical eiliciency makes them 
always ready for duty without servicing — we regret our 
inability to make deliveries now tor civilian use. Replace- 
ments or parts required tor pre-war Holmes' machines will 
be given every consideration. 

^^ ^ ^ 




Monufacfurers of 16mfn and 35mm Sound on-Film 
Projectors for over 25 years to Dealers and Users 


(Series of Six) 

Imporfant as visual education . . . stimulating as 
an insight into a vital world areal A scientifically 
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transportation, in brilliant color. 






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anticipated in many quarter.s, after the caustic criticism 
of the cultural relation.s program of the CIAA bv 
.Senator Butler and other meinber.s of Congres.s, as a 
re.sult of which a Senate Committee will investigate 
the expenditures and film |)rograin of the CIA.\. 

Connec icut Audio- Visual Conference 

Members uf the Connecticut .-\udio-\'isual Association 
assembled in Stamford Saturday, December 11, to en- 
joy the following program : 

Address of \\'eIcome — Leon C. Staples. Superintendent 
of Schools. 

Introduction — Joseph Senechal. President. Connecticut 
.Audio- Visual l-"diication Association ; Windham Tligh 
School, \\'illimantic. 

"How to Use War l'"ilms in Schools" — Edward F. 
\\'heeler. Director of .Audio- Visual Education. P>ris- 
tol (Illustrated by showing of recent war films j. 

"New Films for English and Social Studies Classes" — 
Roger .Albright. Teaching Films Custodians. ( .Show- 
ing of classroom version of "The Good luirth" ) 

"The Use of the b'ilmstrip or Slidefilm" 

■■P>y the Office of War Information" — J. Raymond 
Hutchinson. I''ilnistrip Division, OWI (Showing of 
filmstrips distributed abroad by OVVT). 
"P)y the Classroom Teacher" — Karl Detchart. demon- 
strator of the jam llandy Organization. 

Program Chairman — Hard}' R. Finch, High School, 

Overseas Film Showings to Troops 

-According to a recent survey by .Army officials, 
an average of 6v50.000 men in imiform nightly attend 
the free showings of new Hollywood features in com- 
bat areas abroad. This means that 95 per cent of the 
men overseas are seeing movies regularly, some three 
or four times weekly. 16mm. prints of the films are 
donated to the \\'ar Department by the motion picture 
industry and represent the top ".A" films from the 
major companies. Many of the pictures are seen by the 
troops before in the U. S. 

Since the beginm'ng of this service, in F'ebruary, 
1942, over 8,500 prints of approximately 300 film titles 
were delivered to the Overseas Motion Picture Service 
of the U. S. Army to be flown abroad to the 19 ex- 
change points for distribution to combat areas, where 
they are seen by Army Service ground and air units. 
Navy and Coast Guard Personnel, Merchant Marine 
units. Red Cross and U.S.O. workers. The number of 
projectors in use overseas has increased from 370 to 
2,500. The distribution points are located in Persia. Al- 
giers, Egypt, African Gold Coast, England, Iceland, 
Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland. Trinidad, Ber- 
muda, Panama, Alcan Highway. .Alaska. Hawaii, Fiji 
Island, New Caledonia, .Australia and India. 

January, 1944 

Page 41 



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George Sanders 
Herbert Manhall 

Ann Sheridan 

Richard Carlson 

Helen Parrish 

Marsha Hunt 



Fredric March, Joan Bennett, Thomas Mitchell. 

Pat O'Brien, Edward Arnold, Ruth Terry. 

Loretto Young, David Niven, Hugh Herbert. 


George Raft, Joan Bennett, Walter Pidgeon. 

Order this series today from your film library or write direct to us. 
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I Depth Pictures Speed Up Navigation Training 


f^gf Military navigation students are now being 
trained by a new technique which teaches them 
more quickly than ever before to steer by the stars. 
The new method eliminates the need for training 
students to interpret depth in flat charts and dia- 
grams by presenting life-like pictures of models of 
the heavens and the earth in three dimensions. Re- 

Icently perfected by Professor John T. Rule, Chair- 
man of the Section of Graphics at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, the speedup techni- 
que is made possible by Polaroid three-dimensional 
pictures known as vectographs. 

i Prepared as slides for projection by standard 
projectors on a classroom screen, the vectographs 
are so strikingly realistic that an instructor walk- 
ing into the beam of a projected vectograph of the 
earth appears actually to be walking into the center 
of the earth. Students feel they are looking at pre- 
cise wire models of the heavens with relative posi- 
tions of the stars and the earth immediately ap- 
parent. The technique of preparing three-dimen- 
sional projection slides of the heavens is similar 
to the geometry instruction technique developed by 
Professor Rule in 1934. According to Professor 
Rule, '•Everything else being equal, a student 
1 ^, trained with celestial navigation vectographs is 
Hi bound to learn more readily about navigation than 
one trained only with the aid of ordinary flat 

Lin the old days, a stereoscope was the only jirac- 

tical three-dimensional viewing device. It permits, 
however, only one person at a time to view a pic- 
ture in three dimension. A three-dimensional vec- 
tograph, projected on the screen, can be viewed 
even by a large group of people simultaneously. 
The vectograph process is the invention of Edwin 
H. Land, President of Polaroid Corporation, and 
Joseph Mahler. A three-dimensional vectograph is 
a specially treated plastic sheet. On it, two pic- 
tures occupy the same space at the same time. 
Polarizing three-dimensional viewers un.scramble the 
superimposed pictures to recreate the normal condition 
of effortless three-dimensional seeing. 

Schools-ot-War Bulletins 

The Education Section of the War Finance Division, 
United States Treasury, publishes a quarterly War 
Savings News Bulletin titled Schools-at-War as a 
teaching aid to promote the program of the War 
Finance Division throughout the schools of America. 
These bulletins, which are distributed free of charge 
to teachers through School Su])erintendents, provide 
sales suggestions and study guides for a good War 
Savings program. 

Other free material, including bulletins, leaflets, 
Ijosters and filmstrips, will be sent to teachers who 
write in to their State War Finance Office. A list of 
the state offices appears in the current sixth News 
Bulletin — the Fourth War Loan Issue of Schooh-at- 
IVar — dated Februar)-. 

Page 42 

The Educational Screen 

Clwiisnt ^iim ^J\fs.ULr± 

■ British Infokmation Services, 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, have 
announced the non-theatrical release in 
16nini sound of the official British Army 
film, titled : 

Desert Victory — an outstanding fact- 
ual film on desert warfare, which has 
evoked enthusiastic praise from the 
press and audiences wherever shown, 
being hailed as "the greatest war film 
produced," and "a model for battle 
pictures that will be followed for a long 
time to come." The film covers the 
battle in Africa from the point when 
General Auchinlek made his stand 
sixty miles west of Alexander, to the 
end of General Montgomery's vic- 
torious advance against Rommel's 
Panzers from El Alamein to Tripoli. 
The highlight of the picture is the 
battle of El Alamein, when the full 
weight of British armor, which had 
by then been supplemented by Ameri- 
can equipment, was thrown against 
Rommel's lines. 

"Desert Victory" was produced by 
soldier cameramen who fought and 
marched with the Army on the 1300- 
hundred mile trek. The actors are the 
common British soldiers, but there 
arc one or two star names. Winston 
Churchill appears at the begining and 
end of the film. Unwilling actors are 
Field Marshall Rommel, Adolf Hit- 
ler, Goebbels, and captured German 

Colonel MacDonald, who was in 
charge of the film, returned to Eng- 
land with nearly 200,000 feet of film 
made by his unit, and some captured 
German film. With this material and 
some footage of munition making 
activity in Britain and the United 
States, Colonel MacDonald cut, shaped, 
and edited the final 5400 feet of "Desert 
Victory." Some of the cameramen did 
not live to see their work. Four 
were killed, seven were wounded, and 
six were captured. 

■ Frith Films, P. O. Box 565, Holly- 
wood, Calif., have produced the follow- 
ing two films on farming which are 
valuable additions to the list of films 
contributing to the war efTort. (Each 
is one reel sound and color.) 

Farming Takes Skill — a general film 
on farm work that gives a well- 
balanced picture of modern, scientific 
farming. Several crops are shown 
through an entire year. In addition 
to presenting factual information, at- 
tention is given to such farm problems 
as management, scarcity of labor, and 
conditions that influence food prices. 

A Teen Age Farm Hand — a sincere 
picture of wholesome farm life, de- 
signed to interest young people. Farm 
chores take on a new appeal when 
viewed with the young hero Ken, a 
lovable efficient farm boy. He is 

seen taking care of the horses, tending 
chickens, cleaning yards, driving farm 
uwchines, milking cows, etc. 

■ Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller 
Plaza, New York, continues to keep 
schools abreast of current history with 
the release of a special News Parade re- 
cording two significant events in the his- 
tory of the world struggle. 

The first story in this one film is 
of three days that will live in the 
history of the United States Marines 
and will bring home to all Americans 
with stark realism an appreciation of 
the terrific struggle that took place in 
the recent capture of the Gilbert Is- 
land Jap base at Tarawa. The film 
story of Tawara is complete, from the 
naval and air bombardment that pre- 
ceded the assault and the actual start 
of the landing boats from the ofT-shore 
convoy, to the struggle for the beach 
and the final triumph of the American 
forces. The cameramen have shown 
complete disregard for their personal 
safety in filming this epic battle. The 
scenes they have provided give this 
News Parade a dramatic and historic 
thrill such as film audiences have sel- 
dom experienced. 

In contrast to the fury and thrill of 
battle, the second story in this one 
film pictures the calm but immensely 
important and history-making con- 
ferences of the great powers in Egypt 
and Persia. Collectors of News 
Parades recording the complete story 
of this war will regard this chapter 
as one of their most important records. 
Events certain to ensue as a result 
of these two conferences will spot- 
light them as developments which 
have shaped the course of world affairs 
for generations to come. 

■ Harmon Foundation, Inc., 140 Nas- 
sau St., New York, has produced a 
series of two-reel 16mm silent films 
on the Arts and Crafts of Mexico, 

Black Pottery or Black Earth of 
Coyotepec — ])ortraying the primitive 
methods by which the pottery is 
formed by hand. 

The Painted Pig (in color) — dem- 
onstrating the origin of Mexican art 
in the lives of the people. The film 
follows the artist's step in making the 

Uruapan Lacquer (in color) — show- 
ing in detail the techniques of making 
the ancient lacquer ware of the Tar- 
ascan Indians at Patzcuaro. 

Puebla (in color) — how the skilled 
Indian potters of the region of Puebla 
copy the glazed Talavera pottery of 
the Spaniards: examples of finished 

Red Pottery of Tzintzuntzan — where 
pottery-making is a family affair. The 
process is followed step by step — 
treating the red clay, forming over a 
clay mold, polishing, and applying the 
design with pigment made from 
ground stones or burned wood. 

■ Brandon Films, Inc., 1600 Broad- 
way, New York, announces the release 
in 16mm .sound film of the Russian docu- 
mentary film : 

Black Sea Fighters — a 65 minute pro- 
duction, narrated by Fredric March. 
This feature is the actual story of the 
Russian Black Sea fleet's 250-day de- 
fense which turned Sevastopol into a 
graveyard for Hitler's hopes of world 
conquest. It is the first comprehen- 
sive full-length documentary of Naval 
warfare to be released by any of the 
United Nations. 

■ Commonwealth Pictures Coupdka- 
TioN, 729 Seventh Ave., New York, has 
again been appointed exclusive distri- 
butor for a new series of six Walter 
Wanger productions in 16mm sound, 
featuring top-flight Hollywood stars. 
These features are : 

Foreign Correspondent — starring 
Jc>el McCrea and Laiaine Day. This 
is an exciting drama of intrigue, di- 
rected by Alfred Hitchcock. The 
story concerns the thrilling adventures 
of an American reporter in Europe. 

Winter Carnival — with Ann Sheri- 
dan and Richard Carlson co-starred in 
a gay college romance which is un- 
folded against the vivid background of 
the famous Dartmouth College fes- 
tival, highlights of which are winter 
sports contests, the selection and 
crowning of the Queen of Carnival. 

Eternally Yours — starring Loretta 
Young, and David Niven. 

Trade Winds — with Fredric March. 
Joan Bennett, Thomas Mitchell. 

Slightly Honorable — with Pat 
O'Brien, Edward .'\rnold, Ruth Terry. 

The House Across the Bay — featur- 
ing George Raft, Joan Bennett, Walter 

This series may be ordered from 
either Commonwealth, who control 
exclusive world-wide 16mm rights, or 
from many commercial film libraries. 

■ Chicago Film Laboratorv, Inc.. 18 
W. Walton Place, Chicago, has pre- 
pared a two-reel sound film of the 1943 
World Series Baseball Games, in co- 
operation with Lew Fonseca, Promotional 
Director of the .American League of 
Professional Baseball Clubs, for distri- 
bution to America's fighting men all over 
the world, and to Army, Navy, Marine 
and Coast Guard bases in this country. 
After requirements of the Armed for- 
ces have been met, additional prints of 
the film will be distributed to USO 
centers, hospitals and other places de- 
signated by the .Army and Navy. 

The picture presents highlights of the 
play-by-play, with many interesting close- 
ups of .«tar players. It has been enthusias- 
tically endorsed by the various Govern- 
ment departments concerned with its 
use. Requests for this free film should 
be addressed to the .Xmerican League 
of Professional Baseball Clubs, 310 S. 
Michigan .Ave., Chicago. 

{Concluded on patjc 44) 

^V Januar 

January, 1944 

Page 43 

|o greater educational task was ever undertaken than the training 
of our Army and Navy millions . . . and never were motion pictures and 
Filmosound Projectors so widely and continuously used in teaching. 

Visual education is proving itself every day . . . helping to turn out a 
war-smart fighting force . . . and the teaching technics that, today, are 
doing a grim job well, will add new power to education in peace. 

Visual instruction grows daily in stature and vitality in civilian edu- 
cation, also. In war and peace, Bell & Howell's Opti-onics equipment 
and its Filmosound Library serve every motion picture need. 

We have learned many things in our production for war. You've been 
waiting, patiently or otherwise, for a new B&H Projector ... a new 
Filmo Camera . . . and we want you to know that uheii it comes, it will 
be worth the waiting. 

Filmo 70DA 
16mm. Camera 


They're part of the most com- 
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equipment in the ■world . . . the 
line most users say is the world's 
finest. After Victory it will be 
even better . . . improved by all 
we've learned in meeting and 
surpassing rigid military stand- 


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Scene from a USOE Machine Shop Work 
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Is research and cnftineerlng by 
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Requestee/ by 

Page 44 

The Educational Screen 

■ Bei-l & HowKi.i. Company, 1801 
Larchmont Ave., Cliicago, report that 
a group of educational films produced 
and heretofore distributed by the Uni- 
versity of California, will hencefortii 
be rented and sold through the Filmo- 
sound Library. Inckided in the group 

A scene from "The Horse in North 

are some of the most significant school- 
made fihiis, deahng with widely vary- 
ing subject matter. This list includes : 

Nursing — A Career of Service — 28 
niin, silent — step by step progTes> of 
a student nurse. Available in color or 

Springboard Diving — 10 niin. — 
Champion mermaids demonstrate all 
the standard competition dives in 
normal and slow motion sequences. 

Technique of Foil Fencing — IS min. 
silent — expert instructors demonstrate 
classic movements of offense and de- 
fense. The importance of poise, form 
and agility in this sport. 

Making a Stained Glass Window — 
20 min. sound and color — a compre- 
hensive and beautiful process film 
showing each step in the making of 
large stained glass windows, using 
.American materials and craftsmanship. 

The Horse In North America— 20 
min. sound and color — the natural his- 
tory of the horse on the North Ameri- 
can Continent, reconstructed by Uni- 
versity of California scientists from 
preglacial fossil remains. 

The American Horse — 21 min. color 
and sound — outstanding represen- 
tatives of all leading breeds, their 
pedigrees and functions. Excellent 
complement to "The Horse In North 

■ American Red Cross, 40 East 49th 
St., New York, is booking a new film 
on the Junior Red Cross through its 
Motion Picture Distributing Office, 
under the title: 

Hand in Hand — 1 reel, 16mm and 
3Snim sound. The picture tells what 
the Junior Red Cross is and does. 
Prints are loaned for one week, free 
except for express charges. The film 
may be purchased from the William 
J. Ganz Companj" at the same ad- 

■ Radio Corporation of America. Cam- 
den, New Jersey, is distributing a 
film portraying radio's dramatic part 
in this global conflict, with the title: 

Radio at War — a 24-minute presen- 
tation on 16mm sound film, picturing 
the adventures of two typical Ameri- 
can boys, Jim and Joe Brown, who 
leave high school shortly after Pearl 
Harbor to join up, Jim entering the 
.Army Signal Corps and Joe the Navy, 
where he likewise finds himself in t!ie 
communications section. 

Training camp routine is pictured in 
detail, followed by scenes taken at ac- 
tual maneuvers during which many 
phases of electronics communications 
are brought into play. A high point 
of the film is the sequence of recent 
official Army and Navy motion pict- 
tures of an invasion in the southwest 
Pacific and the establishment of a 
beachhead, with authentic battle scenes 
adding to the exciting portrayal of 
radio's vital part in the operations. Final 
scenes show Jim Brown, on the beach 
with his Army Signal Corps outfit, 
contacting a warship at sea, relaying 
information on the battle ashore, and 
the message being received aboard ship 
by his brother, Joe. 

The film may be obtained by schools, 
colleges or civic groups upon payment 
only of transportation charges. Re- 
nuests may be addressed either to the 
Educational Department of RCA Vic- 
tor Divison, Radio Corporation of 
.America, Camden, N. J. or the William 
J. Ganz Co., producers of the film, 40 
E. 49tli St., New York City. 

■ U. S. Navy Department has released 
eight motion pictures in 16mm sound, 
dealing with office practices, to the 
U. S. Office of Education for distribu- 
tion to schools, business organizations, 
and others engaged in the training of 
typists and stenographers. The films 
were produced by the Training Film 
Unit of the Bureau of Aeronautics for 
the Division of Personnel, Supervision, 
and Management of the Navy Depart- 
ment. There are four films on typing, 
two on machine transcription, one on 
dictation, and one on the maintenance 
of office machines. 

"Fortress of the Sky," a 
three-reel 16mm color 
film, telling the inside 
story of the spectacular 
Boeing Flying Fortress, 
is ready for distribution 
• rorn the produr s. 
The Princeton Film 
Center, Princeton, New 

Tlic films dealing with typing are: 

Basic Typing Methods— 31 min.— 
the history of typewriter development; 
various kinds of machines now in com- 
mon use. and principles of keyboard. 

Basic Typing. Machine Operation — 
29 min. — correct touch and relationship 
of touch to typing speed: various parts 
of the typewriter. 

Advanced Typing. Shortcuts — 26 

■min. — How to insert carbons, and make 

corrections; some time-saving methods. 

Advanced Typing. Duplicating and 
Manuscript — 37 min. — cutting of sten- 
cils and techniques to be used in typing 

This group of eight films brings to 
66 the number of motion pictures re- 
leased by the Army and Navy for ci- 
vilian use. There are also 70 filmstrips 
available. A list of these visual aids 
may be secured from either Castle 
Films. Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York, contract distributor for the Of- 
fice of Education, or the Division of 
Visual .Aids, U. S. Office of Education. 

■ The National Film Board of Can- 
ada, with headquarters for non-theat- 
rical distribution in the U. S. at 84 
East Randolph Street, Cliicago, an- 
nounces that sixteen .American univer- 
sities now have well-stocked libraries 
of recent Canadian releases. These 
documentary films, presenting Canada 
at war and as a nation, arc available in 
16mm. sound to schools, churches, 
clubs, civic organizations and adult 
study groups at a nominal rental. 
Schools and organizations interested 
in utilizing these films in their United 
Nations programs may apply to the 
Departments of Visual Education in 
the following universities: University 
of California, Berkeley; University of 
Connecticut, Brigham Young Univer- 
sity, Provo, Utah, Pennsylvania State 
College, University of Missouri, Ore- 
gon State College at Corvallis, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, University of 
Michigan, University of Nebraska. 
University of South Carolina, Central 
Washington College of Education at 
Ellensburg, University of South Da- 
kota, Iowa State College at Ames, 
University of Oklahoma, New York 
I'niversity, Indiana University. 

The Boeing B-17E Fort- 
ress is shown here on 
the airport "apron" at 
Boeing's Seattle factory. 

January, 1944 

Page 45 


35 mm. 



General Science 

Principles of Physics 

.11 rolls 
... 7 roUs 
... 8 rolls 
.. 8 rolls 

New York 

Principles of Chemistry 

Fundamentals of Biology 

ite for Folder ond Free Sample Strip 

SCIENCES, f^\ Suffern, 

The Literature in Visual Instruction 

iContiiiKcd from page 32) 


Approved Films on Food and Nutrition — Committee on 
Evaluation of Motion Pictures. New York City Food and 
Nutrition Program, 45 Lafayette St., New York, 13, 
N. Y. 44p, 25c. 1944. 

A highly selective catalog of forty-six films on food 
and nutrition that have met the Committee's criteria, out 
of some 100 reviewed. The films meet the standards of ac- 
curacy, organization of subject matter, quality of presen- 
tation and educational value. 

Among the topics included in the list are general nutrition 
and child care; nutrition in wartime: industrial feeding; 
school lunch programs; servicemen's diet: apple industry: 
banana industry; citrus fruit industry, etc. 

Lists of Motion-Picture Films and Other Visual Materials 

for Instructional Use. Education for Victorv, December 

1, 1943. 

A master list with the most recent information on books 
and sources of audio-visual aids, prepared by the U. S. 
Office of Education. The bibliography includes lists of 
films on safety education, health, conservation, world 
geography, and the war. There are also catalogs of films 
for the use of special groups, such as vocational and tech- 
nical schools. High School Victory Corps programs, 
churches, and the community in wartime. Suggestions 
concerned with making films and with projection arc also 
included among the references. 
Let's Help You Find it: recordings for classroom use — 

Emily WaXcs—Frngrcssive Education. 20:263, December, 


A classified listing of recordings for sale and rental in both 
33 Vi r.p.m. size and 78 r.p.m. for use in high school social 
studies, English and drama. 


California's Film Library Catalog 

The Department of Visual Instruction of the University 
of California, Extension Division, has recently moved into 
more spacious quarters and has issued its annual catalog in 
appropriately new and striking format. 

In contents, the 336 page volume gives, in complete, clear 
and ready-reference form, the customary data needed by the 
schools for getting full benefit from the Department's 
service. The four principal sections of the book are: Intro- 
duction. Explanations, Directions (15 pages), Subject Index 
of all Films by single line Titles (60 pages). Detailed 
Descriptions of all 16mm Silent Films (60 pages). Detailed 
Descriptions of all 16mm Sound Films (200 pages). Sub- 
jects which have Teaching-Film-Mainials to accompany 
them are listed separately. 

In appearance, the book is distinctive. Its title, "Lifelong 
Learning," emphasizes the "permanence" of visual teaching 
over the more familiar argument of "speed." The heavy 
paper cover is a gay. warm red that attracts the eye and 
invites the hand. .An original touch is the subtitle consist- 
ing of two verbs, each given in four languages — "I see 
(To vedo. Yo veo, Video), I understand (lo capisco, Yo entiendo, 
Scio) — a departmental slogan ingeniously reminiscent of 
Descartes' famous "Cogito ergo Sum." The paper stock is 
excellent for these priority days, type size and type faces 
are well chosen, and page arrangement, with plenty of 
"white space," makes reading reference a real pleasure. 

N. L. G. 




.. . f/ie y'mal Way is the Best Way 

Whether it's world affairs or home 
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stars in their greatest pictures . . . the motion 
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Here are some of the outstanding dramatic, 
musical and comedy successes pronounced by 
leading motion picture critics as 

Pictures You Must Not Miss" 


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with Allan Jones. Phil 
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in Technicolor starring Nelson Eddy, 
Susanna Foster with Claude Rains 


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Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

Page 46 

czrfmona ins. iJ-^xoduczx^ 

Kodachromes on Life of Lincoln 

A new set of twenty Kodacliromes. 
Highlit/his in the Life of Lincoln, com- 
plete with teacher's manual. has 
been announced by the Society for 
Visual Kducation, Chicago. Each Koda- 
chronie — a 2" x 2" minature slide 
— is a scene from the Lincoln iJior- 
anias, which were executed by the 
Museum Extension Program of Illi- 
nois. These include subjects selected 
by the Chicago Historical Society in 
collaboration with a group of eminent 
Lincoln authorities. 

The dioramas from which these color 
slides were made are the result of 
three years of work by fifty skilled 
craftsmen. Six thousand tiny figures, 
varying in size from one-half inch to 
nineteen inches, are included in the 
dioramas. A few of the scenes de- 
picted are the migration of the Lincoln 
family to Illinois in 1830; Lincoln 
waiting on .Ann Rutledge in his store: 
the Freeport debate in 1858; and the 
Gettysburg address in 1863. The ac- 
companying manual explains the fine 
points in the construction of the 
dioramas, and the historical back- 
ground and sequence of events. 

This set of Kodachromes would be 
valuable addition to any Lincoln col- 
lection. In addition, it is especially 
fine for use in teaching the hi.'-tory 
of that period in American history. A 
complete list of scenes and other per- 
tinent information will be furnished 
upon request to the Society of Visual 
Education, Inc.. 100 Klast Ohio Street, 
Chicago, 11, Illinois. 

Westinghouse New Manager 

The appointment of Charles W. 
MacLean as manager of the School 
Service Department of the Westing- 

liouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany was announced recently. He 
succeeds R. E. Williams who will de- 
vote his full time to technical and re- 
search activities. 

A native of Bloomfield, N. J., Mr. 
MacLean has served as an educator in 
New York State secondary schools 
for the past twelve years He was 
head of the English department of the 
Ilion, N. Y., High School froin 1931 
to 1932, leaving that post to become 
supervising principal of the Verona, 
N. Y., High School. From 1936 until 
assuming his present position he was 
supervising principal of the Oriskany, 
N. Y., Central School and later of 
schools at Locust Valley, Long Is- 
land. Mr. MacLean is a member of 
the National Education Association, 
the New York State Principals Assoc- 
iation and the New York State Coun- 
cil of School Superintendents. 

Radiant Piiblishes Army 
Brochure on Film Use 

The .Irniy L'ses Training Tilms is the 
title of an amusing and practical broch- 
ure which Radiant Screen has made 
available for the benefit of those who are 
using films as teaching and training aids. 
This booklet tells how to use training 
films most effectively as well as how to 
get faster and better results with such 
films in all activities. The information 
is based on actual experience accumulated 
during the past year by an otficer of the 
U. S. Army Signal Corps who originated 
the booklet, and is illustrated with many 
liumorous cartoons. 

Radiant Manufacturing Corp., 1144 
West Superior St., Chicago, has repro- 
duced The Army Uses Trainiufi Tims 
by special permission of the Signal 

Film audience of war workers at the Bell & Howell plant. 

The Educational Screen 

Corps and has distributed over 12,000 
copies of it. War agencies, government 
departments, army camps, training 
schools, colleges and universities, and 
war factories will find it worthwhile 
to secure a copy of this brochure. It 
is available without chargp, and sent upon 
request only. 

Slidefilm Series on 

The Jam Handy Organization, De- 
troit, Michigan, announces a Kit-set 
of 15 discussional-type slidefilms, Air 
Age Physics — Mechanics, designed to 
help the instructor give his students 
a usable understanding of the prin- 
ciples of physics. These slidefilms 
establish a visual and mathematical 
relationship, between the fundamental 
principles and their practical appli- 
cation. The units of instruction con- 
tained in each film are complete within 
themselves, and the sequence of sub- 
jects can be arranged to suit any cur- 

The 1"^ 'ubiects in the series are: 
"Matter," "Units of Measurement," 
"Force," "Force and Velocity as Vec- 
tors," "Uniform Motion." "Uniformly 
.Accelerated Motion," "Newton's Laws 
of Motion," "Gravitation," "Rotary 
Motion," "Centrifugal Force," "Work," 
"EniejVgy," "Power." "Friction," 
"Simple Machines." A total of 842 in- 
dividual pictures comprise the unit, 
ranging from 32 to 86 frames to a sub- 

With the aid of these slidefilms 
the instructor with a limited laboratory 
can develop principles and fornmlas 
which only a heavy investment in lab 
equipment could otherwise provide. 

Visual Education, Inc.. Opens 
Branch Office 

Due to increased volume of business 
Visual Education Incorporated has set 
up a branch office in Dallas, Texas, 
located in the Gulf States Building. 
Headquarters office will remain in 

Absenteeism Cut By Serial Films 

Ever since the "Perils of Pauline", 
serial film has been cutting absenteeism. 
For many years it brought people back 
to the theaters regularly, to see the 
next breath-taking chapter. Now it is 
up to Fhish Gordon, along with Riders 
of Death Valley and other more modern 
serials, to bring the war workers back to 
work more regularly in the plants that 
are making recess movies a part of 
their regular personnel activities. 

In the plants of Bell & Howell, the 
serials outshow any other type of film, 
the audience being double that which turns 
out for any other film. The serials are 
shown on Mondays and Tuesdays, usually 
the worst days of the week with regard 
to absenteeism. The absenteeism on these 
two days has been reduced by 14% >" 
comparison with a 10-week average before 
the serials were introduced. 

Additional Valuable Literature 

"lOOO AND ONE"— The Blue Book of Films 

•lOOO and ON'I-:" Tlit Blue Book of Xoii-Thcatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
as the standard film reference, indispensable to film users in 
the educational field. The CURRENT, NINETEENTH 
EDITION lists and describes over 5,000 films, classified into 
176 different subject groups (uicluding large groups of enter- 
tainment subjects). A valuable feature is a complete alpha- 
betical list of every film title in the directory. Other infor- 
mation includes designation of whether a film is available in 
16mm, or 35nim, silent or sound, number of reels and sources 
distributing the films, with range of prices charged. 
136 pp. Paper. Price 75c. (25c to E. S. Subscribers) 


"1000 and ONE" under The National Film Evaluation Project 

A new and unique service to the teaching field. Film Evalua- 
tions made by nation-wide Judging Committee of over 500 
teachers after actual use of the films with classes. 

Each Supplement consists of 50 standard-size library cards 
carrying detailed evaluations of 50 films, based on combined 
scores of 15 or more teachers on each film. Three Supplements 
have appeared to date. Another appears as soon as 50 more 
films attain their quota of 15 or more scores. 

Price per Supplement — 50 cards in carton, serially numbered 
1 to SO. 51 to 100, 101 to 150, etc., with full explanations ac- 
companying, 50 cents (postpaid if cash with order.) 


By C. F. Hoban, C. F. Hoban, Jr., and S. B. Zisman. 

Presents in theory and in practice the basic methodology of 
visual instruction in relation to classroom procedure. Pro- 
vides an abundance of technical guidance in the form of 
illustrative drawings of photographs, reports of school 
journeys, suggestions for mounting materials, for making 
slides, film strips, etc. It incorporates up-to-date material, 
provides a fine balance in the treatment of various teaching 
aids, evaluates various types of aids, and defines the functions 
and values of each in the learning process. 
320 pp. Cloth. IIlus. Price $2.75.(20% discount to schools) 

By Ellsworth C. Dent 

Presents in convenient form, practical information for 
those interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to 
instruction. The six chapters include discussions on "The 
Status of Visual Instruction," "Types of Visual Aids and 
Their Use," "Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction," 
"Types of Sound Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio- 
Visual Service." "Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. Illus. Cloth. Price $1.75 

By Harry C McKown and Alvin B. Roberts 

A practical volume which shows the teacher and adminis- 
trator how to select, organize, and utilize audio-visual aids of 
all types, in all subjects, and at all levels, from kindergarten 
through the twelfth grade. Primary emphasis is on actual 
practice and every effort has been made to include specific 
information and advice which will be most helpful in the 
classroom. 384pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.00 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

Presents in unusually interesting form the results of the 
extended investigations on the teaching values of the lantern 
slide and stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 
(67c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

A stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 
of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 
humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 
Well's dictum that the "future is a race between education 
and catastrophe." 124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25, 


A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination of teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution. 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Eleanor Child and Hardy R. Finch 

Based on first-hand experiences of the authors and those 
of many other teachers and movie enthusiasts. Chapters are 
"Organization (of a Club) ; Choosing the Idea; The Scenario; 
Buying Equipment; Using the Equipment; Filming the Pic- 
ture; Advanced Techniques; Final Preparation and Showing. 
\ welcome book to those who want movie-making explained 
in simple terms. 151 pp. Paper. Illus. Price $1.50. 

AND PROBLEMS. By William H. Hartley 

Part I gives directions for obtaining, evaluating and utiliz- 
ing films. Part II comprises a fully annotated catalog of the 
most useful films for illustrating various aspects of American 
Civilization. Title of film, length, whether sound or silent, 
production date, producer, sale and rental price and grade 
level suitability, are given. Also synopsis of film content. 
Suggestions are offered concerning most effective application 
of the film to the teaching situation. 

275 pp. Cloth. Price $2.25. 

By Ella CalUsta Clark, Ph.D. 

Brief, clear, concise, authoritative. An attractively printed 
manual of procedure for all visual aids in teaching, with 
stimulating suggestions for the inexperienced teachers as 
well as for the veteran. 

24 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 25c. 

By G. E. Hamilton 24 pp. Paper. Price 10c. 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price 15c. 

TO ORDER, Check Material 

To Bub- 


Price of E. S. 

"1000 and One" Film Directory * .76 D * -iSD 

Film Evaluation Supplements 

No. 1. No. 2, and No. 3 l.BOD 1.50 D 

Visualizing the Curriculum 2.75 □ 2.75 

(To Schools) 2.20 □ 2.20 □ 

The Audio-Visual Handbook 1.75 PI 1.75 H 

Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction 3.00 D 3.00 n 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 O .67 □ 

An Alternative for Revolution and War 1.25 D 1.25 □ 

Evaluation of Still Pictures 60 Q .60 Q 

ProducinK School Movies 1.50 n 1.50 □ 

Selected Films for American History 2.25 2.25 

Use of Visual Aids in Teaching 28 O .25 D 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .16 O -16 D 

How to Make Handmade Lantern Slides 10 O 10 D 

Desired and Fill in Blank Below 


2 years. $3.00 D 
2 years, $5.00 D 
2 years. $4.00 D 

U. S. 1 year, $2.00 Q 
Foreign 1 year, $3.00 D 
Canada 1 year, $2.50 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $. 


School or Street. 

State . 

Page 48 

The Educational Screen 

H'P'P'P THP V A TPT A Trade Directory 

±AJ-l4L\iJ_l X JLxL^ X /^X\U for the Visual Field 


Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

1425 Williams St., Denver. Colo. 
Audiofilm Studio 

1614 Washington St., 
^'ancouver. Wash. 

(See advertisement on paRe 37) 

Bailey Film Service (3) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Calif. 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement ont page 43) 

Better Films (2) 

742A New Lots Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

(See advertisement on pasfe 40) 

Brandon Films (3) 

1600 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on pafre 35) 

Bray Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave.. New York, N. Y. 
British Information Services (3, 5) 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City 
(See advertisement on pa^e 38) 

Castle Films (2 5) 

RCA BIdg.. New York. N. Y. ' 

(See advertisement on page 7) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St., 

Green Bay, Wis. 
College Film Center (3, 5) 

84 E. Randolph St.. Chicago, 111, 
Commonwealth Pictures Corp. (3) 

729 Seventh .Xve., New York 19. 

(See advertisement on page 41) 

Creative Educational Society (1) 

4th Fl., Coughlan Bldg. 
Mankato, Minn. 
DeVry School Films (3) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on page 2) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Eastman Classroom Films 
356 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 
Films, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York, N. Y. 

64 E. Lake St.. Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth Ave., Portland, Ore. 
Fryan Film Service (3) 

2nd Floor, Film Building 

Cleveland, Ohio 
General Films, Ltd. (3 6) 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 King St. W. Toronto 
Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. (3) 

25 W. 45th St.. New York, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 37) 

Hoffberg Productions, Inc. (2 5) 

618-20 Ninth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3 6) 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, III. 

(See advertisement on page 4) 

Institutional Cinema Service (3) 

1560 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. 

Knowledge Builders Classroom Films 

625 Madison. New York. N. Y. (2,5) 

National Film Service (2) 

14 Glenwood Ave. Raleigh. N. C. 
309 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. 

Pictorial Films Inc. (2) 

RKO Bldg., New York City. 
(See advertisement on page 33) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3) 

723 Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y. 

The Princeton Film Center (2) 

55 Mountain .Ave., Princeton, N. J. 

Swank's Motion Pictures (3) 

620 N. Skinker Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 
( See advertisement on page 32) 

Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 
I See advertisement on page 45) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Lamar. Austin, Tex. 
Vocational Guidance Films, Inc. (2) 

2718 Beaver Ave.. Des Moines. la. 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. (2, 5) 

306 Fourth .Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(See advertisement on page 5) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3) 

347 Madison .Ave.. New York, N.Y. 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St., San Francisco Cal. 
1700 Patterson Ave., Dallas. Tex. 


The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 6) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont .Ave., Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 43) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St.. 
Green Bay. Wis. 
DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 2) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave.. New York. N. Y. 

General Films, Ltd. (3. 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 
156 King St.. W'. Toronto 
Holmes Projector Co. (3, 6) 

1813 Orchard St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 40) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on pasre 4) 

Radio Corporation of America (2) 

Educational Dept., Camden. N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 29) 

S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corp. (3. 6) 

449 W. 42nd St.. New York. N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport Iowa 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

I2th at Lamar, Austin, Tex. 

Williams Brown and Earle, Inc. (3 6) 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Da-Lite Screen Co., Inc. 

2723 N. Crawford Ave., 
Chicago 39, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 39) 

Radiant Mfg. Company 

1144 W. Superior St.. 

Chicago 22. III. 

( See advertisement on page 27) 
National Film Service 

14 Glenwood Ave., Raleigh, N. C. 

309 E. Main St.. Richmond, Va. 
Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, III. 

' Sf if(v'-*-*is'^ment on on'^-ide back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway. New York 25. N. Y. 
WilUams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

(.See advertisement on outside bacl< cover) 

The Jam Handy Organization 

2900 E. Grand Blvd.. Detroit, Mich. 

(See advertisement on page 31) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25, N. Y. 
Visual Sciences 

SufTern. New York 

(See advertisement on page 46) 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 


C. Edward Graves 

P. O. Box ?,7, Areata, Calif. 

Klein & Goodman 

18 S. 10th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Society for Visual Education, Inc, 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

( See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 
2929 Broadway, New York 25, N. Y. 


Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 4) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

( See advertisement on page 1 ) 

Radio-Ma» Slide Co. Inc. 

222 Oakridge Blvd. 
Davtona Beach. Fla. 

(See advertisement on page 28) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N .Y. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

i See advertisement on page 2 ) 

General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St. Regina. Sask. 
156 King St., W. Toronto 

Golde Manufacturing Co. 

1220 W. Madison St., Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 36) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 1) 

Society for Visual Education Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 8) 

Williams Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

























35 mm 



Continuous inserfions under one heading, $2.00 per issue; additional listings under other headinas, $1.00 each. 

February, 1944 

Page 49 




For increasing Woricer Siciils 
in Critical WAR JOBS! 



Oni«r No. 

179. The Slide Rule 
56. Cutting an Internal Acme Thread 

62. Using a Steady Rest 

63. Using a Follower Rest 

90. Sharpening a Side Milling Cutter 

91. Sharpening a Plain Helical Cutter 

92. Sharpening a Shell End Mill 

93. Sharpening a Form Relieved Cutter 

94. Sharpening an Angular Cutter 


95. How to Check and Surface Foundations 

96. Aligning and Installing Auxiliary Machinery 

97. Filing and Installing Chocks 

98. Laying Out, Drilling, and Tapping Flanges 

on Sea Chest 

99. Installing Valves and Strainer on Sea Chest 

105. Measuring Pipe, Tubing and Fittings 

106. Cutting and Threading Pipe by Hand 

107. Cutting and Threading Pipe on a Power 


108. Making a Cold Bend on a Hand Powered 


109. Covering Hot and Cold Pipes 


128. Sawing Template Metal 

129. Filing Template Metal 

130. Blanking Sheet Metal on the Squaring Shear 

131. Blanking Sheet Metal with Hand Snips 
135. Finish Forming by Hand 

142. Tube Bending by Hand 


194. Reconditioning a Mower (Part 1— Cutter Bar) 

196. Reconditioning a Two-Bottom Tractor Plow 

197. Reconditioning a Grain Drill 

198. Community Canning 

Many other subjects of vital interest will be 
available soon! Send for full details TODAY— 

The first of many new U. S. Office of Edu- 
cation training films are now ready for your 

These new films cover occupations ap- 
. proved by the War Manpower Commission 
as those requiring first attention. The sub- 
jects are so basic that they will prove valu- 
able to practically any industry. 

To increase the effectiveness of the new 
program, you now have available tested 
"show how" units consisting of a sound mo- 
tion picture, an instructor's manual, and a 
silent film strip }or each subject covered. 

Partial list of films now available is shown 
at left. Many other subjects are now in pro- 
duction. They will be ready soon. To obtain 
full details on these — and forthcoming sub- 
jects—send the coupon below today! 

Put all films that you can use to work im- 


Distributor for 





Addresi nearesf office 


Please put us on your mailing list to receive complete informa- 
tion on U. S. Office of Education worker-training films. 




By '. 


FIVE YEARS ai,dMOO,000.00 


Your name and address on your school stationery brings you two 
sample films and a Teacher's Manual that you yourself may judge the 
importance of FILMSETS to today's teaching of ECONOMIC (shelter- 
food-clothing) and PLACE GEOGRAPHY for Intermediate Elementary 
grades. FILMSETS are the only direct classroom teaching films avail- 
able that thoroughly cover the entire course of study in one major 
field. There are forty-eight 200-ft. FILMSETS— 22 covering shelter- 
food-clothing; 26 covering regional subjects — authentically — accurately 
— with expressive captions. 

Your FILMSETS library's value and utility is in- 
creased many fold by a 112-page Teacher's Manual 
with 672 illustrations from 
the films. Each 2-page spread 
is a Lesson Outline — a quick, 
convenient, studiously pre- 
pared guide to lesson presen- 
tation and review. 

Buy One or ALL 

Though they took five years to prepare— at a cost of $100,000.00 
FILMSETS gives you the teaching method of tomorrow — immediately 
available at prices which bring FILMSETS within the financial reach 
of even a one-room school. Buy one film or all! Sectional metal cabinet 
houses and preserves film. The time to use FILMSETS is now. The 
time to write for ten-day FREE TRIAL of two films and manual is 
today. Address FILMSETS, INC., 1956 North Seminary Avenue, Chi- 
cago (14), Illinois on your school letterhead . . . FILMSETS, INC. is 
affiliated with the DeVRY CORPORATION. 

EnCEl Take advantage of TEN- 
Films and manual may be returned. 


Write for colorful de- 
scriptive literature that de- 
scribes FILMSETS. 

Make DeVRY Your Classroom Film Source! 

NOW! NEW! You can obtain Office of War Information films 
VICTORY"- famed British documentary epic — in 16mm. sound- 
on-film. Plus a wide selection of top-flight 16nim. sound and silent 
CLASSROOM and Hollywood-made RECREATIONAL films.^ 
Earn attractive discoimts for long-term bookings. Write for com- 
plete information — and if you haven't already done so — ask for 
& LABORATORIE.S 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago (14), 111. 


Star awarded for contin- 
ued excellence in the pro- 
duction of motion picture 
sound equipment. 


I6niin. Sound- 
on-Film Projector 


S!/l. I!. II. M„f,i.-<. linli^l. I ,,„;, /',/,„ 
iinil I'liolo riM, li-ilh 3.5,«)«. DKVlty. 
iritii v'liirh he "nhot" /i*.v waif from El 
Mauiriii to Itnljt. IflilMlratinn rephoto- 
(jrnph'-d fviim ]lyillt<li Ilhmti-ftted Weekly. 

Acclaimed by Motion Picture's top 
authority — National Board of Re- 
view — as the finest documentar)' 
film of 1943, "DESERT VICTORY" 
is now available in 16mm. sound- 
on-film — through DeVRY' Films & 

A British documentary film made 
under fire . . . dramatically record- 
ing the British Eighth Army's smash- 
ing victory at El Alamein . . . au- 
thentically capturing the fidl and 
terrible impact of modern warfare 
with tanks, planes, bombs, and 
mines. "DESERT VICTORY" is at 
the same time a tribute to American 
motion picture equipment in that — 
according to the man that directed 
the filming — 95 percent of "DESERT 
VICTORY" was filmed with world- 
famed DeVRY Model A, 35mm. mo- 
ticm picture cameras. 

DeVRYS Have What It Takes! 

Of the performance of DeVRY 
cameras through desert sand, heat, 
and the impact of war, Lt.-Col. David 
MacDonald, Hon. A.S.C., told the 
late William StuU, A.S.C., then 
TOGRAPHER: *"For field service 
our cameras had to be light and 
rugged. I would estimate that about 
95% of 'DESERT VICTORY' was 
ground through DeVRYS, whose 
performance and ability to stand up 
under gruelling desert punishment 
constantly surprised us." 

DeVRY is naturally proud to have 
served those intrepid heroes who 
marched, bled — and sometimes died 
— on that relentless 1,300 mile road 
across the desert to Tripoli, that the 
deeds of their comrades and the 
thundering inferno in which they 
were performed might be preserved 
alive for all time on unchallengable 
film and sound track. 

DeVRY' is likewise proud that its 
workers serve the war effort today 
under the coveted Army-Navy "E" 
flag with Star, indicating continued 
excellence in the production of mo- 
tion picture soimd equipment and 
secret electronic training devices for 
the armed fores. 



16mm. .Sound. Rental price, $2.50 
per day. 

Sale price, $66.50. 



Nelson L. Greenk - - - Editor-in-Chicj 
Evelyn J. Baker - Ad'^vrtisiiui Manager 
Josephine Hofemax - - Office Manager 

Department Editors 

John E. Dlgan - Haddon Heights. N. J. 
Hardy R. Finch ,- - Greenwich, Conn. 
Ann Gale -.----- Chicago, 111. 
Damp Goodman - - New York. N. Y. 
Josephine Hoffman - - - Chicago, 111. 
L. C. Larson - - - Bloomington, Ind. 
F. Dean McCllsky - Scarborough, N. Y. 
Etta Schneider Ress - New York, N. Y. 

David Schneider - - - New York. N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

James S. Kinder, Director PCW Film 
Service, Pennsylvania College for 
Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director 
E.xtension Division. University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed, U. S. Office of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Maj. W. Gavle Starnes, Chief, Training 
Division, Signal Corps Depot, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Lelia Trolinger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division. 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W'. W. Whittinghill. Director of Trans- 
portation, Board of Education, Detroit, 


Domestic $2-00 

Canada $2.50 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies 25 





Cover Picture— From the U. S. Army's Industrial Incentive 
film "War Department Report," showing Germany's Coastal 
fortifications and supply lines. 

Ediforial 57 

Photography in the High School Robert W. Wagner 59 

This Is Your World E. M. Benson 62 

Audio-Visual Aids — A Survey Mary Louise Molyneaux 65 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Krows 69 

Two Important Audio-Visual Education Meetings 72 

The New England Page John hi. Lyons, Editor 74 

The Film and International 

Understanding John E. Dugan, Editor 76 

School-Made Motion Pictures Hardy R. Finch, Editor 78 

The Literature in Visual Instruction 

A Monthly Digest Etta Schneider Ress, Editor 80 

Release More Visual Aids to Speed Up War Training 82 

OWI 16mm Fighting Films Conference 84 

New Films of the Month L. C. Larson, Editor 86 

News and Notes Josephine Hoffman, .Editor 90 

Current Film News . 92 

Among the Producers 94 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 96 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and Auqus* by The 
Educational Screen, inc. Publication Office. Pontiac, Illinois: Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St.. Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac. Illinois, as 
Second Class Mattar. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen. 64 East Lake St., Chicago. III. 

Page 52 

The Educational Screen 


I e t 



For Better Understanding — for Lasting Friendship 


iH so%'^y 


Special «^i 











'^of a w ''''" of A- f °9'-«rns. i 


res* «i, -"'""five 





^o J, "''°"9/.o„/;,=°^<' of ,7 'Va.; rr^'^"'- 


















'»ve " '"d L," of 

FREE: U. S. War 
Information Short 
Supplied on Same 
Program if Re- 
quested—No Extra 


60 Min. Speeio/ School Rental SIS.OO 

The complete original film from w^--;; ^J^^'^ 
of Time cut the memorable short A DAY OP 
RUSSIA AT \yAR. Filmed by over one hun- 
dred cameramen simultaneously all along the 
Eastern front. Provides an unsurpassed close- 
up of the heroic Red Army and guenllas; reaj 
story of how the myth of "Naii mv.ncib.l.ty 
v^as shattered. 







„1 Rento" S\- ^„a 




na"°' n^*'"* ,, 

<i°""rsea <\«"' 
6\a^^ „o\ '"^° * 









grave-'- . Russ 







35 M/n. Rental Rate S6.00 Sale, Apply 

ARTS of the Russian People, presented in a brilliant, 
captivating film of great beauty. Here is a cultural 
treat unparalleled in the I6mm motion picture field. 
All of these, in ONE Memorable Film: 

Waltz of the Flowers 

Scottish Drinking Song 

Navarro, Piano Duet 

The Dying Swan 

Folk Songs of Byelorussia 

Scenes from "Rigoletto" 

Folk Dance froT 






the Ballet Toroj Bulbq 



. Hi^ 

HOK^ ^^' 





February, 1944 

Page 53 

Who will design 
the BEST 

post wa i^r oj e cto r? 

. ^^W^ttf&'^t: 

W»n will • • • '" fact, you're designing it today . . . you have 
been ever since you first used a motion picture 
projector in your classroom. 

You may have wished for some convenience . . . some refinement 
that projectors of that day didn't have. 

But your hopes became realities in succeeding Filmo models . . . 
famous realities like the B&H all-gear drive which quiets Filmos and 
adds smooth accuracy to their performance . . . the exclusive Magni- 
lite Condenser which gives so much more brilliance to the screen 
image . . . the unique film gate assembly and safe- lock sprockets 
that protect films from damage . . . these and a host of o/Aer practical 
operating improvements. 

Thus you . . . your needs . . . your increasing skill . . . have long been 
vital forces in Filmo Design. 

And during all these months while our entire production has been 
helping win the war, you haven't stopped thinking of conveniences 
you'd like in your wex/ school projector. If you have some suggestions 
for additions or changes, let us know what they are . . . B&H research 
never stops in its work of interpreting your hopes in logical, work- 
able, necessary improvements. 

These improvements will be part of the BEST postwar projector 
. . . the one jo« are designing now. 

It will be a Filmo Projector . . . made by Bell & Howell. 


Chicago; New York; Hollywood; Washington, D. C; London 

Etiablishtd 1907 



If you have an unusual teachinj; problem, 
you'll find the Filmosound Library stacked 
with the very films to help you solve it. For 
instance, a fine series on the world at work 
shows how each of many occupations fits into 
the broad scheme of everyone's daily life. 
Shown here is a scene from The Harbor, one 
of the fine films of the series. Send coupon 
for Filmosound Library Catalogs and the 
Educational Utilization Digest. 

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Please send Filmosound Library Catalogs and 

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School. . 



Requested by . 


Page 54 

The Educational Screen 

Make PHYSICS classes 
More Interesting— More Effective 

By using the 



Four A/lanua/s in One 

*The Fundamentals of SOUND 
The Fundamentals of LIGHT 
*The Fundamentals of MACHINES 
•The Fundamentals of ELECTRICITY 

To assist in the more effective illustration of 
problems and theory of Physics, KEYSTONE 
offers a visual presentation method employing 
carefully prepared slides and a completely revised 
and enlarged manual — really four manuals in one. 

With this well-planned instruction system, 
student attention is focused on the material 
presented in the slides, thus providing a more 
complete, thorough understanding of the subject . 
Developed by war needs for faster, more effective 
training of students in basic Physics, this im- 
proved method will prove invaluable for better 
teaching in peacetime. 

This improved Keystone Method of teaching 
Physics should be in your school— write today 
for complete information. 




February, 1944 

Page 5 5 

cCeanen., ^nc^^ten. frictccne^ 

with Brilliant RADIANT SCREENS 

/> Luxe Portable 
Tripod Model D. S. 

liudiai^t Screenn are nueil by 
V. S. Army, N. S. Nary, V. H. 
Marines, V. S. CoaH Quard ; 
Our Allied Force and many 
thousand Oorernment Affenrit'M ; 
U.S.O.. Red CroMs. 

Send for New Screen Catalog 

Giving full details, prices, sizes and complete 
specifications of the entire line of Radiant 
Screens. Also contains complete information 
on a new plan for renovating and repairing 
old, discolored and faded screens at small 
cost. Write today to: The Kadiant .\Ifg. Corp., 
1167 W. .Superior .St., Chicago 22, Illinois. 



You will be astonished at how much better 
motion pictures, slide and strip films appear 
when projected on the Hy-Flect Glass 
Beaded surface of Radiant Screens. Details 
show up more sharply. Black and white 
projections are clearer, more contrasting. 
Colors stand out more vividly. Student in- 
terest and attention are definitely increased. 
Radiant Screens offer many other features 
that make for quick convenient setting up. 
Metal tripod models, such as Radiant Model 
DS here illustrated, can be instantly raised 
or lowered to ANY desired position without 
adjusting screws or plungers. 

A Complete Line of Screens for Schools 

The Radiant line includes all types of screens — 
tripod, wall, table and ceiling models — for school- 
room, gymnasium, projection rooms and audi- 
'oriun- nse. Model EC, illustrated below, is a 
combiuation wall and ceiling screen which is 
available in sizes from 6' x 8' to 12' x 12'. Other 
Radiant Screens up to 20' x 20'. 

Modernize Your Old Projection Screens 

Replace old worn screen cloths with Radiant Hy- 
Flect glass-beaded surface — the fabric that made 
Radiant Screens so famous. There is no longer 
any need to show pictures on old, soiled, dis- 
colored or torn screens. Radiant replaces fabric 
on screens of all makes and sizes. 

Page 56 

The Educational Screen 


"The Good Gray PoeC 



'^ea^t^ (?/ 

Read by Ralph Bellamy 

THE praises of many American writers, poets, 
actors, and critics are epitomized by Clifton 
Fadiman, who wrote: 

"I hope that Ralpli Bellamy's fine readings of these 
poems will awaken thousands of Americans to the merit 
of Walt Whitman as our greatest poet and as a prophet of 
the democratic truths for which we struggle today." 

The following selections from "Leaves of Grass" 
are included in the set: 

Introduction; To a Certain Civilian; I Think I Could 
Turn and Live with Animals; To the Man-of-^'ar Bird; 
For You Democracy; Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field 
One Night; Long, Too Long America; Over the Carnage 
Rose Prophetic a Voice; O Star of France; To a Foil'd 
European Revolutionaire; F.urope; France; A Broadway 

Pageant; Years of the Modern; I Was Looking a Long 
While; Passage to India; By Blue Ontario's Shore; So 
Long; Song of the Open Road. 

RALPH BELLAMY, Dramatic Reader 

Victor Masterpiece Alhum M 9.S.T (8 sides) List Price $4.50 



Symphony in B Plat Major, Op. 20— 
Chausson. Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 
Frederick Stock, Conductor 
Musical Masterpiece Album M or DM 950 
List Price $4.50 

Glgues and Rondes de Printemps (from 
Images for Orchestral — Debussy. San 
Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Pierre 

Monteux, Conductor 
Musical Masterpiece Album M or DM 954 
List Price $2.50 

The Planets, Op. 32 — Hoist. Toronto 
Symphony Orchestra, Sir Ernest Mac- 
Millan, Conductor 

Musical Masterpiece Album M or DM 929 
List Price $4.50 

Glory to Thee O Lord (Twofold Litanyt 
tin Russian) — Gretchaninoff (Especially 
arranged for this Chorusi. Save Thy 
People O God — Tschesnokoff. General 
Platoft Don Cossack Chorus, Nicholas 

KostrukofE, Conductor. N. Khadarick and 
A. Zakhartchanko, Baritones 
Musical Masterpiece Record 11-8514 

List Price $1.00 

'Suggested list price exclusive of excise 
Order any of these new Victor Records 
and Album sets from your Victor Record 
Dealer, or write to the address below: 

TUNE IN! "WHAT'S NEW?" rca s 

Great New Show. One hour of laughter, 
music, drama, news, science. Saturday 
Night. 7 to 8. E.W.T., Blue Network. 

RCA Victor Division — Educational Department 


February, 1944 

Page 57 



The Post-War Heritage 

THE inevitable harvest from world-wide war is 
world-wide death and disaster, deep stagnation 
and slow recovery. Few and small are the com- 
pensations, with two exceptions — namely the forward 
surge of industry and invention under the mighty stim- 
ulus of wartime complusions. and above all. in the 
present case, the golden possibility however faint that 
the united wisdom of the nations may suffice to evolve 
a new world permanently at peace. 

In any event, one specific heritage will fall to the 
visual instruction field whenever this war ends. It is 
the vast accumulation of personnel and materiel ready 
to inundate the educational field when war purposes 
have been served — precious salvage from global catas- 
trophe that can be turned to the immeasurable and last- 
ing benefit of the nation, ij the transfer can be rightly 
handled. In our January i.ssue. Alvin B. Roberts gave 
a broad and able exposition of this situation. We want 
to conYirm and emphasize some of his arguments, even 
at the risk of repetition. 

The Personnel 

^B jng back to the educational field, bringing with them 
^^ new realization of the power of the picture, deeper con- 
viction that education must enrich its traditional pro- 
cedures from this day on. They have seen the screen 
I at work on millions — soldiers, officers, civilians — arti- 
sans, shop-hands, laborers — the screen that "teaches." 
'for good or ill, wherever it hangs — in theatre, classroom, 
assembly hall, barracks, factory, even the ojjen field. 
In this returning army will be many veterans in 
visual teaching, their faith confirmed and knowledge 
widened in the use of visual aids : many veterans in 
verbal pedagogy, ready now to inaugurate new methods 

• for a new day; many youngsters with teaching ambi- 
tions, called away from their studies by the war, now 
aglow with new ideas for higher achievement in ihe 
classroom. And far more thou.sands of this home- 
^^m coining army are not teachers, never were nor ever w\\\ 
'^* be, but they have seen the compelling evidence, the peda- 
gogic "miracle." All are citizens of some community, 
and will insist that peacetime teaching in their com- 
munity measure up to wartime accomplishments. Many 
are parents, and they will demand that the .schools give 
their children richer learning and better training than 
Ijefore. There is scarcely a community in the country 
but will feel the impact of these returnees. For many 
a School Board the lotus-eating days are over. A new 
jolt is on its way to them. They will be freely fur- 
nished with a strong incentive to take action or take 
leave. And how some School Boards need that jolt ! 

^P The transfer of this personnel, done on its own initia- 

^" tive and under its own power, will be relatively simple 

and automatic. Furthermore, it will be going back 

better than when it went away I How gravely different 
is the problem of the materiel! It will come back 
worsened, often worthless. The transfer must not be 
"simple" or "automatic," or it will be disastrous. 

The Materiel 

An enormous mass of visual equipment and material 
will become obselete for its present use on Surrender 
Day, and invaluable to the educational field on the day 
after. Tens of thousands of motion-picture and still 
projectors, of films and slides and filmstrips. of screens 
and shades and seats, will be awaiting the new dis- 
l^ensation. Much will be worn or damaged beyond 
worthwhile repair — much will be brand new and un- 
used, for doubtless, according to the fantastic "eco- 
nomics" of wartime, huge deliveries will be continuing 
up to Armistice Eve, and even beyond — and the rest of 
the gigantic stock will be salvageable. 

The simple way, of course, is to junk it all ! This 
plan has been seriously advocated, and from surpris- 
ingly high quarters. "In these days of I""eDeRal fling- 
ing of billions." typewrites one ardent advocate, "why 
haggle over a matter of mere millions ?" But we doubt 
the necessity of resorting to any such weird economics. 
The plausible argument for junking, namely, that worn 
and worn-out equipment will do more harm than good 
to the visual education cause, is not only plausible but 
valid. Defective material must never be allowed to 
reach the schools. Most schools innocently accepting 
such equipment will be beginners in visual instruction. 
.An imperfect projector, placed in a school hopefully em- 
barking on its visual teaching career, could kill the new- 
born ambition at the start. It could also seriously taint 
the maker's reputation in that school or school system. 
Lurking behind this valid "good of the schools" argu- 
ment there may also be another consideration, spoken 
or unspoken, commonly known as "good business." We 
refer to the very obvious idea that junking of the old 
means more selling of the new. Oddly enough this 
obvious idea, we hope to show, is not valid. 

When moving-day comes for this heterogeneous 
mass of material, we believe that three possible pro- 
cedures should be definitely barred: 

( 1 ) The materiel sliould not be stacked up in "Army 
Stores" — of blessed ( ?) memory — for indiscrim- 
inate sale, as is, at ten cents on the dollar. 

(2) The materiel should not be sold off in carload 
lots at scrap prices, to dealers willing to sell, as is, 
to unsuspecting schools at 1000% profit. 

(3) The materiel should not be consigned en masse, 
as is — the good and the bad, the used and the un- 
used — to the ever-convenient junk heap. 

These "shoiild-nots" must be balanced by a "should". 
We have some suggestions to oflfer — in the next issue. 


Page 58 

The Educational Screen 


Produced by 


Now available for the First Time in 16 MM 


Rental $15.00 per day 

Tom Scrwyer is the immortal American boy, 
beloved by all who have thrilled to his 
fabulous adventures in the pages of Mark 
Twain's memorable classic. In this sensi- 
tive production each of the lovable char- 
acters — Tom, Huck Finn, Injun Joe, Becky 
Thatcher and Aunt Polly — is vividly brought 
to life. It is America's best loved story 
. . . America's warmest tradition. 

Cast: Tom Kelly, May Robson, Walter 


Rental $15.00 per day 

Three great stars — Ronald Colman, Made- 
leine Carroll and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. — 
unforgettably portray leading roles in the 
film dramatization of this legendary story 
by Anthony Hope. It's a tale of daring ad- 
venture ... of regal romance and flashing 
swords and life-and-death intrigues. Each 
generation has thrilled anew to this ro- 
mantic adventure, but never has there been 
a more stirring presentation than in this 
production. It will inflame the hearts of 
all who see it. 


Rental $15.00 per day 

Mid the strange mysteries and fascination 
of the Algerian Desert transpires a story 
as enchanting as its wondrous background. 
From two strange corners of the world 
come a man and a woman, conquered by 
a love that overpowers them ... a love 
that for him is forbidden ... for he is 
an escaped monk from a Trappist Mon- 
astery, and bound to God by eternal vows 
of chastity, poverty and silence. Charles 
Boyer and Marlene Dietrich are magnifi- 
cent in this beautiful production. 


These three exceptional pictures are now available 
for immediate, unrestricted 16 mm bookings ... from 
your local film library — or direct from 


T nm n n T 

R. K. O. BUILDING (Radio City) NEW YORK 

February y 1944 

-Photography in 
the High School 

An able exposition of the reasons 
why photography deserves a place 
in the educational curriculiun. 


Bureau of Educational Research 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Page 59 

X 1814 a French chemist by the name of J. Nice- 
phore Niepce, was experimentinfj with mechani- 

I cal apparatus and certain chemicals in an effort 
to capture and "hold in permanancy'' images of faces 
and landscapes. His colleague, Louis Jacques 
Mande Daguerre, a painter by profession, was in- 
terested in the work of Niepce chiefly because he 
believed that through chemistry he might learn a 

»way to reduce the cost of painting portraits. Instead 
of developing a process which would prove a boon 
to the artist, Daguerre eventually perfected a tech- 
nique which actually threatened to put the portrait 
B painter out of business. The process was Photog- 
raphy. The year was 1839. 
Since that time, the photographic process has 
played a major role in the development of our 
modern civilization. Not only has photography had 
its effects upon many fields of man's present ac- 
tivity, but also much of what future generations will 
know of our society will be derived from photo- 
graphic records. Indeed, it may be that the history 
i^_ of our times i.s being written in an altogether new 
I^Bway — written with the lens and the sensitive film — 
written everydaj' in the photo-albums of the world 
by thousands of camera enthusiasts who may be 

R listed among the most olijective recorders of the 
American scene. 
For the educator it is significant that most of 
those in the foremost ranks of camera-users are 
young people. There are two chief reasons why 
youth has taken so avidly to the field of photography. 
First, the production of inexpensive equipment has 
made it possible for almost anyone to own a camera. 
.Second, young people have found in photography a 

I satisfying field of creative endeavor. It is the 
modern art of a modern age. 
As photographv continues to improve its position 

(tourlesy llrooklyn C'iiiidreirs Mnst-uni ( l^hoto by Mrs. Kay Garner) 

Fixed focus enlarger for enlarging miniature pictures to album size. 

number of school-age youth become interested in 
photography, instruction in this field will expand. 

Several universities have offered photography 
courses for many years, but the type of training 
provided is generally of a technical nature, designed 
to meet the needs of the specialist. In recent years, 
however, the growing army of amateur photog- 
raphers has demanded training of a less technical 
and more practical type, bringing to the attention 
of many public high school administrators the possi- 
bility of providing systematic instruction in the 
photographic skills in the high school. 

In the curriculum of the average secondary school, 
however, there is no place for an additional subject 
which comes without the best of recommendations 
and without the promise of being a fruitful educa- 
tional experience for all who engage in it. The 
crowded condition of most school curricula and the 
narrowness of many school budgets cannot ordi- 
narily be easily adjusted to include a new division of 
training. If photography is to be taught in the 
high school, there must be, therefore, ample justifi- 
cation for its inclusion in the school program. 

For those who are considering the inclusion of 
such a course in the curriculum, the following ob- 
jectives might be considered. 

Objective 1. To Improve the Ability of the Amateur 

Those who consider setting up a high school pro- 
gram in photography should constantly keep in 
mind the fact that most of those who enroll in the 
course want a practical, understandable, working 
knowledge of how to make better pictures with the 
more simple types of cameras and equipment. Ex- 
ploring the possibilities of photography as a voca- 
tion should be secondary to the purpose of improv- 
ing the ability of the amateur pliotographer. 

Page 60 

The Educational Screen 

Since technical difficulties in picture-making have 
been reduced to a minimum, photography has be- 
come for many persons, a simple matter of following 
the manufacturer's motto, "You snap the shutter, 
we do the rest." The disadvantage of this kind of 
photography is that much of the real thrill and 
pleasure is lost if the amateur confines his activities 
to the making of miscellaneous snapshots which are 
then delivered to the none-too tender mercies of the 
drug-store photo finisher. 

Many amateurs hestitate to do their own process- 
ing because they lack knowledge of a few elemen- 
tary principles and techniques. By acquainting, 
the individual with the basic photographic skills, the 
satisfaction of doing a complete job, from start to 
finished product, may be enjoyed. Beyond the 
simple job of developing and printing, the pleasure 
in photography and the efficiencj- of the amateur 
may be greatlj- increased by the knowledge of en- 
larging, toning, silver-printing, retouching, and 
other special processes. 

Objective 2. To Exploit the Possibilities of Photog- 
raphy as a Group Activity 

That photography is becoming more and more a 
group activity is shown by the large number of 
clubs and photographic societies which have been 
organized during recent years. 

Where people work with the same materials — 
light, lenses, and sensitized films and paper — a gre- 
gariousness is developed in the group resulting in a 
pooling of common problems and common interests. 
Such cooperative activity is in complete accord with 
the democratic principle of the sharing of experi- 
ence — a sharing which can come only as people see 
things eye-to-eye and develop a center of interest. 

Photography clubs frequently engage in excur- 
sions to nearby parks, industial centers, commercial 
marts, or civic centers, where pictorial possibilities 
are rich and varied. On such excursions, the beauty 
of a landscape, a row of factory chimney pipes 

silhouetted on a background of smoke, the skyline 
of the business district, and the symmetrical pat- 
tern of an arched bridge, become common denomi- 
nators for all whose eye is on the lookout for sub- 
jects to be recorded on celluloid. 

Again, if conducted as a group activity, the pleas- 
ure of looking at the finished picture can be en- 
hanced. Everj'one likes to look at the other fellow's 
snapshots and have his own work enjoyed by his 
friends. Understandings can be built up, apprecia- 
tions developed, and suggestions made for the pro- 
duction of better photographs. 

Objective 3. To Develop Photography as a Worth- 
while Leisure Time Activity 
The increasing amount of unoccupied time that 
many youth now have is a growing problem for the 
educator. A recent recommendation of the N.E.A. 
stated the great need for school training in pur- 
poseful leisure time activities which can be carried 
over into adult life. 

Highly technical and mechanized as our civiliza- 
tion is, many people find release and recreation in 
simple divergences such as stamp collecting, coin 
collecting, reading, or home carpentry. The number 
and variety of hobbies that people engage in has 
increased tremendously during the past ten years. 
However, many people still occupy their leisure 
time by "buying" their entertainment simply because 
they have no other satisfying or profitable leisure 
time activity. 

Photography has become a hobby enjoyed by 
people the world over. It has justified itself in terms 
of the satisfaction it brings to those, who, due to the 
nature of their vocation, do not have a chance to 
do any real creative, much less artistic work. The 
factory worker, for example, or the person who 
works on an assembly line, finds in photography a 
hobby where he can see the whole product of his 
labor, start to finish — not just a fraction of the 
whole. His aesthetic sense is given a chance to 
develop, and he becomes more 
alert to the possibility that 
there might be real beauty even 
in the factory where he works. 
He might see the symmetry in 
the cogs of the machinery, and 

Photographic dark room 
at the Visual Education 
Center, Elementary 
Schools, Burlingame, 
California, showing en- 
larger, slide printer and 
drain board. This dark 
room was equipped at a 
cost of less than one 
hundred dollars. 

(Plioto courtesy of Gibson 
Kingren, Director Visual Ed- 
ucation Burlingame Elemen- 
tary Schools) 

February, 1944 

Page 61 


Making a library film at Rufus King High School, Milwaukee. 

become aware of the line, tone, color, and texture of the 
wood, stone, and steel that is part of his environ- 

In this sense, photography can become not only 
an activity to be engaged in during off-hours, but 
a mind set which carries over into working hours, 
as the amateur photographer becomes increasingly 
sensitive to the beauty of commonplace things. 

Objective 4. To Teach Students How to Look at 

We live in a jiictorial age. The magazines. Loo^. 
Life, Click, and others of the same type use more space 
for pictures than they do for printed material. Tab- 
loid newspapers have long made extensive use of 
photographs, and the editorial staff of the average 
daily newspaper recognizes the essential truth of the 
old bromide, "one picture is worth a thousand 

Allied with the still picture, in that it is a series 
of still photographs, the motion picture has been 
recognized as a powerful medium for changing 
attitudes and conveying information. Peter Ode- 
gard, well known political scientist, writes: ". . . 
the movies bid fair to exert a more profound influence 
on human behavior than the printing press."'*' This 
may or may not be an overstatement, but it is cer- 
tainly true, as George Bernard Shaw once said, that 
"the number of people who can read is small, the 
number of those who can read to any purpose much 
smaller, and the number of those who are too tired 
after a hard day"s work to read . . . enormous. But 
all except the blind and deaf can see and hear." 

Advertisers make extensive use of the photograph 
to boost their products : and advertising photo- 
graphs, like war propaganda pictures, may often be 
falsified. There is a distinct need for some type of 
training which will aid the consumer to evaluate 
magazine, newspaper, and advertising photographs, 

I not only as regards their technical ([uality. but also 
as regards their truthfulness. Some basis for under- 
standing and evaluating the motion picture also 
seems verv necessarv. One can see rather clearlv 


(1) Peter Odcgard, 'I'lic .liiiciicaii I'uhlic Mind, p. 198 

the role of the cinema in forming ready-made con- 
ceptions of the world in its stereotyped treatment of 
different peoples, different occupations, and different 
forms of life. Training in photography could easily 
be expanded to include picture appreciation and 

Objective 5. To Integrate Information Drawn from 
Related Fields 

It is significant that the pioneers of photography 
came from several different professional fields. 
Xiepce was a chemist, Daguerre an artist, and Fox 
Talbot a politician turned scientist. 

Photography is at once an art and a science, re- 
quiring that the worker in this field have the ability 
to make the quantitative analyses of the chemist 
and the physicist, as well as the ability to determine 
the quality of the subject and the worth of the final 
product in terms of aesthetic principles. 

.A photography course can be of infinite value in 
bringing together in a working relationship, the 
basic principles of several areas of instruction. Even 
if no separate course were set up, instructors of 
chemistry, physics, fine arts, and industrial arts 
could doubtless do much to vitalize and functionalize 
their courses by demonstrating the relationship of 
photography to their respective fields. 

For example, the student of physics could learn 
the principles of lenses in no more concrete and 
practical way than by finding out how the camera 
works. The chemistry instructor can easily demon- 
strate the effect of light on silver salts by using 
photographic paper or film, and could extend the 
principle of light action into a practical application 
by allowing the students to sensitize a piece of ma- 
terial and make a picture with it in a "pin-hole 
camera" of their own construction. In the art class, 
principles of composition can be taught by making 
photographs or photograms, and in the industrial 
arts laboratory, a darkroom could be constructed. 
Such a procedure would mean not only an integra- 
tion of knowledge, but it would mean that the stu- 
dent would "learn by doing." 

Objective 6. To Learn Photography as a Useful 

Recent developments in the methods of taking 
and processing photographs indicate that the possi- 
bilities for future development are as yet without 
limit. By the use of stroboscopic light, photographs 
have been taken at the almost unl^elievable rate of 
100,000 per second ! Such pictures are used to study 
machinery in motion and to note where avoidable 
friction may be cutting down the efficiency of the 
machinery. Stop-motion photographs have great 
value in the photographing of human and animal 
subjects, and current advertising often makes use 
of high speed photography to secure life-like, un- 
l)osed, but effective illustrations. 

Other specialized uses of photographic processes 
are the X-ray, the photomicrograph, aerial photog- 
raphy, infra-red photography, and color photog- 
rai)hy. Engineers, criminal investigators, physi- 

{Conchidcd on page 73) 

Page 61 

The Educational Screen 

Below: Scenes from "Death Day," show- 
ing the celebration of the festival of 
Calaveras in Mexico. 

Right: A still from "Wedding of Palo," 
filmed in Greenland with Eskimo cast. 

This Is Your World 

Fine emphasis upon the cultural values 
of motion pictures in public education 

IT IS obvious to everyone, even to the most doctrinaire 
textbook-minded teacher, that the non-theatrical tihn 
industry is going places. Exactly what this ob- 
jective is, is not always clear. Those of us who regard 
the film as an art, when it is an art, and who have high 
hopes for its steadily expanding use in every sphere of 
public education, often wonder whether it is being mis- 
used ; we often have reason to suspect that, in the 
hands of men of small vision, it may become just an- 
other gadget : a new tool to do an old job. 

All great inventions of the human mind — and cer- 
tainly the film is one of the greatest — are a challenge ; 
they are a challenge to our selfless sense of humanity 
and of beauty which is in a constant state of struggle 
with our self-interest. All of us have a stake in the 
way this struggle will be resolved within the 16mm 
film industry. Either it can go the way of Hollywood 
and create a confused pattern of opportunism, some- 
times beneficent, but most often innocuous when not 
actually malevolent. (What happens in and to a film 
is never an accident.) Or it can take the rough road 
of democracy and make use of the film to share the 
world's knowledge and culture ; to share it in such a 
way that the love of the good things of life will become 
the possession of all of us. Never before has democracy 
had a better op])ortunity to demonstrate that it means 

Those of us who have undertaken the task of plan- 
ning 16mm film programs for large lay audiences on 
broad topics of vital public interest, and who, in the 
process, have screened hundreds of films, conferred 
with many of the producers, distributors, and film 
authorities, and have had occasion to refer to and studv 


Chief, Division of Education 
Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa. 

the literature on the subject — are convinced that de- 
spite the abysmal ignorance of most commercial dis- 
tributors concerning the merit of their own merchandise 
and the educational use to which it can be put — the 
non-theatrical film groups throughout America can 
serve as a bulwark of practical idealism against the 
engulfing tide of Hollywood virtuosity. 

As a matter of fact this is actually what is taking 
place today. I dare say that non-theatrical films have 
made a more substantial and more consistent contribu- 
tion to the war effort than has Hollywood, not solely 
in terms of numbers reached, but in the effective sin- 
cerity of the mes.sage conveyed. And this is because 
individual film-makers and producers with talent and 
initiative and devotion to a progressive point of view, 
still have a fighting chance to succeed on their merit 
in the 16mm field. As yet 16inm film production is not 
so heavily capitalized, nor are the avenues of distribu- 
tion so rigidly controlled, that powerful monopolies can 
drive a wedge between unstandardized film genius and 
standardized film jjroduction. The road to progress is 
still wide open, and it is wholesome and desirable that 
it remain open if the film as an art, and as a demo- 
cratic medium of public etlucation is to survive. 

These are the conclusions I have reached over a 
period of about five years in the process of bringing 
together, within purposefully organized film programs 
prepared for the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the very 
best 16mni pictures available. I am persuaded that the 

February, 1944 

Page 63 

Left: Fisherfolk of Aran — from Robert 
Flaherty's film titled "Man of Aran." 

Below: Scene from the French documen- 
tary film, "Carnival in Flanders." 

(Plinio i-(nirtt>y Mrandon Films! 

film, carefully chosen for its quality and content, can be 
invaluable in preparing people to appreciate art ; not 
art in the narrow scholastic sense, as signifying the 
work of an old master, but the art of civilized livitig. 
In other words, any form of creative order whether it 
is design in nature, city planning, the art of designing 
a shop window, a printed page or a painting by Picasso. 
The reason for this is that the visual, psychological and 
cultural patterns of the world we live in can be illus- 
trated more forcefully and more memorably in such 
films as Death Day by Eisenstein. The River by Pare 
Lorentz, China's 400 Million and Borinagc by Joris 
Ivens, Art and Life in Belgium by Charles Dekeukeliere 
and The Mystic Lamb by Andre Cauvin than by any 
other means. 

It was logical, therefore, that our first thirty week 
film program should describe The Development of the 
Documentary Film, as it relates to industry, consumer 
education, housing, journalism, social welfare, health, 
politics, education, the arts. These fact films-succeeded, 
we believe, in persuading a good number of the fifty 
thousand Philadelphians who saw them that the basic 
issues of human living were not being faced frankly 
and courageously by Hollywood. The British fact films 
were by far the best in that they combined sincerity of 
purpose with an unusually high degree of film quality. 
Although occasionally ineffectual for American audi- 
ences and although sometimes monotonously stereo- 
typed in filmic concept, they were, nevertheless, a 
source of instructive satisfaction to most audiences and 
a rich source of stimulation to young American film- 
makers who were beginning to strike out for themselves. 

The few good 16mm films about art which we came 
across led us to explore the problem further, because we 
were now thoroughly convinced that the visual language 
of the film is ideally suited to the interpretation of the 
visual arts of painting, sculpture, architecture. We 
were fully aware also of the discouraging fact that most 
so-called art films were dull-as-dusters of no distinctive 
quality. But the need for bringing all of the best art 
films together for the first time to promote the wider 

use of such films and to encourage the production of 
still finer films, .seemed far more important than the 
unplea.sant fact that most of the existing films were far 
from masterpieces. 

This thirty week art appreciation film series was 
sequenced, as to film topics, in such a way that the films' 
limitations were far less obvious than their message. 
Beginning with Design in Nature the arts were covered 
in approximately the order in which they evolved his- 
torically — namely shelter, weaving, pottery, .sculpture, 
painting, the graphic arts, etc. concluding with the 
abstract films of Man Ray, Fernand Leger and Oscar 

We were prepared for a smaller audience because, 
certainly, these films about the arts were not partic- 
ularly entertaining. To our amazement the program 
met with an unusual amount of intelligent enthusiasm 
and an attendance somewhat larger than the preceding 
year. This bolstered our belief in the i^ublic's insatiable 
hunger for facts of all kinds if the films used to explain 
these facts are clearly and purposefully related to a 
theme. Not just any theme, but one that embraces a 
large area of fresh relationships. People seem to prefer 
programs that give them a broad encompassing grasp 
of a large area of human activity, no matter how remote 
from their own lives this activity may be. 

Events both national and global suggested the three 
film programs which followed in sequence during the 
next three years: Rediscovering America, Our Fight 
For Freedom and, our current film program. This Is 
Your World. Jtist how far we have progressed during 
the last three years in otir ttnderstanding of ourselves 
and of our neighbors the world over — as well as in our 
awareness of the value of films to bring essential infor- 
mation to evervone so that we are better able to share 

Page 64 

The Educational Screen 

(Photo courtesy llr 
A shot from "China's Four Hundred Million" 



the same democratic convictions and work toward the 
same objectives — is brought home to us in the type, 
quality and quantity of 16mm films now available which 
were nowhere to be found only three years ago. 

Whatever confusion exists within the 16mm film 
industry, concerning the kind and quality of films needed 
today, is not so much the fault of the industry itself, 
but partly reflects the contradictory voice of the Ameri- 
can people as expressed through their congressmen — 
the people's representatives who, out of political spleen, 
completely effaced one of the few film producing units 
and coordinating film agencies in this country, namely 
the OWI, which had a policy and a program worthy of 
the American spirit. This was a great American tragedy, 
with political opportunism victorious over an enlighten- 
ed film program of public education. 

Thanks to the OWI and other government film agen- 
cies — the Coordinator's Office of Inter- American Af- 
fairs, the Department of Agriculture, the Signal Corps, 
and similar film units of the British and Canadian gov- 
ernments — a substantial number of fine 16mm films now 
exist which can be used and arc being used to very 
good purpose by millions of people throughout the world. 

But fact films, even the best of them, can reach a 
saturation point, and we were beginning to suspect that 
that point had been reached with our audience. Having 
made use of the fact film to explore ourselves as a 
people and as a nation, (e.g. Rediscovering America) 
and then as a united community of nations determined 
to defeat our enemies, (e.g. Our Fight For Freedom) 
no moment seemed more timely than the present to plan 
for peace — a permanent peace securely built on a bed- 
rock of human understanding (e.g. This Is Your 
World). This could now be best accomplished, we 
thought, by turning from the fifty minute program of 
fact films to feature-length masterpieces of the film, 
great classics of the screen of unquestioned quality like 
Wedding of Palo, Carnival In Flanders, A Nous La 
Liberie, The Private Lije of Henry VIII, Elephant 
Boy, Time In The Sun, Rembrandt, Alexander A^cvsky 
and Rugglcs of Red Gap whicli inspiringly and faith- 

fully reveal the culture and character of the country and 
the people they represent. Such a program, would, we 
felt, serve a double purpose : to help prepare our hearts 
and minds for the great decisions we must make after 
this war is won ; and, incidentally, to enjoy and appre- 
ciate many of the finest films of our time. 

A practical application of this film series is the for- 
mation of a Film Critics Club For Young People to 
explore the use of the film for the purpose of creating 
a better understanding among the peoples of the world, 
and to serve also as a forum for the discussion of topics 
relating to the film. This was organized jointly by the 
Division of Education of the Philadelphia Museum of 
.Art and the Division of Visual Education of the Phila- 
delphia Board of Public Education. 

Comprising more than one hundred youngsters drawn 
from every senior high school in Philadelphia, the F'ilni 
Critics Club will meet at the Art Museum on alternate 
-Saturdays beginning February twenty-sixth through 
June third. Assisting in various capacities as leaders, 
co-leaders and advisers for the group meetings are the 
movie critics of Philadelphia's three leading dailies, 
leaders in many related fields, and representatives from 
several film producing companies including Brandon 
Films, through whose cooperation most of the films 
were secured, British Information Services, National 
Film Board of Canada. Harmon Foundation, CIAA and 
the OWI. 

Every possible facility — the advice and encourage- 
ment of the most distinguished authorities in the field, 
conference quarters, projection facilities, a lending 
library of books on the film — will be placed at the dis- 
posal of the Film Critics Club in order to make it an 
adventure in the newest and most popular art of our 

From "Alexander Nevsky," Russian film chronicle. 

As we have seen, films are not just items of instruc- 
tion or entertainment but food to feed our spirits, 
basically essential to our well-being. If we grow strong 
as a people and as a nation it is because the American 
educator has fulfilled his role of leadership in the spirit- 
ual destiny of his country. 

February, 1944 

Page 6S 

Dr. John T. Garman, 
Director of the Division 
of Visual Education, 
School District of Phil- 
adelphia, examines the 
instantaneous recording 
equipment used by the 
division. The two turn- 
tables allow for the du- 
plication of recordings 
circulated among the 

Audio -Visual Aids - A Survey 

(Concluded from January >stae) 

THE first installment of this survey attempted 
to give a picture of the organization and ad- 
ministration of audio-visual aid departments in 
twelve school systems, and to indicate how ma- 
terials and equipment are utilized in the classroom. 
Practices characteristic of particular systems were 
cited. This concluding installment presents a sum- 
mary of the facts as a basis for the implications that 
follow. No survey has value unless out of it come 
suggestions for improvement, or additional prob- 
lems for further study. 

The future of visual materials as an aid to learn- 
ing lies in our ability to facilitate their availability 
to schools, to evaluate constantly their value in 
relation to the changing curriculum, and in the 
ability of the teacher to use them eflfectively in the 


In the twelve school systems visited the distribu- 
tion of visual aids is well organized. Eleven sys- 
tems have visual aid departments headed by a di- 
rector who is responsible for the entire program. 
The other system because of its relatively small 
size has a committee of teachers responsible for the 
selection and use of materials. Without exception 
these school systems have made an effort to retain 
sufficient personnel and facilities during war time 
to operate without seriously curtailing service. In 
at least one third of the schools women and high 
school boys and girls now are filling positions as 
film inspectors, bookers, truck drivers, or assistant 

The visual equipment used in the schools in most 


Supervisor of Elementary Education 
Public Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

systems has been purchased by the department, but 
in two cities a small number of motion picture pro- 
jectors have been provided by the individual school 
or contributed by a community organization. The 
most widely used type of equipment is the 3j4" x 4" 
slide machine and the 16mm. silent projector. The 
use of the 16mm. sound projector was on the rapid 
increase until the war emergency stopped expansion 

All systems are encouraging teachers to learn to 
operate equipment, but principals, and itinerant and 
student projectionists are used when teachers can- 
not operate machines or do not wish to be respon- 
sible for running them. This is particularly true in 
the operation of sound equipment. The classroom 
is conceded to be the ideal setting for showing visual 
teaching materials, but the large number of inade- 
quately equipped classrooms too often necessitates 
using the auditorium or a projection room for the 
.showing of films, especially sound films. 

Eight cities prefer to purchase all their visual 
aids with the exception of some long term lease ma- 
terial which is not available for purchase. Three of 
the smaller systems because of their size secure 
most or all of their films on a rental or loan basis. 
One large city rents most of its film material on the 
grounds that this prevents obsolescence and depre- 
ciation, and makes the newest always available. 

As may be expected 2)%" yiV slides and 16mm. 
silent films are the most numerous aids. With the 
increase in the number of sound machines and the 
availability of good instructional sound material the of sound films is increasing rapidly. In- 

Page 66 

The Educational Screen 

terest is developing in the 2" x 2" slide and tilmstrip 
and at present they are used to some extent in about 
two-thirds of the school systems visited. 

Two-thirds of the school sytems distribute na- 
tural history and social studies exhibits. In one city 
such exhibits are distributed by the public museum 
entirely independent of the school visual depart- 
ment. One system in particular is making a special 
eflfort to distribute good maps and charts. Two 
systems circulate science experiment cases. 

Directors are encouraging the use of visual ma- 
terial for instructional but they feel that too 
many teachers are not using it effectively^, as a class- 
room aid to teaching. This is probably^ more the 
fault of the administrator than the teacher as there 
is little evidence of other than an incidental attempt 
at in-service training in the effective use of these 
materials. There is a noticeable effort, however, on 
the part of all visual directors and department heads 
to select cooperatively the materials that will fit the 
curriculum, but much remains to be done. 

The public museums have an important place in 
visualizing the curriculum. Exhibits prepared for 
the schools are authentic and well made. Class 
visits to the museum seem most successful when 
they are for a specific purpose rather than a general 
visit. Present transportation difficulties have great- 
ly restricted group visits, but the museums are 
meeting this emergency by taking exhibits to the 
schools, or by having frequent lessons at the mu- 
seum with schools within walking distance. 

The use of auditory aids in the classroom has 
expanded the visual department into an audio-visual 
department. About one half of the systems visited 
circulate musical and speech recordings purchased 
or made by the .school. When equipment again be- 
comes available after the war, directors feel that 
recordings will be more widely used. 

Three cities have developed school radio pro- 
grams on a large scale. Programs are prepared and 
presented by directors, staff, students, and occa- 
sionally laymen. One city has its own radio station 
which broadcasts throughout the school day. The 
other two have access to the local stations four or 
five times weekly. The principle upon which these 
programs are presented is that broadcasts by school 
people are prepared in the subject area desired, are 
written especially to fit the local school situation, 
are a good public relations feature, and may act 
as an in-service training device for teachers. 

There was a consciousness in all other systems 
of the network educational radio programs, but 
their classroom use is left to the discretion of the 
teacher. Radios are not provided by the depart- 
ments. One city broadcasts a series of public rela- 
tions programs prepared by the various department 
heads and selected teachers. 

The keen interest in audio-visual aids evidenced 
by these school systems, and the earnestness with 
which they evaluate their programs is stimulating. 
If their efforts are indicative of the efforts of other 
school systems, there is a bright future for audio- 
visual aids as effective learning aids. 


As war time restrictions upon equipment limit the 
expansion of visual departments for the duration, 
this is an excellent time to make an evaluation of 
the department and its services. The data from 
such a study will provide the basis upon which to 
build a long term program. This evaluation and 
planning should cover three areas : the department 
organization, equipment and material, and their 
eft'ective use in the classroom. 

Department Orguniztition — Department organi- 
zation should be evaluated in terms of the most 
effective service to the school. Filing, booking, 
maintenance, delivery, and other duties of the per- 
sonnel are satisfactory only so far as they facilitate 
the availability of the material to the classroom. In 
relation to the size of the systems visited the per- 
sonnel varies from relatively large to a relatively 
small number. A study of this problem may reveal 
the optimum luimber of personnel for efficient 

Utilization of Equipment — The classroom is the 
ideal place for using instructional visual materials. 
School systems should plan to provide dark shades 
and electrical outlets in enough classrooms so that 
teachers will not have to move classes for film 
showings. This is time consuming, puts the film on 
the basis of a special event, sometimes puts another 
teacher out of her classroom, and limits the flexi- 
bility with which the film may be used. A per- 
manent classroom screen is more desirable than a 
portable one as it eliminates the necessity of setting 
up the temporary screen, is usually larger, and is 
high enough for all to see well. 

The sound machine is creating a very definite 
problem in the effective use of film material. Be- 
cause of its size and cost it is usually housed in the 
auditorium and operated by the principal or one 
teacher. This immediately limits its operation too 
often to the entertainment type program with a 
large audience in attendance. At the present time 
most of the best classroom instructional films being 
produced are sound films, but when they are used 
in a recreational set-up, they lose their teaching 
value. They should be used as classroom aids. This 
involves the training of more teachers to use the 
equipment, and the problem of transporting it about 
the building, but it must be done eventually for the 
equipment and material are too costly for the 
present use made of them. 

One solution to the problem of transportation is 
the use of a projection room. This, however, does 
not change the fact that more teachers must learn 
to operate the sound machine with ease and confi- 
dence. The projection room has not been used suf- 
ficiently to fully evaluate its usefulness, but it may 
be the answer to the problem of sound film pro- 
jection and should be further experimented with. 

It is desirable to use competent student projec- 
tionists in the high school if they work under care- 
ful supervision. This, however, is not practical in 
the elementary school. 


February, 1944 

Members of the projection staff at Weequahic High School, Newark, N. J. 

Page 67 


integration Of Materials Into The Curriculum — 

Much remains to be done in giving the teacher aid 
in selecting materials. It is the first step in bring- 
ing about the improvement of their use in the class- 
room. No teacher can select the most suitable 
material from a general catalogue because titles 
and descriptions are often misleading. Therefore, 
it is desirable to allocate certain films to the best 
place in the curriculum, and to look for new rna- 
terials in those areas that are neglected. If a film 
is restricted to a particular area, it will be more 
readily available to the teacher when needed. This 
should be a cooperative program between the visual 
and other departments, and the visual department 
should take the lead. 

The visual aid catalogue should then be made up 
in terms of film title, description, and specific re- 
commendations. In addition, each department may 
prepare its own catalogue in terms of only those 
materials that best suit that particular area. This 
will call for a careful evaluation of materials by 
directors other than the visual director, and make 
possible guidance in use of those materials in greater 
or more specific detail. A loose leaf catalogue will 
aid the teacher in inserting supplements in the 
proper order. 

If certain films are allocated to the most suitable 
place in the curriculum, it will be a definite guide 
to the director in knowing the number of prints of 
each film to purchase or reorder. 

There is need for more material to illustrate local 
history, industry, geography, and geology. This is 
difficult to purchase commerciallj'. Therefore, each 
school system should build up such a library. For 
example, the public museum can prepare dioramas 
illustrating episodes in historical development, and 
specimen cases of resources and manufactured 
products. The school photographer or trained 

Newark Central Film Library 

teacher can make slides or motion pictures of a 
civic and geographic nature. If a teacher is used, 
he should be on only a part time teaching basis. 

In selecting visual materials for the curriculum 
the aid that best conveys the idea should be recom- 
mended. There is a tendency to stress the pur- 
chasable type materials to the exclusion of those 
available without purchase, and the motion picture 
to the exclusion of still projection. If motion is 
desired, the film is the most effective when the 
real thing cannot be observed. If close observation 
of details is desired, then slides are excellent if a 
specimen or model is not available. Magazines 
and newspapers have excellent maps, charts, and 
pictures. Boys and girls can bring in many ma- 
terials if they are stimulated to do so. Although 
such aids are not distributed by the visual depart- 
ment, they should be suggested to the teacher 
along with other materials. 

A system that maintains a large purchase library 
should consider carefully the amount of money 
spent for film rentals. If films have been purchased 
to suit the existing curriculum, then the only areas 
where rentals should be needed are those of a 
temporary nature. 

In-Service Training In The Vte of Material* — 

The in-service training for the efficient use of 
materials is the weakest phase of the visual pro- 
gram. Administrators are not sufficiently aware 
that many teachers because of a lack of training 
are misusing these aids. There is little evidence of 
careful planning to show teachers how to make 
visual materials a functional part of a lesson. Many 
need help in selecting the best type of aid for the 
desired purpose. Some are not aware of the differ- 
ences between instructional and entertainment 
films. Others are not conscious of a good physical 

Page 68 

The Educational Screen 

setup for the learning situation they wish to cre- 

The great amount of money involved in provid- 
ing materials and equipment cannot be justified 
until some long term plan of teacher education is 
put into operation. It may be built around the fol- 
lowing : 

1. workshop meetings where common problems 
are discussed and worked out. They may be 
for teachers of a particular grade or subject 
throughout the city, in contiguous schools, or 
within a school. They may be both voluntary 
and required. 

2. demonstration lessons illustrating uses of 
specific materials, or techni(|ues for using ma- 
terials under specific circumstances or with 
types of groups. 

3. specially prepared teacher's guides suited to 
the use of selected films in certain curricula to 
be circulated with the film. 

4. a competent teacher on call to work in the 
classroom with the teacher to assist her in fit- 
ting materials to her specific problems and help- 
ing her to overcome her particular difficulties. 

5. group showings of newly acquired materials to 
teachers concerned indicating and discussing 
their classroom uses. 

6. designated schools in different sections of the 
city to be used as centers for working out prob- 
lems common to that section and as visiting 
centers for teachers who wish help. 

7. director-principal-teacher conferences to survey 
the possibilities within a school to plan a pro- 
gram of improvement. 

8. a series of discussion lessons on motion pic- 
ture appreciation for the purpose of having a 
few interested teachers experiment with it. 

The School and the Public Museum — Every 
effort should be made to strengthen the bond be- 
tween the school and the public museum. Planning 
a museum program that integrates or supplements 
the school curriculum is highly desirable. The mu- 
seum teacher in cooperation with the director of 
the school departments concerned should prepare a 
suggested list of lessons to be offered to the visit- 
ing classes during the current year. This narrows 
the range of selection to areas in which the museum 
has worthwhile material, and at the same time gives 
the teacher an opportunity to select that subject 
in which her class is most interested. 

Schools should be given the privilege of choos- 
ing the time they wish to make their visit. Author- 
ities are agreed that children get more from the 
trip if they come for a specific purpose. Therefore 
if a class is working on a unit that lends itself well 
to the museum offerings, it should apply for an ap- 
pointment at that time rather than being required 
to visit during a unit of work to which the museum 
cannot contribute. Another advantage to allowing 
the schotel to choose its own time is that it will not 
conflict with other school activities. To illustrate, 
children get little from a visit if it is the day before 
a school play or the day after a track meet. 

The persons who work with the children at the 
museum should be skilled teachers, or those hav- 
ing a teacher's viewpoint and a knowledge of the 
classroom and the child. A knowledge of the subject 
field is essential, but to know children is equally 

Materials prepared for school use should cover 
as wide a range of school subjects as possible. 
For example, there are as many possibilities for 
interesting exhibits in the field of social studies as 
in natural history. Children should be allowed to 
handle certain types of material for they learn 
through touch as well as sight. 

As a wartime measure, having the museum 
teacher go to the school is desirable though ob- 
viously it is more satisfactory for the children to 
go to the museum. .\n experiment with a few 
classes within walking distance, who come quite 
often, should reveal interesting results to both 
school and museum workers. 

Auditory Aids To Learning — Schools cannot ig- 
nore the possibilities in the use of auditory aids: 
the recording and the radio. 

Some departments circulate recordings for music 
appreciation in the same manner as visual aids are 
distributed. Visual departments not making use 
of this aid should confer with the heads of their 
music departments concerning its advisability. A 
survey of the schools would probably show that 
some now have satisfactory equipment. The cost 
of records, packing cases, and breakage is compar- 
atively low. 

School made recordings have many possibilities. 
Records made of worthwhile radio speeches or pro- 
grams may be circulated through the regular chan- 
nels. Recordings may be made cjf school activities 
to be broadcast or presented for public relations 
purposes. Musical or dramatic programs or 
speeches in the ]:)reparation stages may be recorded 
and played back to the participants for self-criti- 
cism and improvement. 

A school system should consider carefully the 
expansion of its radio activities. As a beginning it 
is more advisable to survey the present use of net- 
work broadcasts in the schools, attempt by work- 
shop meetings or demonstration lessons to train 
teachers to use radio more effectively, and to con- 
sider some type of appreciation lessons to guide 
children in the home use of radio. A further sur- 
vey to discover certain areas in which teachers feel 
broadcasts would be helpful may be followed by a 
series of programs' in those areas broadcast at the 
time and in the place of the regular public rela- 
tions program. It is agreed by those who use radio 
extensively that broadcasts to the schools are fol- 
lowed carefully by the public and are received 
with great enthusiasm. An evaluation of such ac- 
tivities will determine to what extent the school 
system may wish to expand its radio programs. 

War time developments bring the possibilities of 
television closer to a practical reality. School people 
should be thinking in terms of its usefulness to the 

February, 1 944 

Page 69 



Installment 54. — Those were days crowded with 
high adventure when the promoters of modem 
talking pictures discovered the fascinating 
new world of films in churches and schools 


AMBITION alone had not been re- 
sponsible for the great changes in 
the Carpenter-Goldman business. 
In 1926 had come the concluding phase of 
Wallace Kincaid's Pictorial Clubs, where 
both Carpenter and Goldman had belong- 
ed to tlie board of directors. Urban had 
a casual interest in the Clubs, with a 
few of his pictures on their releasing 
schedules. The outlet for his famous 
library had had a much graver turn, 
though, in the coming of sound pictures 
and the collapse of Vitagraph which the 
Warners had purchased early in 1925, 
because in the later years the Vita- 
graph exchanges had distributed most 
of the Urban subjects. Urban seems to 
have become first interested in the 
Spirograph about 1916, largely because 
it afforded a way of utilizing the very 
short scenes of early picture-making, so 
plentiful in early numbers of his collec- 
tion, as well as for those brief items 
produced for his newsreels. The idea 
of presenting motion picture photograplis 
spirally on a disk seems to have occur- 
red to many experimenters ; but appar- 
ently its rights were held most clearly 
by Alexander Victor, who had used the 
principle in his first Animatograph in 
1909. But Victor, in his characteristc 
dislike of monopolistic control of pat- 
ents, had readily consented to Urban's pro- 
ject. In return, the Urban Spirographs 
were manufactured at Victor's plant in 
Davenport, Iowa. The completed ma- 
chine was first demonstrated about 

Urban believed that there was also 
place for the Spirograph in the undevel- 
oped field of home movies, and Joe Coff- 
man felt the same way about tliat. 
While Coffman was in the mood he 
told me one day tliat, as the time of 
the small non-theatrical producer was 
definitely over (now that Big Business 
was appropriating his work), it was vi- 
tal to all of us to turn to new fields 
such as that of home movies. The Car- 
penter-Goldman opportunity to enter 
there with the Spirograph had come 
when a high-pressure sales organization, 
to which Urban had entrusted the ex- 
ploitation of the Spirograph and also of 
a folding bed of his invention, was 
called for a district attorney's investi- 
gation, and the existing stock of machin- 
ery and pictures was left for acquisition 
by anyone having sufficient vision to see 
the possibilities. Money was scarcely 
necessary, as the materials could be had 
on consignment. Coffman believed that 
the Spirograph was admirable for 
schools, too, and privately envisioned a 
phonograph attachment which would 
make its projection a talking picture. 
He might even have proved his point, 
but apparently his horoscope had speci- 
fied other directions for his energy. 

George Lane, who bought Arthur Car- 
penter's interest in January, 1927, was 
a gentleman of that Joshua IVhitcomb 
type, with kindly face and white hair, 
which we like to think of as "real 
American." He struck me, when I first 
met him, as being decidedly out of place 
in this dizzy profession of ours, but he 
actually had a better right to be there 
than most others who expected to profit 
from non-theatrical investments. Several 
years later I came to know him fairly 
well, and then he told me some of the 
circumstances of his coming in. 

He had been trained as a mechanical 
engineer. He had prospered, and witli 
a brother owned a factory at Pough- 
keepsie. New York. It stood directly 
across from Vassar Hospital, and, one 
way and another, be became a trustee, 
and a valued friend of the doctors in 
charge. Surgeons as a class are fre- 
quently working out hobby gadgets in 
their spare time, and when these Vas- 
sar doctors had mechanical problems 
they came to George Lane. He found 
helping them a pleasant relaxation. One 
of the staff, Dr. John E. Patterson, a 
dentist, was a camera enthusiast, with 

Urban's Spirograph embodied one 
of the most intriguing principles 
ever applied to short movie ex- 
hibition — its pictures on a disk. 

an idea for a stereoscopic motion picture. 
Lane thought well enough of both man 
and idea to join Patterson in developing 
the machine. They worked it out with 
sufficient success for the Eastman Kodak 
Company to become interested — but that, 
again, is another story. 

One evening Lane and Patterson were 
present at a hospital lecture delivered 
by a speaker from the American Col- 
lege of Surgeons. The lecturer men- 
tioned the great value there would be 
in having stereoscopic pictures of opera- 
tions, and, when the talk was at an end. 
Lane and Patterson showed him their 
apparatus. It had color possibilities, 
too, and that naturally would interest 
any surgeon. The lecturer was defi- 
nitely impressed. They asked him how 
they might go about making the device 
useful in the way he had indicated. He 
advised them to see Carpenter-Goldman. 
Lane followed the suggestion, discov- 
ered the inventor's fairyland which is to 
be found in any busy animation studio, 
purchased Carpenter's interest and be- 
came a member of the firm. After that 
he took a hand in numerous experiments 
in surgical photography, using not only 
his own machine, but cameras built for 
the Kinemacolor process, made avail- 
able to the firm through its association 
with Charles Urban. 

There was much cautious parleying 
before Erpi and Carpenter-Goldman came 
to terms, but the direction of the tide was 
sufficiently clear to Goldman, Coffman 
and Lane for them to see that they 
would profit by fostering the connec- 
tion. They knew, moreover, that the 
first commitment would have to come 
from Erpi because Erpi would need pic- 
tures and had no complete facilities of 
its own for making them. 

Sauce for the Gander 

With life mounting and pulsating in 
all its members, development appeared 
without warning to Erpi in many places, 
and, as it happened, production began in 
the sales division. In that quarter there 
inevitably had arisen a reproachful crit- 
icism to the effect that, "Here we are, 
recommending the use of talking pic- 
tures to everybody else and haven't one 
of our own." So it was decided to pro- 
duce a reel to answer the burning popu- 
lar question of the hour, "How do they 
put the sound on the film?" 

P. L. Thomson, of Western Electric, 
was much in evidence at Erpi then, be- 
cause all of the precious Erpi equipment 
was being manufactured by his division 
of the Bell System, and, of course, 
Western Electric was the parent com- 
pany. Naturally, this irregular but in- 
sistent question of production focussed 
presently upon the Western Electric Mo- 
tion Picture Bureau, where Charles Bar- 

Page 70 

The Educational Screen 

rell was doing so splendid a job. Bar- 
rel!, with Walter Pritchard as camera- 
man, had lately produced an effective 
two-reeler on laying the new Western 
Union cable from Newfoundland to the 
Azores, "Business in Great Waters," 
scored it with a lecture, music and ef- 
fects and booked it readily in a long 
list of first-class theatres. 

But what should the new picture be? 
Many, myself included, tried their hands 
at it under Barrell's supervision, and even- 
tually all the suggestions were combed 
and combined to make the scenario of an 
animated cartoon. This, of course, was 
playing directly, naturally and I am sure 
properly, into the hands of Goldman. The 
theme was the pitiable situation of the 
silent motion picture, symbolized by a 
caricature figure, and the plot consisted 
of its adventures in trying to become 
articulate. It was called "Finding His 
Voice." When completed it became one 
of the most popular short subjects of the 
time, and was screened in virtually every 
important theatre in the country. Today 
a print of it is kept at the Museum of 
Modern Art in New York as a milestone 
of progress in motion picture develop- 
ment. As Barrell did not personally pro- 
duce cartoon animation, the work was 
referred to Carpenter-Goldman and by 
them to Max Fleischer and his gifted 
"gag-man" brother, Dave. The sound — 
voices, music and "effects" — were added 
in the small but highly practical New 
York studio of the Paramount newsreel. 
The voice of "Dr. Western," to whom the 
silent picture was taken for diagnosis 
and who explained the essential facts 
about how they put the sound on the film, 
belonged to Carlyle Ellis. 

Herbert M. Wilcox, engineer in charge 
of theatrical installations for Erpi, then 
found need of further subjects to educate 
the customers, and it was decided to pro- 
duce two single-reelers covering, respec- 
tively, the manufacture of the sound equip- 
ment in the great Hawthorne Works of 
the Western Electric Company at Chi- 
cago, and the scientific aspects as shown 
in the daily routine of the Bell Telephone 
Laboratories in New York. I assisted 
Barrell to make the Chicago subject, and 
was left alone to produce the second. At 
the suggestion of Wilcox on the first and 
of P. L. Thomson on the other the nar- 
rative voice in both cases was my own, a 
fact which was to lead to some embarrass- 
ment later, when some experimenting, 
amateur psychologist insisted that it was 
very disturbing to an audience to hear 
a voice without seeing the source, and I 
was obliged to don the makeup of a cloth- 
ing-store dummy and appear in person 
for a space after one main title, thereafter 
being permitted mercifully to fade out 
and, like that legendary Greek, be a 
voice only . 

Education of exhibitors through this 
great new vehicle of the talking film was 
not to stop with the laboratory and fac- 
tory revelations, but was to go on into 
the placement of projectors, monitor horns 
and all the other features of installation. 
In such explanation previously a kind of 

corporation celebrity had been gained by 
W. W. Symons, one of the regional man- 
agers ; and he was assigned to see the 
matter through. , 

Symons did very creditable work con- 
sidering his inexperience as a scenarist, 
but, by appearing personally in the films 
as the Bell System engineer who answered 
all and sundry questions put by a hypo- 
thetical theatre manager, when neither 
questions nor answers could then be fully 
practical, he exposed himself to later de- 
rision, and the subjects were soon dis- 
carded as obsolete. Direct supervision of* 
these particular productions was given to 
Joseph Coffman, and the making was 
first in the Fox Studio, on Tenth .Avenue, 
not far from the Fisk Building, and then, 
as Carpenter-Goldman became more set- 
tled in their quarters over the river, in 
the monk's-cloth-draped studio in .Astoria. 
Coffman was also heavily engaged in pro- 
ducing subjects on the acoustics of the 
sound film featuring formal lectures by 
Bell scientists notably Dr. Harvey 
Fletcher who had been conspicuous in 
perfecting the talkie system, with pointers, 
charts and other illustrative apparatus. 
The technique was of the true lyceum 
variety, with table, water-pitcher and 
glass, and the speaker in full dress. 

One speaker who became a veritable 
martyr, was amiable Howard Santee, pro- 
tege of John Ling, executive vice-presi- 
dent of Erpi, one of the liaison officers 
between the Bell I,aboratories and Erpi. 
Santee was surprisingly young for one 
of so much authority and, being small in 
stature beside, invariably brought chuckles 
from the audience when he began one of 
his reels with a speech written, I believe, 
by Coffman, starting, "When I was a 
small boy, little did I dream that the 

"Finding His Voice" was Western 
Electric's way of initiating play- 
goers into secrets of modern talk- 
ies. Max Fleischer did the cartoon; 
Carlyle Ellis spoke for the doctor. 

time would come when I would be draw- 
ing acoustical rabbits from the hat of 
science." When Santee was trying to 
memorize this imposing speech, which had 
to be recited all in a single "take," he 
spent most of one afternoon kicking 
around the studio damning the rabbits. 

In these days of complete flexibility of the 
sound equipment, it is difficult to realize 
how rigid the requirements were then. 
Cameras were locked in ponderous, sound- 
proof "ice-boxes" which were nailed 
to the floor, and supplemental cameras. 

Col. Frederick L. Devereux's whole- 
hearted enthusiasm for talking pic- 
tures in education was undeniable. 
Under him Erpi made school films. 

sufficiently difficult to procure for any pur- 
pose, were anchored in fixed positions for 
additional "angles." It took about twenty- 
five feet of 3Smm film to bring the cam- 
eras up to speed, with synchronization 
marks and other identifications, and 
twenty-five feet more to bring it down 
with more marks ; and, once started, the 
technicians preferred not to stop until a 
full thousand feet had been shot by each 
camera. "Playback" records were made 
for alleged tests of sound quality, the 
slightest cough, hesitancy or corrected 
slip of enunciation, now hailed as proof 
of naturalness, occasioned a retake, and 
"dubbing" separate sound-tracks or phono- 
graph records together was frowned down 
as utterly destructive to sound quality, 
which, in the province of the Bell System, 
especially, must never be permitted to fall 
below standard. 

Consequently, in a picture requiring 
speaker, orchestra and other sound effects, 
all were staged at the same time, and a 
mistake anywhere, even a trival one, 
meant that the whole thing had to be done 
over again. Over and over again, to 
eliminate the sounds of passing trains, 
noon whistles, droning airplanes and chil- 
dren on roller skates bribed to keep out 
of the alley. This cost plenty of money, 
too; but when they speak slightingly to- 
day about how expensively the first talkie 
directors worked as compared with pres- 
ent ones, remember that the short cuts 
fully approved in this late year, were not 
countenanced then. 

A modern talking picture has its sound- 
track, as the sound record is called, print- 
ed photographically down the side of the 
film beside the successive images. For 
separate attention in development, and 
convenience in editing, the sound-track is 
recorded, wherever practicable, on a sep- 
arate film, the negative image and nega- 
tive sound-track being combined in the 
printing stage on the single positive used 
in projection. Obviously, the relationship 
of sound and image must be maintained, 
or synchronization is lost. 


February, 1944 

Nowadays, when careless cutting has 
caused loss of synchronization, it is easily 
restored by running prints of the separate 
negatives side by side on a handy test 
machine called a double moviola, which 
permits them to be moved individually 
Iwckward or forward until they are prop- 
erly juxtaposed. The usual method of re- 
storing synchronization in the early days 
was to try visually to "read" the sound 
track, then to make a combined trial print 
for projection on a regular theatrical ma- 
chine, and next to hold projection-room 
conferences in which informal votes would 
be taken on whether the sound was three 
frames too early or four frames too late. 
Sometimes there were nearly a dozen 
combined prints before the approved junc- 
tion was obtained. I have a clear picture, 
on the tables of my memory, of Joe Coflf- 
man seated in the laboratory before one 
of the measuring contraptions which he 
was forever inventing then, triumphantly 
identifying middle C on a sound-track as 
corresponding with the image where a 
musician at a viola brought his bow in 
contact with his instrument. 

Coffman's conscientious application to 
all of these problems, his inventions ( I 
believe that he had much to do with in- 
vention of the desitometer) and his au- 
thoritative manner as director on set, all 
combined to give him an appreciable 
fame ; and when the heads of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, convinced that 
this talking picture by-product really was 
important and far-reaching, decided to 
build an adjoining, complete experimental 
motion picture studio and laboratory, 
Coffman's advice was sought on the entire 
construction. This was about the time 
"Finding His Voice" was going into pro- 
duction, and I chanced one day to be 
visiting the Carpenter-Goldman Labora- 
tories to discuss my tentative script for it. 
Our conversation led to the subject of the 
proposed new studio, and I told Coffman 
about a pet notion of my own for an 
economical stage construction in which 
the usual rectangular space would be di- 
vided by a diagonal wall to make two 
stages, instead of one. CofTman incor- 
porated it in his plan and, although the 
Bell engineers lost heart and modified it, 
one of the two stages in the structure 
which ultimately arose on Bank Street 
was built in triangular form. For the 
benefit of visitors who have wondered 
why, this is the probable reason. 

With the completion of the studio, the 
sound tests of the experimenting engineers 
became more elaborate, and they decided 
that they should work with conditions 
more closely approximating those of the 
professional producers. So Walter Prit- 
I'hard, who had photographed telephone 
films for Carlyle Ellis and for C. W. 
Barrell, was taken on by the Laboratories 
as official, resident cameraman. 

For g time nearly all talking pictures 
were made indoors on the allegation that 
sound could not be controlled properly 
outside, and the background was mono- 
tonously a set of monk's cloth curtains 
rated to be without reverberation or echo. 
But heretic professional producers in 
Hollywood insisted that they had to have 

built scenery, actually using some of it 
in their theatrical talkies, so the Bell 
engineers reluctantly decided to yield on 
that point, too. The Fox-made Holly- 
wood feature, "In Old Arizona," starring 
Warner Baxter, was a nine days' wonder 
l)ecause most of its scenes had been photo- 
graphed with "original sound" out-of- 

The Colonel and His Men 

Of cour,se, the Erpi non-theatrical plans 
threw heaviest stress on educational films. 
Schools were to constitute the large mar- 
ket there. So^ when the non-theatrical 
offshoot of Erpi was formed, in January, 
1929, it was known as the Educational 
Department. Placed in charge of it was 
Frederick L. Devereux, for many years 
an ofiicer in the American Telephone & 
Telegraph Company. He came as a 
stranger to the non-theatrical field, and 
with no previous acquaintance with mo- 
tion production or distribution of any 
sort ; but he had a deep personal interest 
in education. He had won an A.B. at 

Dr. N. L. Engelhardt came to Erpi's 
educational committee as one of 
the country's best known authori- 
ties on how schools are organized. 

Gonzaga College in 1902, when he was 
twenty years of age, an LL.B. at George- 
town University in 1906, and a Ph.D. 
from the latter institution in 1917. And 
he had had an even stronger reason for 
keeping abreast of new trends in pedagogy 
as the widowed father of a growing son 
and daughter. His business training had 
been in financial divisions of telephone 
work, culminating in his place as vice- 
president of the Bell Telephone Securi- 
ties Company. Shortly after Erpi began, 
Walter S. Gififord, president of the A. T. 
& T., presented him with the 3S-year 
medal of service to the System. In World 
War Number I he was a lieutenant-colonel 
on the General Staff of the U. S. Army, 
and subsequently ranked as a colonel in 
the Officers' Reserve. 

To assist Col. Devereux in the new 
Erpi organization was chosen Howard 
Gale Stokes, of the motion picture de- 

Page 71 

partment of the A- T. & T., a man fa- 
miliar with both the film industry and 
the Bell policies. Moreover, Stokes, it 
will be remembered, had produced the 
first talking picture made by the System. 
Stokes was happy in his place and was 
not anxious to come to Erpi, but he con- 
sented under pressure and with the 
understanding that he should have time 
out to attend the international advertis- 
ing convention that summer at Berlin. 

Knowing how tentative everything 
necessarily was at the time, he persist- 
ently declined a title until some designa- 
tion became important to promotional 
literature, and then he chose the suffi- 
cient but wholly ambiguous one, "De- 
velopment Manager." Under this his 
duties and position might change indefi- 
nitely, and, to be sure, as later events 
soon proved, his work really zvas de- 
velopmental. He was succeeded in 
his film work at the A. T. & T. by his 
former assistant. Jerome M- Hamilton, 
with Carlyle Ellis in charge of actual 
production. Ellis had given up his busi- 
ness and had gone to work exclusively 
for the A. T. & T. nearly a year before. 

Quick preliminary surveys and pre- 
sumably authoritative advice had given 
Col. Devereux the usual assurance that 
there were no real school pictures in exist- 
ence, and, of course, there were no talk- 
ing pictures of this type. So he realized 
(and was a little grateful for the oppor- 
tunitv. too) that it was necessary to start 
in this department virtually from the bot- 
tom. .'\mong educators, by now, the cus- 
tom had grown to approach matters of 
this sort in committees, each composed 
of representatives of the different educa- 
tional branches. There especially had to 
be an expert on elementary schools and 
one on teacher training. Educational pic- 
tures aim principally at the range from 
the fourth or fifth elementary grade 
through junior high, and are rather neg- 
lectful, perhaps, of primary and college 
Uvels save in "normal" schools. This 
range was and probably still is commonly 
accepted as representing the great mass 
audience in this phase of non-theatricals. 

The Colonel lived in the pleasant 
Westchester suburb of Bronxville, where 
he was a village trustee and a deservedly 
respected citizen. In later years he was 
to be the mayor. Bronxville schools had 
a high rating among educators for em- 
ployment of advanced techniques, the ap- 
plications of which were usually "in co- 
operation with" Teachers College of Co- 
lumbia University. So, when the Colonel 
discussed some of his problems with 
friends among the Bronxville schoolmen, 
he was referred to Columbia as a proper, 
authoritative source of good advice- At 
Columbia his first profitable contact seems 
to have been with Dr. Nicolaus Engelhardt, 
professor of education at Teachers Col- 
lege. Engelhardt dissuaded the Colonel 
from his first, tentative idea of establish- 
ing a committee of five or six prominent 
educators as probably too difficult to bring 
together when needed and subject to too 
many varieties of individual opinion, and 
the number was presently limited to three. 
(To be continued) 

Page 72 

The Educational Screen 

Two Important Audio-Visual Education Meetings 

Northern Ohio Visual 
Aids Conference 

THE first Visual Aids Conference ever held in north- 
ern Ohio will include addresses by Frank J. Lausche, 
Mayor of Cleveland. School Sui)erintendent Charles H. 
Lake, and experts from the Ohio area and elsewhere 
in the country. The conference will meet April 3 and 4 
in Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, for a series of practical 
demonstrations of the latest methods of teaching with 
modern visual aids. The notably fine program, nearly 
completed, is printed below. 

Director M. R. Klein, of the Educational Museum of 
the Cleveland Public Schools, is general chairman of 
the Conference. He has arranged also an exhibit 
of new equipment and sup])lies. The committee on 
arrangements hopes to make the conference an annual 
aflfair, in cooperation with Zones HI and IV of the 
Department of Visual In.struction of the National Edu- 
cation Association. .Attendance is cordially invited 
from all States within war-time travel radius. 



In Co-operation with 

The Department of Visual Instruction (Zones III & IV) 

National Education Association 

Monday and Tuesday, April 3rd and 4tli, 1944 

Hotel Hollenden Ballroom, Cleveland, Ohio 


FIRST SES.SION, Monday .Afternoon 2:00 P.M. 
Max R. Klein, Genera! Chairman 
Visual .Aids in a Children's Museum (Illustrated) 

Margaret M. Brayton, Curator, Children's Museum. De- 
troit, Michigan 
Pupil-made Slides as an Aid to Integrating .Activities in Ele- 
mentary Education (Illustrated) 

Mrs. Edna Moore Skelly, Principal. Standard School, 

Silent Films as an .Aid in Teaching Elementary School Pupils 

Agnes McFadden, Principal, Union and Tod Schools, 

The Art Museum Comes to the School (Illustrated) 

Dr. Thomas Munro, Curator of F^ducation, Cleveland 

Museum of Art 
Visual Aids of a Progressive Zoo, (Illustrated) 

Fletcher A. Reynolds, Director, Cleveland Zoo 

SECOND SESSION, Monday 8:00 P. M. 

Greetings — Hon. I'rank M. Lausche, Mayor, City of Cleveland ; 
Charles H. Lake, Superintendent, Cleveland Puhlic Schools ; 
Mrs. Camilla Best, President, Department of Visual In- 
struction, N.E.A. ; Joseph F. Landis, President, American 
Federation of Teachers. 

Address — (By a Representative of tlic Motion Picture Pro- 
ducers and Distributors of America, New York) 

Your Film and Slide E.xchange in Ohio 

B. A. Aughinbaugh, Supervisor, Film and Slide Exchange, 
Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio 

New Techniques of Visual Training in the Armed Forces 

Commander Patrick Murphy, Chief, Training Aids Section, 
United States Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. 

Teacher Training in Visual Education— When Do We Start? 
Dr. Edgar Dale, College of Education, The Ohio State 
University, Columbus 

THIRD SESSION, Tuesday 9:30 A. M. 

Visual Aids in Art .Activities (Illustrated) 

Alfred Howell. Directing Supervisor of Art, Cleveland 
Public Schools 

Through the Window Pane — A Robin's Spring Story (Colored 
Film with Music on Disc) 

Mrs. Warner Seely, Cleveland Heights 
Classroom Methods of Using Sound Films — A Demonstration 
Motion Picture Project Report 

Miss Helen Hardt Seaton, Executive Secretary, Motion 

Picture Project, American Council on Education. 
Motion Pictures in a Modern High School 

L. K. Meola, Coordinator of Visual Aids, John Hay High 

School, Cleveland 
Luncheon, Tuesday Noon, Coordinators of Visual -Aids in 
Schools and Guests 

FOURTH SESSION, Tuesday 2:00 P. M. 
\'isual Aids in Teaching Music Appreciation (Illustrated) 

Lillian L. Baldwin, Supervisor Music Appreciation. Cleve- 
land Public Schools 
Practical Suggestions of Visual .Aids in an Elementary School 
( Illustrated ) 

.Adela M. Losch, Principal Miles and Cranwood Schools, 

Visual Aids for Industrial .Arts Education (Illustrated) 

Carl H. Hamburger, Supervisor Industrial Arts, Cleveland 

Public Schools 
.A School Produced Colored Film with Sound on Disc — A 
Guidance Project 

.Anthony L. Cope, John Hay High School, Cleveland 
FIFTH SESSION, Tuesday 8:00 P.M. 
A Filmstrip and Follow-up for a War Training Class 

Joseph A. Roenigk, Cleveland Trade School 
Microprojection for Biology 

Sterling O. Wilson, Collinwood High School, Cleveland 
The Use of Pictorial Material in a Progressive Church School 

Robert J. Holden, Director, First Unitarian Church School. 


A Letter from the President of Zone II 

Dear Members and Friends of Zone II : 

Visual education is being utilized in all branches of 
our armed forces and i:i pre-induction courses. Many of 
the films and other aids of the government and much of 
the recent visual education material of other organiza- 
tions are needed in our schools at this time. Therefore 
Zone II Department of Visual Instruction has planned' 
this meeting in Visual Education Today and Tomorrozv, 
to be held concurrently with the Association of School 
Administrators in the Hotel New Yorker, February 23, 
at three thirty o'clock. At that time some of the latest 
phases and materials in visual education for the schools 
will be discussed and shown. 

Plan to attend this meeting and invite your friends 
also. Come and renew friendships, meet other folks 
interested in visual education in the schools, and enjoy 
an interchange of ideas. 

(Signed) E. Winifred Crawford 

Officers of Zone II— D. V. I. 

President — Dr. E. Winifred Crawford, Board of Edu- 
cation, Montclair, N. J. 
1st Vice President — Mr. H. A. Humphreys 
2nd Vice President — Dr. Dean F. McClusky 
Secretary-Treasurer — Mr. James S. Kinder 

Officers of Metropolitan New York Branch 
President — Dr. Lucile Allard 
Executive Secretary — Mrs. Lena Hessberg 
Recording Secretary — Mrs. E. L. Berg 
Treasurer — Mr. Don Carlos Ellis 
Chairman, Executive Committee— Rita Hochheimer. 


February, 1944 



Zone II Department of Visual Instruction 

National Education Association 

held concurrently with 

The American Association oi School Administrators 

in New York City 

Wednesday, February 23 

Hotel N'ew Yorker. Parlors F and G 
Mrs. Esther 1,. Berg. Chairman 
Theme — Visual Education Today and Tovwrron' 
Dr. E. Winifred Crawford, President Zone II. Presiding 
Greetings from Dr. A. L. Threlkeld. Superintendent of Public 

Schools, Montclair. New Jersey 
V'isual .Aids in the Armed Forces (with film showing) 

Lieutenant Lyle Stewart, Senior Utilization Officer. Audio- 
Visual Training. United States Navy 
School Opportunities in the War Time Situation (with film) 
Mr. Floyde E. Brooker. Director. Visual .Aids for War 
Training. United States Office of Education 
Report of National 16mm Advisory and Policy Conmiittee of 
the Office of War Information 

Mr. L. C. I^rson, Chairman 
Production of Motion Pictures for Inter-American Under- 
standing with showing of films "Montevideo Family" and 
"High Plane" 

Mr. Julicn Bryan. Lecturer and Documentary Film Pro- 
Concluding Remarks — Outlook for Tomorrow 

Dr. Lucile Allard, President, Metropolitan New York 
Branch, Department of \"isual Instruction ^ , 

Evening Session 

Informal Dinner— 630 P. M. Price $i.50 

Town Hall Club, 123 West 43rd Street 

Miss Rita Hochheimer, Presiding 

Preview of "Adventures of Mark Twain" — 8:45 P. M. 

Warner Bros. Studio, 10th floor, 325 West 44th Street. 

Admission by ticket only. Tickets up to capacity of studio 

will be sent free to members and guests on application. 

(Reservations for dinner and film preview should be made 

with Mr. Don Carlos Ellis, 21 W. 46th Street, New York, 19) 

Photography in the High School 

(Concluded from page 61 ) 

cists, astronoiners, medical men, zoologists, botan- 
ists, teachers, and others have found photography 
to be a useful, and in some cases, an indispensable 
tool in their respective fields. 

It is not expected that the more specialized uses 
of photograpliy will be of great value to the high 
school pupil, but even the more simple photographic 
ski'i'.s may serve as tools in manj- secondary school 

ih the natural sciences, for example, pictures of 
plants and animals are always useful in the study 
of these subjects. A simple photomicrographic outfit 
might be made with an ordinary box camera, a 
microscope, and a few accessories. The social 
science classes may plan a project of social documen- 
tation in the community, picturing with cameras, 
some phase of community life such as housing, sani- 
tation, traffic safety, or the functions of civic de- 
partments. The physics student could study spec- 
troscopy using the camera and the sensitive plate. 
Language classes could illustrate themes with pic- 
tures or write compositions from a picture or a set 
of pictures. 

Page 73 

As an educational tool, photography is the very 
heart of the school visual aids program. From the 
photograph made by student or teacher, lantern 
slides or film strips may be made and added to the 
library of materials. Furthermore, school plays, 
P.T.A., and class activities may be advertised by 
means of the photograph. Dramatics teachers have 
found it profitable and time-saving to photograph 
the sets of school plays so that these sets may be 
quickly reconstructed at a later date. Many school 
magazines make use of pictures taken by students, 
and some photography clubs make the putting out 
of the school annual one of their major functions. 
Industrial arts students may make photographs to 
accompany blueprints of projects they have com- 
pleted and place these on file for the use of other 

In short, while we need not teach high school 
students how to handle the highly technical pro- 
cesses of photography, we can make photography 
useful in the classroom in almost every subject, and 
at the same time show how this tool has contributed 
to the development of modern civilization as a whole. 
Objective 7. To Encourage Desirable Habits of 

Success in photography is not ordinarily achieved 
by random picture making and careless laboratory 
practice. Certain traits and work habits which are 
necessary for the best (|uality of work in photog- 
raphy are listed below. Most of these traits and 
abilities are important in all fields of endeavor. The 
teacher should make this clear, and should teach 
for transfer. 

a) Observation. The ability to see pictorial possi- 
bilities . 

b) Cleanliness ; essential from loading the camera 
to presenting the print. 

c) Accuracy; in making measurements, focusing, 
timing, and the like. 

d) Neatness ; especially important in preparing 
work for exhibition. 

e) Ability to meet people and to deal with human 

f ) Originality. The ability to present ordinary 
subjects from a fresh j)oint of view. 

g) Pride in craftsmanship. 

h) An active, inquiring mind. 

Whenever the worker in photography grows care- 
less or hasty in his work, the results are immedi- 
ately evident in the product of his labor. No preach- 
ment on the part of the teacher is necessary to make 
the student see that his work is poor, for concrete 
evidences of faulty craftsmanship appear for all to 
see. On the other hand, a well-mounted, properly 
exposed and developed print is material evidence of 
a good piece of work, and the student immediately 
enjoys the reward of careful craftsmanship. 

In view of the above objectives, it should be evi- 
dent that a photography program can contribute 
richly to the aims of general education. Certainly, 
the possibilities of instruction in this subject merit 
the consideration of all educators interested in the 
visual education field. 

Page 74 

The Educational Screen 


Conducted by 

The New England Section (Zone 1) of the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the 
National Education Association of the U.S. 

Editor, JOHN H. LYONS 

Officers of The New England Section 

PresideiU, Edward F. Wheeler, Department of Education, Bristol, Conn. 
Vice-President, John GammonB Read, Rhode Island College of Education. 
Secretary-Treasurer. Dorothy A. Allard, Public Schools. Reading. Mas-s. 
Executive Coynmitlee, C. N. Allen, Dartmouth College — Wilfred Berube. 
Pawtucket Public .Schools — R. Haven Falconer, Armed Forces Film Serv- 
ice, New York City — Abraham Krasker, Boston University — .John H. 
I..yons, Enfield Public Schools, Thompsonville, Conn. — J. L. Senechal, 
Windham High School, Willimantic, Conn. — David E. Strom, University 
of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

A Message from Our President 

WE of the New England Section. Zone 1 of the Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction, are pleased at the opportunities 
provided by thi.s space in Educational Screen. At the 
present time, when many meetings are being cancelled due 
to problems of transportation, and when the majority of 
us are over-worked, due to the pressure of war duties added 
to normal responsibilities, it would seeni that an efficient 
method of exchanging ideas is of tretnendous value. Both 
now, and in the future, truly effective teaching is going 
to be more essentfel than ever before. Such teaching can 
be attained, in many cases, only by intelligent use of audio- 
visual aids. It would seem, then, that all our efforts should 
be directed towards developing this field as rapidly and as 
thoroughly as possible. 

As an aid to such development, this page is of extreme 
value. May I urge, therefore, that each and every New 
England educator who is actively interested in the field 
of audio-visual education, contribute at least a small part 
of his experience to this page for the common good of the 
field. You will be doing a real service by sending the 
editor of this page a short account of your experiences, 
regarding profitable use of audio-visual aids. 

Edward F. Wheeler 

Connecticut Schools Active in Radio 

The use of radio as an educative medium has reached 
a new high in Connecticut this past year. At the present 
time there are over fifty-two schools taking an active part 
in the C.B.S. American School of the Air broadcasts that 
emanate from Hartford's WDRC. 

' This program started over six years ago when Sterling 
V. Couch, Educational Director at WDRC, asked some of 
the neighboring schools to carry on a student discussion 
following the program entitled "This Living World" rather 
than to listen to the student discussion that came from 
New York. This program called for our station to have 
its own student group representing a Connecticut High 
School. At first a group of from four to six students rep- 
resenting one school would carry on the discussion. It 
was later decided to change this to two groups of four 
each froin two different schools. This idea resulted in a 
lively and interesting clash of opinion. Since none of the 
students is allowed to use notes or a script the entire 
program is unrehearsed and extemporaneous. This pro- 
vides excellent training for the more than 208 students 
who take part in this program. Each school usually takes 
Ijart in two programs each year. In most cases only one 
pupil of a group has previously broadcast and very often 
an entirely different group represents a school at each 

This broadcast has now become so popular that its audi- 
ence rating is higher than many of the regular evening pro- 
grams. At the present time there are about thirty stations 
on the network who have this type of local program. There 
are only four or five in New Englatid. 

An Innovation by New England — o pog 
Let the nine other DVt Zones read, 

Bangor Projectors Club Solves Many Problems 

Principal Russell I. Mograge of the Fifth Street Junior 
High at Bangor, Maine, gives us the following report on 
his "Projectors Club". 

"Operators for Audio-Visual apparatus are trained by 
our Projectors Club. There are thirty-four students from 
grades seven, eight and nine enrolled as members. This 
club is included in the Activity program with meetings 
held during the school day. 

"Mr. Walter Witham, instructor in metal work and a 
projectionist of professional experience, acts as sponsor. 
Members of this club receive instruction in the details of 
construction for each type of machine. They arrange pro- 
grains and act as helpers or operators. Thus we have the 
services of reliable operators at any period with a miui- 
mum of interference with individual programs. 

"In addition to solving the operator problem there ire 
many incidental outcomes that have been outstanding: 

1. Teachers are using visual aids more frequently and 
to better purpose when relieved of the responsibility of 
operating the machine. 

2. 'Running the Picture Machine' is a highly coveted 
privilege. In several cases it has served as the means for 
the happy solution of a so called 'problem case'. 

3. Student response to programs operated by membeis 
of their own groups has proinoted a more wholesome atti- 
tude toward the entire plan." 

Springfield Schools Plan to Build Kodachrome Units 

Under the direction of Ralph A. Stout, Supervisor of 
Audio-Visual Aids for the Springfield schools, plans are 
being made to develop a library of 2x2 kodachrome slides. 

With this idea in mind a teacher's committee was orga- 
nized to develop a unit on the Springfield police force. 
This committee met with the police officials, had a tour 
through their departments, and then came back and sub- 
mitted a series of shots which they considered important 
in presenting this unit. The unit has been broken down 
into two sections, one for the kindergarten and first grade 
pupils and the other for the sixth grade level and adult 
education groups. The cotiimittee is taking its own pictures 
and when the collection is completed the same committee 
will write a teachers manual to accompany these slides. 

Springfield does not intend to discard its 3;4x4 slides. 
They have just completed the task of checking over their 
entire collection. All antiquated slides have been discarded 
with all those that remained being collected and formed 
into teaching units. 

Fitchburg High Dramatic Club Sponsors Visual Aids 

The Dramatic Club of Fitchburg High School under the 
direction of Miss Anna E. Dunn has been playing a major 
role in developing the Audio-Visual Aids program in that 
school. This club has made it possible for the school to 
present feature films of educational value. They have pre- 
sented outstanding speakers, actors, and exhibits. This one 
club has become so popular in the school that its member- 
ship has reached the grand total of 450 during this school 

e of tts own for telling its own story, 
weigh, and act accordingly. — N.L.G. 

February, 1944 

Page 75 

Pre-flight Aeronautics 

"The Jam Handy Pilot Training Kit -set is the 
most valuable teaching aid for primary pilot 
training I have ever used. Students progress 
rapidly with these visual aids." This is typical 
of the many, many favorable comments from 
instructors using the Jam Handy Pre-flight 
Aeronautics Kit-set. 

1742 Picfures in 24 S/icfofl/ms — One thousand seven hundred 
and forty-two (1742) original pictures, photographs, cross- 
sectional views, drawings, diagrams and charts comprise this 
Jam Handy Kit-set of 24 Pre-flight Training Slidefilms. Each 
picture "talks to the eye," presenting information quickly, 
clearly and easily. Hundreds of Jam Handy Pre-flight Aero- 
nautics, Pilot Training Kit-sets are now in use in the leading 
schools and colleges throughout the country — making the 
teacher's job easier, helping students to grasp technical points 

Easy To Us» — The slidefilms provide a complete step by step 
visual explanation of each phase of aviation. They carry 
textual captions designed to be read aloud to enrich meanings 
and to provoke discussion. Each picture can be held on the 
screen until difficult points have been made clear to every 
student in the class. 

Try These Slid»filmt in Your Classes — You may see for your- 
self the value of this Jam Handy Pre-flight Aeronautics Kit- 
set. If you are teaching Pilot Training, mail the coupon be- 
low to learn how you can have a free ten days' trial in your 
classroom. Or, if you wish, you may order the complete set 
of 1742 pictures in 24 slidefilms for $65. 


2900 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, 11, Michigan 

D Please enter our order for the Pre-flight Aeronautics, 
Pilot Training Kit-set. 

Q Please send me without obligation full details on how I 
may try out this Kit-set in my own classroom. 

Name „ 


Organization. _ 

Address - 


Page 76 

The Educational Screen 

The Film and International Understanding 

An Operating Film Program for 
International Understanding of America 

THE Overseas Branch of the Non-Theatrical Sec- 
tion of the Motion Picture Bureau of the Office 
of War Information is actively engaged in an inter- 
national film program which aims to present a more 
favorable picture and to bring about a better under- 
standing of the United States in the various areas 
of the world which it serves. 

The audience for this film program is the civilian 
audience in all countries outside of the western 
hemisphere in which the enemy does not have con- 
trol. This includes the civilians in Allied and neu- 
tral countries, as well as in occupied and liberated 
territory. In view of current military developments, 
these areas and audiences are increasing rapidly. 

Although the program is strictly a war activity, 
the fact that it actually is operating in this field over 
such a wide area gives it even greater significance. 
Some consideration of its functioning may teach us 
something about the problem of increasing inter- 
national understanding through the use of films, 
both now and after the war. 

The program covers a wide range of territory 
and activities. It has control over the distribution 
of civilian films in occu]Med areas. For this purpose, 
it has a program for the training of operators and 
distribution promoters for this type of work, al- 
though as soon as it seems wise and possible, local 
civilian operators and distributors are encouraged 
to resume functioning.. 

Some educational and governmental agencies have 
films, all or parts of which are useful for the pro- 
gram. Arrangements are made for the utilization 
of as much as possible of this material. The Branch 
also issues a news reel of its own which is used in 
its program. Not the least of its activities., is the 
production of films of its' own. 

Such a wide program involves the use of many 
different languages — twenty-two at the time of this 
report, including English. In order to overcome 
the barrier of illiteracy in any language, spoken 
comment is generally used in preference to printed 
sub-titles. Since dubbing in dialogue to coordinate 
with the lip movements in so many languages would 
be an impossible task, the foreign-language sound 
tracks in general carry comment rather than dia- 

The twenty-two languages referred to above as 
in use in this program are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Bul- 
garian, Chinese, Czechoslovakian. Danish, Dutch, 
English, Flemish, French, German, Greek, Hun- 
garian, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, 
Roumanian. Serbo-Croatian (Yugoslavia), Spanish, 
Swedish, Turkish. 
nims From Home for American Prisoners 

American boys in war prison camps in Germany 
already have received the first shipment of 26 
American motion pictures sent to them through the 
jgood offices of the War Prisoners Aid Committee 

DR. JOHN E. DUGAN. Editor 

Haddon Heights, New Jersey, Schools 

of the Young Men's Christian Association. The 
films will be distributed from the international head- 
quarters of the World Committee of the Y.M.C.A., 
a neutral organization, in Geneva, Switzerland, in 
accordance with a procedure agreed to by Germany 
which will permit the showing of American motion 
pictures to Allied ])risoners in German prison camps 
and German-made films to Germans imprisoned in 
the United States. 

Final arrangements for the shipment of the Amer- 
ican films were completed in December by Tracy 
Strong, executive director of the War Prisoners Aid 
of the Y.M.C.A., with the War Activities Committee 
of the Motion Picture Industry, the Army Overseas 
Film Service and the Office of Censorship. 

Regarding facilities for showing the films, Mr. 
Strong said : "We have checked most of the prison 
camps and find that they have 16mm. projection 
equipment ready to project the films. . . . Between 
the International Red Cross, which looks after the 
supplementary food and clothing for war prisoners, 
and the War Prisoners Aid of the Y.M.C.A., which 
provides for the educational, recreational and reli- 
gious needs, our boys are not forgotten when they 
become prisoners of war." 

Foreign Films for Language Study 

An experiment in the use of French, German and 
Russian feature films to accustom language students 
to a wide variety of different accents and dialects is 
now under way in a group of Eastern universities 
where training in foreign languages is being given 
to service men under the Army Specialized Training 

The chief value of the foreign-language feature 
film, according to Prof. Ernest L. Hettich of New 
York University, coordinator of the Army Specialized 
Training foreign area and language programs, is 
that it offers the only available means of allowing 
the student to judge whether his knowledge of the 
language he is studying is sufficiently good to enable 
him to understand rapid dialogue. 

Foreign-Ianguagje instructors in the N.Y.U. lan- 
guage program'fottow up the use of these films by 
directing the conversation at the next class session 
to bring out whether the student caught and under- 
stood parts of the dialogue which were not given in 
English sub-titles. 

The results of the use of these films may have a 
tremendous effect upon the methods and materials 
of foreign-language instruction in our schools and 
colleges after the war. ■'•' 

Editor's |^ote: The following motion pictures mentioned in 
our December issue in this section on "The Film and Inter- 
national Understanding", are released in 16mm by the firms 
indicated : April Romance, Beclhoyen, Gunga Din and Moon- 
light Sonata, by Walter O.' GutJohn;" Inc., New York City; 
Little Lord Faunttleroy by Ideal Pictures Corporation, Chicago; 
Nine Days a Queen by Brandon Films, New York City. 

February, 1944 

Page 77 


Visual Training Programs 

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for sharp, brilliant pictures. The beads arc guaranteed not to 
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Please send your 40 page FREE catalag on 
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School or UnWeraity . 


Page 78 

The Educational Screen 


.HARDY R. FINCH, Editor 
Head of the English Dep irtment 
Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. David Schneider, acting head of 
the Biology Department of Evander Childs High School 
in New York City and an active worker in the field of 
motion pictures and still photography, will conduct the 
Question Box in succeeding issues of this department. 

Mr. Schneider was graduated from the College of the 
City of New York in 1923 and received a Master of Arts 
idegree from Columbia University in 1928. He has taught in 
:the elementary and junior high schools of New York City. 
iFrom 1938 to 1943 he was chairman of the high school 
'Visual Aid Committee. He has produced two well-known 
films: "Evander's Chicks," for New York City high schools; 
and "They All Go to Evander," which is being circulated 
in Central America for the State Department. He assisted 
the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in producing 
"La Segunda Ensenanza En Los Estados Unidos," based 
on his scenario. 

Readers of EDUCATIONAL SCREEN are invited 
to send questions on their film production problems to this 
department. Mr. Schneider will be glad to answer them 
in future issues. 


Question: \\'e have several hundred feet of film 
containing many excellent shot.s taken in the last 
few years during trips across the country. I 
know that these films could be useful in some of 
the geography classes of our school. I am told 
that the average title printed and made in the 
laboratory costs anywhere from twenty-five cents 
to a dollar. At that rate the sixty or more titles 
that we need would amount to about thirty dol- 
lars. Please tell us how we can make and de- 
velop our own titles, giving approximate costs. 
Answer: The simplest and least expensive method of 
making your own titles is to photograph them on positive 
film, remembering that the finished film is no different from 
any negative, meaning that the original lights and darks 
are reversed. Black lettering against light background may 
be had with the regular titling outfits. If you like your 
titles white against a dark background — a combination easy 
on the eye — it is best to hand-print them in India ink on 
white cards. If your lettering is the kind that is not photo- 
genic, you might resort to tlic typewriter, being doubiy 
careful about the condition of your ribbon and the clean- 
ness of your letters. 

.^s to the nature of each title, keep in mind the audience 
for which it is intended. In general the fewer the titles the 
fewer will be the breaks (both literally and psychologically) 
in the continuity of the film. In a good travel film the 
natural settings of road signs, railroad stations, entrances to 
national parks, or historical landmarks will serve, better 
than any manufactured title, as a continuity in its appro- 
priate place in the film. Of course there will be need of 
explanations of important activities that may be going on 
in the film. In that case, if you intend to make it a teach- 
ing film, may I suggest that many of your titles be worded 
in the nature of thought challenging questions? For ex- 
ample, if you have scenes portraying logging activities, your 
questions might be on the identification of trees — the 
reasons why that particular area is be^t suited for logging — 
why this activity must be carrfed on only during certain 
parts of the year — or how the techniques used by the men 
are more efficient than others. 

.Another thing to keep in mind about titles is the lan- 
guage comprehensibility of your students. Here too econ- 
omy of words, coupled with simplicity, should be the 
guiding rule. 

As far as footage is concerned, it is best to keep in mind 
the speed of the slowest reader of your audience. A good 
criterion would be to read each title twice at your own 
normal reading rate, while the c^nera is photographing 
your title. It's better to have an extra foot or two of a 
title than be that much short. 

To develop my own titles, I had a spool built in the 
school shop. The spool consists of two disks about ten 
inches in diameter, made of pine or any other wood avail- 
able. This wood should be about one-half inch thick. 
-About one-half inch in from the periphery of each disk, 
drill holes about %{. of an inch in diameter. These holes 
should be spaced about one and one-half inches apart on 
a circle concentric with the periphery of the disks. By 
means of dowel sticks to fit these holes the disks are now 
joined. The length of these dowels will vary with the 
amount of titling one may expect to do, and also with the 
length of the developing trays. In my own case 12 inch 
dowels cover both requirements. Through the centers of 
both disks runs a dowel about 22 inches long and about 
ya or Yz inch in diameter. This gives the spool a handle 
on each side for rotation in the tray. Make sure that all 
joints are properly sealed, all rough areas thoroughly sand- 
papered, and the entire spool waterproofed with several 
coats of shellac or other agent. 

Sectional view of drum for developing titles 

Two small, thin nails (brads), spaced exactly the distance 
between the width of two sprocket holes of a single 16nim 
frame, are now placed on one of the dowels near each of 
the two disks. These nails will anchor the films at each 
end and also maintain proper tension while the spool is 
being rotated in the developer and hypo. Scotch tape may 
be used instead of the nails. Under a safelight in the dark 
room thread the exposed film spirally on the spool, emulsion 
side up, away from the wood. The important thing is to 
practice threading some old film in daylight to learn to 
control the spacing of the spiral and avoid overlapping of 
the film. 

After experimenting with many developers I found that 

Kodak D-11 gives best results. If the film is properly 

exposed (positive film has very low emulsion speed) five 

minutes of development in D-11, followed by proper fixing 

should give excellent, clear titles. After the film has been 

fixed in hypo and washed in running water it may be left 

to dry right on the reel, or, if one prefers, each title may be 

separately cut and hung to dry in the usual manner. 

Estimated costs 

2 rolls of positive film (200 ft.) $2.00 

1 gallon D-11 .50 

1 gallon Hypo .50 

Total $3.00 

Since the average title runs to about three feet, the two 
rolls of film should yield at least sixty titles. The de- 
veloper and hypo, if returned to their proper bottles after 
using, could be made to work for another two hundred 
feet of film. This would bring the original cost down to 
$2.50 per sixty titles. D.S. 

Tebruary, 1944 

Page 79 

yVill Stok^vsld swin^ it/ 

BOOGIE wooGiE and Barrel House are pretty tough 
competition for the average serious music course in 
high school. Unless boys and girls can "swing it," 
their minds won't reach out, as a rule, toward the 
finer music they could enjoy just as richly. 

But Deanna Durbin and Leopold Stokowski 
changed all that with their famous hit picture, 
ONE HUNDRED MEN AND A GIRL. This Story of un- 
employed symphony musicians brought together 
by lovely Miss Durbin in a triumph of wonderful 
music, led by the master himself, makes the audi- 
ence as proud of fine symphony as are those who 
create it. Stokowski doesn't need to "swing it"! 

Schools all over America — some very large, some 
very small* — are finding out that 16mm feature- 

length movies bring alive all subjects in the curricu- 
lum, whether music or history or geography or 
science. Auditorium showings, followed by class- 
room discussion, pay rich dividends in understand- 
ing, bring student and teacher together in mutual 
appreciation of the humanities behind the facts they 
are studying. 

FILMS incorpobated's famous Study Guides — 
showing individual teachers how to get the most 
out of the feature programs you schedule for your 
school, are sent free with each program, on request. 
Our colorful catalog of both features and shorts is 
yours for the asking. \^ rite for it today! 


330 West 42nd Street, N.Y. 18.* 64 East Lake Street, Chicago 1, III. 

314 S.W. 9th Ave., Portland S,Ore. • 1709 W. 8th St., Los Angelesl4,Cal. 

109 North Akord Street, Dallas 1, Texas 


330 Wast 42nd Straat, N«w York 18, N. Y. 

Please send me a copy of your famous "School List** catalo;: 
and put me on your mailing list for future information 
about 16mm films. I understand that there is no obligation, 
and that, should we decide to rent your Alms, the price we 
pay depends on our school enrollment.* 


Page 80 

The Educational Screen 

^fiE jLits^xatuxE in ^i/iiuaL UnihucHon 

A Monthly Digest 


MacLeish Asks Film Library for Nation — Motion I'icturc 

Herald, 154:no.4. January 22, 1944. 

A project already under way by the Library of Congress, 
in cooperation with the Museum of Modern Art Film 
Library is that of selecting film.s that are to be preserved 
for historic valae. The project is now operating under a 
three-year Rockefeller Foundation grant. Mr. MacLeish 
hopes to get financial support from Congress and from the 
film industry in continuing this work. 


Measuring Film Usefulness— Dr. Abrani Vandcrmecr— 

Business Screen, No. 4, 1943-4. 

Two major problems were studied in this e.xperinicnt: 
whether or not a careful use of motion pictures would re- 
duce the training time for lathe operators; and whether 
the learner is thereby given some technical information as 
a background for his work. It is noted that from 19% to 
53% of their practice time was saved, or "with careful 
use . . . untrained workers can be expected to average 
from 22 to 104% higher output of acceptable product per 
working hour on the engine lathe at the outset if they are 
first prepared by educationally sound use of motion pic- 

Seven classes of lathe trainees were divided into two 
groups. One group was taught with sound films, and the 
other group without. Painstaking records were kept of 
the amount of time each student spent on each practice 
lathe job. The course was given at the Morton High 
School in Cicero. IlHiiois for new war workers at a naval 
ordnance plant. The course lasted six weeks, and was 
divided into the beginners' shop, the intermediate shop 
and the advanced shop. It is strongly emphasized that the 
films were eiTective because they were properly planned 
and timed to be used when the learner was ready for them. 

Free Movies in Harlem: An Experiment— L. D. Reddick. 
Curator Schomburg Collection, 135th St. Branch, N. Y 
Public Library-/-ifrr(ir.v Journal, 68:981 December 1, 1943. 
In an effort to attract the young people of the neighborhood 
to the library for wholesome entertainment and reading a 
pioneer effort was undertaken in using motion pictures. The 
article describes the plans and some of the disappointments 
en route One of the outcomes, for example, was that children 
of elementary school age came in great numbers, but the 
adolescents for whom the showings had been planned were 
very few The author offers some advice to others who may 
want to undertake library film showings : have edequate funds. 
preview all films, provide free time for a staff member to 
plan and direct the program, seek active support from other 
community agencies, and explore further the possibilities of 
films and reading. 


Filmstrips Today and Tomorrow— J. Raymond Hutcliin- 
son chairman. Committee on Television, Department of 
Secondary Teachers, N. E. A.—Sclwol Executive, 33:60. 
January, 1944. . 

This report on the present status and future possibilities 
of the filmstrip in education lists the following facts as 
evidence of future growth: 1) more than 5,000 high schools 
use preflight aeronautics kits; 2) titles are available for 
almost every aspect of basic training; 70% of aircraft manu- 
facturing plants, large and small, use them; 60% of the 
training of the armed forces is visual, much of which is 
the filmstrip medium; 5) plans for new schools include 


New York University Film Library 

darkening facilities, outlets in each room, and so on; 6) 
boards of education are buying the strips and projectors 
requisitioned by teachers; and 7) it is recognized that film- 
strips will aid in rehabilitation and re-training at the end 
of the war. 

Field Trips in Government Courses — Edna M. McGlynn, 

Salem Teachers College, Mass.— -Sofio/ Education, 8:19. 

January, 1944. 

.\ course based on Beard's ".American Government and 
Politics" at this teachers college is very largely dependent 
upon first-hand experience for its content. The class meets 
for three periods a week, with one session devoted to the 
textbook and current events discussion; one for the field 
trip, and the third for follow-up discussion and tests. 

Places to visit are classified according to local, federal 
or state agencies. The Boston Post Office, Customs House, 
Social Security Office, Coast Guard, etc. are some of the 
national offices visited; the state house, state prison, state 
employment agency, and other similar institutions represent 
state services; for local government, the class visits the 
court house, city hall, town meetings. The instructor has 
found that required readings are more enthusiastically car- 
ried on after a field trip, and long after the students are 
out of school— and in the Army— there are personal anec- 
dotes about experiences that have greater meaning because 
of the field trips. Similar trips are recommended, with 
adaptations, for secondary-school students. 

Film News Survey of Film Demand — Etta Schneider Ress 

—Film Ncii's, January, 1944. p.6-7. 

The results of a letter sent out to 21 representative edu- 
cational film library directors, requesting the following in- 
formation: 1) In which subject matter areas are you re- 
ceiving the greatest number of requests for films which are 
not as yet available?, and 2) Within this area, what are 
the general topics for which you are receiving most re- 
quests for films from your teachers and adult leaders? 

Eleven replies were used in the consensus of topics listed. 
It is pointed out that several persons replied with the gen- 
eral appeal that many films are needed for special audiences 
— as adult groups; handicappel boys and girls; discussion- 
type films and so on. Subject matter areas mentioned most 
frequently were: health, nutrition and hygiene; home eco- 
nomics; citizenship education; history; science: mathematics 
and so on. 

Radio Transcriptions in the Classroom— William N. Stein- 
berg, Benjamin Franklin High School, New York City— 
High Points. 25 no.lO: 61. December, 1943. 
A weekly feature of the English Department of the 
modern Benjamin Franklin High School in New York 
City's east side is the broadcast of a transcription over the 
public address system for 15 minutes each week. The pro- 
gram is announced throughout the day when the program 

is given. ■ c.. 

Transcriptions are selected from the Federal Radio Edu- 
cation Committee's catalog and from a bulletin on War 
and the Curriculum Workshop on Radio Broadcasting 
distributed by the Board of Education. The programs are 
chosen for their value as a basis for discussion. Several 
episodes from Douglas Miller's "You Can't Do Business 
with Hitler" were chosen (available free from the U. S. 
Office of Education). Teachers can come and hear the 
recording the day before. The technique for presenting the 

(Concluded on pag€ 82) 

Sf^ettccr GK Delincascopc used by Air Force Technical Training Corps, University of Chicago. 

Seeing and Learning Quickly 

In the first 28 months of its existence 
since March 1941, the Army Air Force 
Technical TrainingCommand turned out 
more than 500,000 ground and combat 
crew technicians. An amazing total con- 
trasted with the record of the preceding 
20 years during which the Army Air 
Corps had graduated only 14,803 such 

One factor which is helping to in- 
struct such unprecedented numbers in 
so short a period is the use of visual 

methods. Spencer Delincascopes are in 
daily service in this vital work. 




Page 82 

The Educational Screen 

broadcast is as follows: The teacher in charge broadcasts 
an introductory statement and directs attention to impor- 
tant aspects of the program. The classroom teacher con- 
ducts follow-up discussion after the broadcast. 

It is found that the boys of the school look forward to 
the programs, and that teachers of other departments re- 
port much carry-over of interest. In any case, the pur- 
poses of the English teacher in providing practice in at- 
tentive listening and in free discussion, are satisfactorily 

Let's Help You Find it: recordings for classroom use — 

Eniilic Haley — I'rmircssivc liducatUm. 20:20,?, December, 


A classified listing of recordings for sale and rental in 
both ii Yi r.p.m. size and 78 for use in high school social 
studies, English and drama. 


Biological and Physical Sciences in Schools of Nursing: 

Selected Films — Loretta Heidgerken, Catholic University. 

Washington, D. C. Kducatiqnal Film Library .'Association. 

45 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 50c 37p. 1944. 

An evaluated listing of films which met the standards 
of the author as suitable aids to instructors in nursing, and 
especially in biological and physical sciences for nursing 
students. The twenty-eight subjects included are the pro- 
ducts of standard classroom film producers. Suggested 
ways of using each film arc included in the evaluations. 

New Health Films — Section on Health and Medical Films. 

.^American Film Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, 

N. Y. 6p. minieo. January, 1944. 10c. 

Ttiis is a supplement to the helpful bulletin published 
last year under the direction of Dr. Adolf Nichtenhauser. 

Let's help you find it: Science Helps — Etta Schneider Ress 
— Progrcssh'e Education. 21 :7 January, 1944. 
A listing of some of the titles included in the recent 
"Bibliography of Visual Aids for Pre-Induction Training", 
published by the U. S. Office of Education, Washington, 
D. C. These represent some of the subjects in applied 
science that are available for science teachers and those 
concerned with pre-induction training. 

Aircraft Identification Classes in High Schools — Lt. James 
E. Knauer. A.C., Ellington Field, Texas — Sierra Educational 
A'ezi'S — December, 1943. p.l6. 

A review of some of the materials available to instructors 
in the Air Forces who are concerned with teaching identi- 
fication. Among the aids that are available are airplane 
models, filmstrips, slides, illustrated periodicals, training films. 

Films for Schools — William J. Davics, .'Mbucjuerque, High 
School — AVw Mexico School Rcvic'a\ 23 :4 November, 1943. 
Sources of films within the state and some from outside 

found useful in this school. 


Our Minority Groups: Italian- Americans, lUiildiiui America, 

vol 9 no. 2. 

A rare source of information on one of the fundamental 
problems with which every community is faced at present 
and will inevitably be faced in the future is the current 
issue of Building America. With photographs not usually 
available, the bulletin traces the story oi Italian immigrants 
and their contribution to our culture, including the important 
part their sons and grandsons are playing in the war. 

Several pages treat of the history of the Italian people and 
some of their folkways, revealing the background against which 
we should understand these people when they have migrated 
and settled in the newer, richer .-\nierica. The conditions 
which faced them in the New World at the height of the 
immigration movement were appalling — sweat shops, low 
wages, crowded and unsanitary slum dwellings. The scene has 
changed considerably for the better among the present 
generation of Italian-.^mericans as they have broadened their 
outlook, acquired training and professional education and 
have taken their places in .American life. 

Release More Visual Aids to 
Speed Up War Training 

OW. Inindrecl fifty V,. S. Of^ce of Education visual 
uiiit.s for war training are now nearing comple- 
tion, and as they are completed, are being released for 
])urchase through Castle F"ilms, Inc.. New York City, 
the contract distributor for all Office of Education 
visual aids. 

These visual aids which are inaking educational history 
by teaching workers essential skills inotion by motion, 
supplement the original 48 U. S. O. E. motion pictures 
which have been in daily use throughout the United 
States, in schools, factories, and by the Army and Navy. 
Each unit includes a 16nmi sound motion picture, a 
.silent filmstrip, and an instructor's manual planned and 
produced to meet today's instructional needs. 

Areas covered by these 198 war training films in- 
clude machine shop work, shipbuilding skills, aircraft 
manufacturing skills, supervisory training, engineering, 
optical craftsmanship, welding, farm work, and forging. 

The first subjects to be inade available cover occupa- 
tions approved by the %ar Manpower Commission as 
requiring first attention, iiamely Machine Shop Work 
(9 films), Shipbuilding Skills (10 films). Aircraft 
Work (6 films), and Farm Work (4 films). 

Until recently, the films were sold for the cost of 
film stock. Now, at the request of Congress, they are 
being sold at a rate e.xpected to return to the Federal 
Government the full cost of production. Congress first 
appropriated $1,000,000 to the U. S. Office of Educa- 
tion for war training films. For this fiscal year. Con- 
gress increased the appropriation to $2,000,000. 

These war training films are not Hollywood pro- 
ductions. They have been made locally by 23 difTerent 
film producers in 8 States. 

At the premier demonstration of the films in Wash- 
ington recently, Administrator Paul V. McNutt of the 
Federal Security Agency, declared : 

"Every film is outlined by a technical expert and a 
vi.sual-aids expert. Production is supervised by a com- 
mittee named by the director of vocational education for 
the State where the picture is made. This committee 
usually includes industrial experts, shop teachers and 
union workers, and, since it is a local group, its advice 
and guidance is readily accessible to safeguard the ac- 
curacy and eflfectiveness of the training film. To many 
industries and vocational schools, the Federal Govern- 
ment owes a debt of gratitude for generous help in crea- 
ting the films. 

"America's new training weapon is also being re- 
leased to our .\llies. Canada .and South Africa have 
each purchased over 1.000 prints. Twenty filtus 
were recently flfiwn to Soviet Russia. Audiences for 
these war training films are already estimated to exceed 

The Office of Education points out that this is the 
first time films have been produced in an integrated 
series, graduated in difficulty, and intended to form 
basic curricular material designed to fit into organized 
courses of instruction. It is also the first time in his- 
tory of the film indtistry that filmstrips have been de- 
veloped deliberately geared into and coordinated with 
the sound motion picture for the most effective teach- 
ing utilization. 

February, 1944 

Page 83 

Can We Be Happy in the Midst of War? 


A few sample programs from the FUN-MUSIC Series: 

1 — McNamara's Band 

2 — Brownie's Victory Garden 

3— Football Thrills of 1943 

4 — Danger on Ice 

5— Clyde Beatty's 

Animal Thrills 
6 — You're A Grand Old Flag 

1— Good Morning, Mr. ZIP ZIP ZIP 

2— The Old Plantation 

3— The Trap 

4— A Big Fight 

5 — Personality and Pep 

6 — Trolley Trouble 

1— A Fellow Who Plays 

in the Band 
2 — Hey Hey Fever 
3 — Your Horiscope 
4 — Ostrich Trouble 
5— Variety Reel No. 7 
6 — Comin' Thru the Rye 7 — Hawaii — Song of the Islands 

Each Program is mounted on a 1 600 ft. reel, with a running time of 
approximately 45 minutes. Hundreds of similar programs in this 
series. Each program contains at least 2 musical numbers, and at 
least 2 reels of comedy or cartoon. The balance are novelty reels. 


A series of 1600 ft. reels similar to the Fun-Music series. However, 
the emphasis is on the war effort, at home and abroad — the 
United Nations— in fact, these are WIN THE WAR Programs. See 
Pages 48 and 49 of our general catalogue (23rd Edition) for typi- 
cal programs. Send for this catalog NOW if you do not yet have it. 


Another series of 1600 ft. reel programs, designed for recreational 
periods. See Pages 49 and 50 of our general catalogue (23rd Edi- 
tion) for suggestions of subject-combinations for Recess Programs. 


Any of these series of 45-minute programs may be rented at the 
following rates: Per Day $5.00; Per Week $12.50; Per Month $37.50. 

Ttvelve well-located offices to serve you: 



Bertram Willoughby Pictures, Inc. 

Suite 600 — 1600 Broadwoy 

New York 19, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

18 South Third Street 

Memphis 3, Tennessee 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

2408 West 7th Street 
Los Angeles 5, California 

and the following branches and affiliates: 
Stevens-Ideal Pictures Ideal Pictures 

89 Cone Street, N.W. 1739 Oneida St. 

Atlanta 3. Georgia Denver 7. Colo. 

Ideal Pictures 
2024 Main Street 
Dallas 1. Texas 

Ideal Pictures 
219 East Main St. 
Richmond 19, Va. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
915 S.W. 10th Ave. 
Portland 5, Oregon 

Ideal-Southern Pictures 
2819 Bell Street 
New Orleans, La. 


Ideal Pictures 

Room 1 — Lobby Floor 

Reliance BIdg. 

926 McGee Street 

Kansas City 6, Mo. 

Ideal-Southern 16mm Pictures Co. 

9536 N.E. 2nd Street 

Miami 38, Florida 

Page 84 

The Educational Screen 




,.,the Visual Woy is the Best Way 

Whether \r% world affairs or home 
affairs . . . the war front or the political front 
. . . the thrills of your favorite sport in or out 
of season . . . travel in America or the four 
corners of the earth ... or Hollywood's greatest 
stars in their greatest pictures . . . the motion 
picture is the great medium of expression! 

Here are some of the outstanding dramatic, 
musical and comedy successes pronounced by 
leading motion picture critics as 

Must Not Miss" 

. . . great singing star !n 





with Allan Jones, Phil 
Spitalny and His All- 
Girl Orchestra 

"Pictures You 

. . . the comedy team voted 
America's number one funny 
men in 






the people's own young fa- 
vorite In 


• • 

GET HEP TO LOVE with lovely little GLORIA JEAN 

And These Great Pictures Now Showing 
at Your Favorite Theatres 


starring Randolph Scott 


in Technicolor starring Nelson Eddy, 
Susanna Foster with Claude Rains 



. . . their greatest show for mirth! 


Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

OWI 16mm Fighting Films 
Conference Held in Washington 

NATIONAL civic organization leaders and regional 
war film coordinators and distributors were in- 
vited to join the national OWI 16mm Advisory and 
Policy Committee and government officials in a two-day 
conference in Washington January 19 and 20 to discuss 
additional ways of mobilizing local groups for film 

Four resolutions aimed "to accelerate the civilian war 
eflfort through the use of 16nnii (non-theatrical ) motion 
pictures" were adopted following the conferences and 
various committee meetings. I.. C. Larson, Chairman 
of the Advisory and Policy Committee announced these 
resolutions as follows : 

( 1 ) The Secretary of War and other leaders of our 
armed forces have pleaded for bringing the total civilian 
war effort up to the effectiveness of the armed forces, 
now poised for an "all-out" attack upon Germany and 
Japan. Many government agencies are providing the 
leadership in alleviating the problems can.sed or intensi- 
fied by the impact of the war upon the local communities, 
such as absenteeism, inflation, juvenile delinquency, 
conservation of health and materials, and food produc- 
tion, distribution and consumption. Many of these 
agencies have, in addition to the press and radio, relied 
upon 16mm factual films to vivify the civilian war prob- 
lems and suggestions for their .solution or amelioration. 

We therefore recommend that Federal agencies allo- 
cate funds to produce additional information films and 
to provide sufficient i)rints for their effective and speedy 
presentation before the adult American public. 

(2) The Non-Theatrical Division of the Bureau 
of Motion Picture of the Office of War Information 
has harnesserl the facilities of the distributors of war 
films to aid the American war effort. The OWI effec- 
tively and speedily circulates 16inm government films 
to the adult — and to the young adults — of all commu- 
nities through 241 regional film libraries that serve the 
25,000 non-theatrical sound film projectors in the 

We therefore recommend that the government agen- 
cies desiring to reach the industrial and labor organiza- 
tions, churches, schools and colleges, men's and women's 
organizations, and other groups owning these projectors, 
utilize the OWI central 16mm war film distribution 
system to achieve the speediest presentation of their 
war films. 

(3) There is a great demand by the general public 
for more films depicting our own armed forces in ac- 
tion. It is recognized by leaders of our armed forces 
as well as by civilians that the inter-dependence between 
the armed forces and civilian production compels the 
de\elopment of civilian morale to as high degree as 
]>ossible. Excellent combat, orientation and industrial 
incentive films have already been produced by branches 
of the U. S. Army and Navy for their specialized pur- 
poses. But thus far those powerful morale-building 
films of our armed forces are not yet available to the 
majority of civilian groups. 

To fulfill the needs of the civilian population to achieve 
its maximum war effort which w'U help end the war 
sooner, we recommend that the L'. S. War and Navy 

February, 1944 

Page 85 

Departments, as well as otlier government agencies, 
make full use of the national war film distribution sys- 
tem of the Non-Theatrical Division of the Bureau of 
Motion Pictures of the Office of War Information. 

(4) Because the 16mm film medium reaches tiie 
American public at a point which expedites immediate 
action, we strongly urge that the Treasury Department 
use non-theatrical prints to complement its commercial 
theatre (35mm) program. The 16mm films can best be 
employed "at the point of sale" during pay-roll deduc- 
tion war bond drives and other war finance campaigns. 

\\'e therefore recommend that : 

( a ) The Treasury Department produce films dealing 
with inflation and financing the war, and provide suffi- 
cient prints for national distribution through 16mm war 
film distributors as well as through commercial theatres. 

(b) The Treasury Department provide 16mm prints 
of dynamic films that will induce attitudes favorable to 
investing earnings in war bonds ; and that the De- 
partment's messages during its periodic war bond cam- 
paigns also be issued in 16mm trailers that can be at- 
tached to these morale-buliding films for special pre- 
sentation at the actual fund raising drives in the local 
community group meetings. 

At the first day's session .presided over by Mr. C. R. 
Reagan, head of the Non-Theatrical Division of the 
OW'I Bureau of Motion Pictures, reports on film 
services and facilities of War Film Agencies were 
made by the following representatives: Joe Weil. 
Red Cross ; J. R. Williams, British Information Service ; 
R. C. Maroney and Oscar Sams, CIAA : Wesley 
Greene, National Film Board of Canada ; Lt. Douglas 
George, U. S. Navy; R. ^^•. Coyne, U. S. Treasury; 
George J. Janecek, United Nations Information Center ; 
C. A. Lindstrom, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Lieut. R. W. White and Major John W. Hubbell. U. S. 

On the second day addresses were given by George 
H. Healy, Director OWT Domestic Branch, and Stan- 
ton Griffis, Chief of the Motion Picture Bureau. At 
the luncheon meeting Col. Kirk B. Lawton. chief of 
the Army Pictorial Service, told the grou]) that although 
the volume of training films being turned out by the 
Army Pictorial Service is falling off sharply, the same 
organization will be kept fully occupied in production 
of an extensive series of educational films for the .Army. 

Elementary subjects will be covered mostly. There 
will be several series devoted to instruction in foreign 
languages, literature, the arts, music, etc. 

This program is getting under way at once, and it is 
expected that .several productions will be completed 
before long and stored away pending the armistice. It 
is not unlikely that troops in isolated posts where there 
is little action — Iceland, Greenland, .Alaska, for instance 
— will be sent some of prior to the armistice. 

Various Sub-Committees of the National 16mm .\d- 
visory and Policy Committee also met during the Con- 
ference, such as the Committee on State and Local War 
Film Utilization, the Committee on War Incentive 
Films, the Committee on Service Charges and .Attend- 
ance, and the Committee on Assi.stance to U. S. Treas- 
ury Department. 

(Concluded on pai/c 89) 


Acclaimed by Critics as 



Now Available in 16MM Sound Film 

DESERT V/CTORr— "unquestionably the 
best film of the year" according to film critic 
James Agee in "The Nation". 

DESERT V/CTORK— chosen by the Nation- 
al Board of Review of Motion Pictures as 
"the best documentary film of the year". 

DESERT V»CTORr— selected by New York 
Times film critic Bosley Crowther as one of 
the best films of all kinds released in 1943. 

DESERT VICTORY— one of film critic John 
T. McManus's "Fifteen Best Films of 1943" 
in P.M. 

Service Charge, one day $2.50 — longer period 

by arrangement. 

Sale Price $66. .50 — 62 minutes 

Write for Catalogue 
'Films of Britain at War" 


An Agency of the British Government 

30 Rockefeller Plozo, New York 20, N. Y. 

360 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 1, III, 

260 California Street, Son Francisco 11, Calif. 

1005 Taft Building, 1680 North Vine Street, Hollywood 28, Calif. 

1336 New York Avenue, N.W. Woshington 5, D. C. 

1238 Canal Building, New Orleans 12, Lo. 


Page 86 

The Educational Screen 


As They Look to A Teacher Committee 

L. C. LARSON. Editor 

Instructor in School of Education 
Consultant in Audio- Visual Aids 
Indiana University, Bloomington 

Eighteenth Century Liie in Williamsburg, Virginia 

(Eastman Kodak Company, Informational Films Divi- 
sion, Rochester 4, New York) 44 minutes, 16 mm. sound. 
Kodachromt, price complete, $240; Unit I (Reels 1 and 
2), $120; Units II and III, $60 each. Produced by East- 
man Kodak Company in cooperation with Eighteenth Cen- 
tury Williamsburg, Inc. Apply to distributor for free 

Through the medium of color-photo,graphy a day in the 
lives of a few Williamsburg colonists is re-created. As the 
lamp-lighter at sun-up extinguishes one of the village lamps, 
tlie slaves belonging to the Christopher Kendall household 
perform their daily morning tasks. Dina, the kitchen slave, 
and her two children — Polly and Cutty — through practiced 
division of labor, produce a most appetizing breakfast. This 
town house, as others in Williamsburg, was practically self- 
supporting. Polly gathers the eggs. Cutty fetches the bacon 
from the smoke hougc and the butter from the dairy house. 
He draws water, carries in wood, takes embers in a pan 
to the master's bedroom, there starts a fire in the fireplace, 
and pours hot water. The master emerges from his cur- 
tained bed, enjoys the warmth of the open fire, washes 
himself with home-made soap, shaves with a razor im- 
ported from England, and cleans his teeth with a frayed 
sassafras root. While he clothes himself and adjusts his 
wig, preparations for breakfast proceed in the kitchen which 
is separate from the house. Coffee is roasted in the fire- 
place and ground with a manually operated mill. All cook- 
ing is done in the fireplace. When the family assemble in 
the dining room, they are served the products of Dina's 
culinary arts — bacon, eggs, porridge, coffee, waffles, and 
toast. Thus ends the first part which deals with family 

The second part dealing with cabinet-making takes place 
in the shop of Christopher Kendall, whose son, Tom, is 
beginning his apprenticeship under the instruction of the 
journeymen. Apprentices usually served an apprenticeship 
for seven years during which time they were fed, clothed, 
and housed at the master's expense. Journeymen were 
those cabinet-makers who had completed their apprentice- 
ship but had not yet assumed control of a shop. Upon this 
particular day the royal governor of Virginia and his lady 
visit the shop to inspect a desk which was being made for 
them. Kendall and all his helpers are pleased by their cus- 
tomers' satisfaction. In privacy Kendall shows the gover- 
nor a secret drawer where he might cache valuable papers 

This monthly page of reviews is conducted for the 
benefit of educational film producers and users alike. The 
comments and criticisms of both are cordially invited. 

Producers wishing to have new films reviewed on 
this page should write L. C. Larson, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana, giving details as to length, content, 
date on which the film was issued, basis of availability, 
prices, producer and distributor. They will be informed 
of the first open date when the Teacher Committee will 
review the films. The only cost to producers for the 
service is the cost of transporting the prints to and 
from Bloomington. This Cost Must Be Borne By The 

Assisted by CAROLYN GUSS 
Extension Division 
Indiana University, Bloomington 

or possessions. This part of the film ends as fi\'e men and 
an oxen-drawn cart deliver the desk to the governor's man- 

The film concludes with scenes of community life in 
which are shown the blacksmith's shop, the Raleigh Tav- 
ern, the post^rider, the jail, and the evening activities in 
the Kendall home. In each of these centers of community 
life the simple unrehearsed activities of the colonists are 
portrayed and one has the feeling that the film has been 
produced so "that the future may learn from the past." 

Committee Appraisal: This film is an outstanding ex- 
ample of the creative use of the potentialities of cine- 
matography in Kodachrome and the facilities of a cultural 
shrine to present a vivid and accurate account of the every- 
day life of Americans who lived and worked tw-o centuries 
ago. It will be of particular interest to either the specialists 
interested in ways and means of the diffusion of knowledge 
or the teacher charged with the responsibility of providing 
students or adults with an understanding of .American life 
during the Colonial Period. 


(British Information Services, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York 20, New York) 16 minutes, 16mni. sound. $12. Pro- 
duced by the Army Film Unit for the Ministry of Infor- 
mation. Apply to distributor for free rental or rental 

The film begins with the statement made by Oliver 
Cromwell three hundred years ago, "The citizen soldier 
must know what he is fighting for and love what he 
knows." Based upon this theory, the British in 1941 set 
up .\BCA — the Army Bureau of Current Affairs — to equip 
each British soldier with a weapon of the mind built upon 
a knowledge of current events and a confidence in his 
military science against which enemy propaganda would 
be valueless. 

Scenes of fighting in this war are shown as the com- 
mentator explains that while the British are tough phy- 
sically, they must be provided with a mental ammunition. 
The need for such training is apparent as there are shown 
scenes of men in barracks discussing the fall of Dunkirk. 
Britain's weaknesses, and Germany's secret weapons. The 
mental ammunition must be impervious to rumor as well 
as to propaganda. The Adjutant General discusses the new- 
bureau and emphasizes that its function would be to inform 
rather than to propagandize. 

Skepticism and derision are the reactions of the men as 
they meet for the first time with their leaders. To illus- 
trate the purpose of ABCA, the leader poses the question 
of Britain's being at Tobruk. To the leader's extreme satis- 
faction, the men responded eagerly and spontaneously. A 
further explanation brings out the fact that the discussion 
will treat two topics; war and its active operation and cur- 
rent events dealing with immediate and long time prob- 

Short scenes show various groups actively discussing 
the topic of the week. The men contribute shyly at first, 
then eagerly. The men discuss their enemy as a nation 
and as individual opponents. Leaders attend sessions and 
are taught how to lead group discussions. Two types of 

{Concluded on page 88) 

February, 1944 

Page 87 

Page 88 

The Educational Screen 

doing yeoman service for our 
armed forces in every area of 
activity as a visual aid in facili- 
tating education and training, 
and entertaining our boys. 

• Announcement will be made as soon as 
Holmes Sound-on-Film Projectors again be- 
come available for civilian use. In the mean- 
time, we will endeavor to furnish replacements 
or parts for existing Holmes equipment. 


MonufQcturers of 16mm ond 35mm Sound on-FIlm 
Projectors for over 2S years to Deolers and Users 





on 16mm Sound 


With Adolphe Menjou, Carole Landis, 
Charles Butterwor+h, and The Charioteers. 

Musical comedy at its best! A whirlwind of gaiety, all 
the excitement of life with a traveling carnival show. 

:=Other HAL ROACH Features:= 



ZENOBIA (An Elephant 
Never Forgets) 









Available for rental at your Him Library. 

Send for our Free Catalog with compleie list of 
many other educational and recreational 16mm 
sound films. 


723 Seventh Ave., Dept. 10, New York 19, N. Y. 

leaders are shown and warned against: the one who does 
all the talking and the one who takes no part and permits 
the discussions to develop into pointless argument. 

Since the initial experiment proved a success, ABC.\ has 
gone beyond the current affairs stage. Other media of 
communication are brouRht into use — wall maps, pictures, 
pamphlets, radio broadcasts, and records of personal ex- 
periences. To show the ficneral interest in ABCA, a type 
of "Information, Please" program is conducted between 
American and British officers with the enlisted men as the 

The film ends with close-ups of soldiers as the commen- 
tator reiterates that .ABCA stresses the importance of mak- 
ing each soldier an individual fighting unit to strengthen his 
defense against the enemy, to initiate a counter offensive, 
and to make a positive contribution toward peace. 

Committee Appraisal: .An illuminating overview of a 
plan under which free discussion of current problems have 
become part of the training of every British soldier. The 
major portion of the film deals with techniques of group 
discussion and the role of the discussion leader. Highly 
recommended for professional courses in teacher-training 
institutions, staff meetings of .secondary and college facul- 
ties and groups interested in either civilian or military pro- 
grams of general adult education. 

The Main Dish 

(National Film Board of Canada, 84 East Randolph, Chicago) 
18 minutes, 16mni. sound, black and white, $30. Produced by 
National Film Board of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
-Apply to distributor for rental sources. 

The film opens with a series of shots showing Canada's 
vast cattle herds while the commentator explains that half 
of their meat production must go directly or indirectly to 
serve the needs of war. 

The action then shifts to a butcher's shop with the 
butcher giving a practical demonstration in cutting up 
and quartering meat. By means of a diagram, such ruts 
are shown as corner rump roast, flank steak, lean plate 
beef, beef brisket, frent shank, rolled neck pot roast, and 
blade pot roast. 

After a home economist's demonstration of cooking by 
moist heat, there follows a survey of cooking implements^ — 
casseroles, pans, oven, roaster. Housewives are advised to 
choose menus that can be cooked while they are absent. 
The commentator adds: "Plan to use those vegetables 
which can be slipped into the oven when you return. 
Make a pudding to cook slowly in the oven with the meat. 
In this way, the best use is made of both food and fuel. 
Put your soup in the oven too. ... it can be simmering 
while you are away." 

Then follows an expose of fuel-saving combinations: 
vegetables cooked around meat, potatoes added, soup sim- 
mering without extra cost. Casserole dishes are advocated 
as nourishing and fuel-saving. 

Grill cooking methods are then demonstrated. The film 
ends as the commentator states, while a housewife is seen 
putting a roast on the platter, "Whatever the cut or the 
method of cooking, the most successful meal is planned 
around the protein dish." 

Committee Appraisal: \ timely film on the selection and 
preparation of meats. Typical kitchen scenes rather than 
laboratory demonstrations contribute to the reality of the 
presentation. Recommended for use by classes in home 
economics and any adult groups interested in planning 

Help Wanted 

(Bureau of Mines. 4800 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, in cooperation with Johnson and Johnson, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey) iZ minutes, 16mm. sound. Apply- 
to producer for free rental and terms governing purchase. 

"Help Wanted" shows the basic principles of first 
aid and the general procedures in caring for victims be- 

February, 1944 

Page 89 


Now Available! Advance Approval Required 



Robert Stack, Diana Barrymore, Jon Hall, Nigel Bruce 
America's first flying fighters in action! The story of the 
Spitfires, the Commandos, the W.A.A.F.'s and the Channel 
Fleet. A drama that explodes with all the fury of the most 
titanic struggle of all time. A spectacular saga of the hu- 
man hearts behind the steel machines of War. 

Outstanding FEATURE Films 
that require no advance approval 









Joseph Gotten, Dolores Costello, Anne Baxter 

Orson Welles' magnificent production of Booth Tarking- 
ton's prize-winning novel. Depicts a midw^est city -when 
the automobile came into its ow^n and changed the map 
of Amerca — physical, economic and social. 

Send for Cafafog oi 3000 Entertainment and Educational Subjects. 
HiLUI.J«!l'U!»souN,> \\\}^ s I FNT I>.yi.Jl.l?fW 

25 West 45th street Dept. E-2 New^ York 19, N. Y. 

fore tilt; doctor arrives. Tecliiii(|ues of first aid are shown 
in a first-aid station. 

Openinji scenes show a victim of an accident being 
wheeled into an operating room: a news reporter is 
questioning the doctor about the accident. The doctor 
emphasizes the value of a working knowledge of first aid 
and jirocetds to give instructions in fundamental applica- 

There follow scenes of typical accidents that may cause 
bleeding wounds; a chart of the circulatory system of the 
human body; types of bleeding; digital pressure points 
for bleeding of scalp, face, neck,* shoulder, and leg; types 
and uses of tourniquets; cause and treatment of shock, 
including proper jiosition of body and administering stimu- 
lants. The difference between arterial and venous bleed- 
ing and their control are illustrated by analogies of flow 
of water from a pump and a faucet. Animated diagrams 
superimposed over actual photographs are used to show- 
blood circulation, pressure points, and treatment of bleed- 

The film depicts uses of compresses and triangular and 
roller bandages, treatment of burns, some accidents that 
may cause unconsciousness, demonstration of procedures 
in artificial respiration, simple and compound fractures 
and their treatment, use of splints, and methods of trans- 
porting injured. 

Committee Appraisal: This first aid film, reviewed and 
l)assed by U. S. Office of Civilian Defense and American 
College of Surgeons, presents the general procedure to 
be followed in caring for accident victims before the arri- 
val of the doctor. Excellent use is made of close-up pho- 
tography which enables large groups to observe the tech- 
niques of first aid. In spite of the fact that other prac- 
tices are accepted by various groups, the techniques pre- 
sented in this film should not be confusing. The film will 
be useful in teaching first aid to student and adult groups. 

OWI 16mm Fighting Films Conference 

(Concluded from page 85) 

The National 16min Advisory and Policy Committee 
i.s composed of leaders of eight national organizations 
concerned with the distribution and use of non-theatrical 
films in the United States. Those who partici])ated in 
the Washington conferences were : Educational Film 
Library Association, L. C. Larson, Chairman of the 
Board, Indiana University. Bloomington ; Ainerican Li- 
brary Association, Audio- Visual Aids Committee, Miss 
Mary U. Rothrock chairman, Knoxville, Tennessee, 
and Miss Batchelder, secretary. Chicago ; National Edu- 
cation Association, Department of Visual Instruction, 
Mrs. Camilla Best, president. New Orleans; National 
University Extension Association, J. R, Rorer, Univer- 
sity of Virginia, Charlottesville ; .'Mlied Non-Theatrical 
Film Association, W. K. Hedwig, president, New York- 
City ; National Association of Visual Education Dealers. 
Merriman Holtz, vice-president, Portland, Oregon. The 
other members of the national committee are : National 
War Committee for the Visual Education Industry, 
Bertram \\'ilIoughby, Chicago ; and Visual Equipment 
Manufacturers Association, O. H. Coelln. Jr., Editor 
Business Scrben, Chicago. 

The National I6mm Advisory and Policy Committee 
appointed as its secretary, Milton M. Enzer, deputy di- 
rector of the New York State War Council's Office of 
W'ar Training. Albany, New York. 

Page 90 

The Educational Screen 



scv± an 



(Series of Six) 

Imporrant as visual education . . . stimulating as 
an insight into a vital world area! A scientifically 
accurate, artistically direct study of Pacific ethnol- 
ogy, economy, art, botany, native housing and 
transportation, in brilliant color. 



Can Education Achieve 
Equal Opporfunify? 

5>*w^ THE HARVEST (Pv«y^ 

An Editorial Type Film that will help stir 

group discussion on this subject. 



A Provocative 10-Minute Film 16mm Sound 


Address; 1614 Woshinqton Street 
Vancouver, Washington 


Now available to Schools! 

Delivery 60 to 90 days. 



Attention: Ray Swank 

614 North Skinker St. Louis 5, Mo. 

(,5end for our big, new 16mm sound film catalog) 



S E 


L E C T 

E D 




We also sell and flxchange 8 mm and 16 mm Comfdies. N 
Sports Films. Ask for Catalog. 



ews. Religious and 

SLIDES General Science 11 rolls 

ns >„--, Principles of Physics 7 rolls 

ao mm. Principles of Chemistry 8 rolls 

F 1 li ]W[ Fundamentals of Biology 8 rolls 

Write ior Foldei and Free Sample Strip 

VISUAL SCIENCES, 2^,°^ Suffern, New York 

Visual Teaching of Spanish 

.\ sigiiiticaiit demonstnition uf the of .souik! film 
for the teaching of foreign language was given in the 
Education Session of the Thirtieth National Foreign 
Trade Convention, held last Octoher in New York 
City. The 16nim film presented was the experimental 
tirst film, in a proposed series of 40 Instructo-Films 
on Spanish, and was made by Professor Louis G. Bayo, 
Director' of Audivision Language Teaching Service, 
74 Trinity Place, New York. It embodies in audio- 
\isual form, the mass-teaching metiiod and material de- 
vc'I()])cd by Professor Bayo during his 25 years of 
leaching in the Downtown School of Spanish in that 

The audience of businessmen. inter-.\mericanists 
;ind educators went to school again for 15 minutes 
and showed their enthusiasm by lively discussion 
afterward," The point was raised that phonograph 
records could achieve the same end more cheaply, but 
this was refuted by, some who had tried the discs and 
lost interest very soon. The sound motion-picture, 
showing the facial and oral movements of the speaker 
and allowing ample time for oral rej^etition by the 
audience, was far more stimulating, interest-holding 
and effective. The con,sensus seemed to be that the 
full series of 40 films, made with modifications and im- 
provements as determined by study of the experi- 
mental first film, shf)uld have great value and nation- 
wide use not only in Schools and Colleges but also in 
the Army, Navv and Air Forces, in Associations and 
Clubs, and in Office, Plant and Factory. Such a 
series should be a potent factor in the expansion of 
language-stuclv certain to come in the post-war period. 

The experimental film has been seen, and approved 
in principle, by Mr. NeLson A. Rockefeller. Dr. L. 
S, Rowe ( Director General of the Pan American 
L^nion) and their respective assistants, and the pro- 
ject has been sponsored by the Education Committee 
of the National Foreign Trade Council, The Office 
of the Coordinator of Inter-American .'\ffairs has in- 
vited the press to let the people know about this pio- 
neering work in order to detemine the extent to which 
these films are needed. The Audivision Language 
Teaching Service invites correspondence. 

Critics Vote Ten Best Films of 1943 

Random Harvest. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's picturi- 
zation of James Hilton's novel, starring Greer Garson 
and Rf)nald Colman and directed by Mervyn LeRoy, 
was acclaimed the best film of 1943 by the 439 critics 
and reviewers of the press and radio who participated 
in the annual poll conducted by the Film Daily. 

The other nine of the "Toi Best" poll were, in order 
of votes received: For Whom the Bell Tolls (Para- 
mount), Yankee Doodle Dandy (Warners), This Is 
The Arm\ (Warners), Casablanca (Warners). The 
Human Comedy (MGM), ll'atch on the Rhine (War- 
ners), In Which We Sen>c (Coward — U.A.), So 
Proudly We Hail (Paramount), and Stage Door Can- 
teen (Lesser — L^.A.) 

February, 1944 


Page 91 

Government Visual Aids on Aviation for Schools 

Through the cotirtes)' of the U. S. Army Air Forces, 
over 50 visual aids dealing with aerial navigation, 
aerodynamics, aircraft identification, aircraft engines 
and structures, and other subjects are now available to 
schools carrying on preflight training programs. There 
are 26 motion pictures and 28 filmstrips. ranging in 
content from celestial navigation to the use of para- 

Navy aviation training films and filmstrips produced 
by the Training Film Unit of the Bureau of Aero- 
nautics of the Xavy Department are also available. The 
Xavy films deal with aerial navigation, aircraft struc- 
tures, instruments, and engines, airplane production, 
aircraft maintenance and repair, and flight instruction. 
Titles range from "Nautical Astronony" to "Adjusting 
Hydraulic Brakes," from ".\erology" to "Anchoring 
and Mooring .Seaplanes." 

Together the .Army an<l Xavy have released to 
.schools more than 100 visual aids on aviation, through 
the U. S. Office of Education. All the motion pictures 
are 16mm sound films, all the filmstrips are 35mm 

These visual aids may he purchased from the con- 
tract distributor of all Office of Education visual aids. 
Castle Films. Inc., ,50 Rockefeller Plaza, New ^'ork. 
Schools and other non-]5rofit-making institutions are 
entitled to a 10 percent discount and an exemption from 
the Federal excise tax on film. In order to receive 
these price reductions, however, schools must ])resent a 
tax exemption certificate. 

Schools intere.sted in renting any of these films or 
filmstrips should go to their usual source (jf 16nim 
educational films, or write to the Division of X'isual 
Aids for \\'ar Training, U. S. Office of Education, 
Washington 25, D. C, for a copy of Hihliot/rn/^liy oj 
Visual Aids for Frc-liidiictioii Training. 

Spring Quarter Visual Courses 

Ball State Teachers College, Aluncie. Indiana, will 
ofifer a four-hour course in Audio-Visual Education 
(Education 451 ) both in the spring quarter, March 13- 
June 2, and summer term. Miss Evelyn Hoke. Di- 
rector. Teaching Materials .Service, will conduct the 
course. ^ y 

Dr. Walter .-\. Eggerth will give a course in Visual 
Instruction twice weekly during the spring quarter at 
DePauI Universitv, Chicago. Illinois, commencing 
.March 13th. 

Army Film Shows at Home and Abroad 

A world survey of the Army Pictorial Service's 
19 overseas exchanges, serving all theatres of o])era- 
tions, revealed, according to Major John J. Hubbell. 
that on an average night 630,000 soldiers attend 
1,269 fihn showings. 

Domestically the current attendance rate yearly is 
240.000,000 at motion j^icture theatres run by 
the Army Motion Picture Service at camps in the 

(Concluded on page 93) 


Film Slide Projector 


1. For 2x2 Slides 

2. For Single Frame 35mm 

3. For Double Frame 35mm 

Used By the Armed Forces 



New Non-Rewind Design 
Eltm.notes Rew.nd.nq 
Motor Driven Forced 
Air Cooled 

cd Capacity «P ♦<> ^O" 
' Itn^'le ?r';.me Pictures 
, Instantly Adiustable 
, Includes Manumatic 
Slide Corner 

ond other feotures 

This new easier-to-operate 
projector simplifies your pro- 
jection problem in war train- 
ing and industrial education. 
Provides clearer visibility for 
larger audiences. The Film- 
atic is built like a pro- 
fessional model — yet is easily 
portable. Has corrected pro- 
jection lens (5" f 3.5). Uses 
300, 200 or 100 watt lamp. 
Complete w^ith switch, cord 
and custom-built carryin£ 

Above I ferns Are 
Available Now on 
Proper Priorify for: 

Educational Insfltutions 
— Army and Navy — 
Maritime bases — Land- 
Lease — War Industries — 
Government Agencies — 
Medical Profession, etc. 

When uritinf>. 


» Forced-Air Cooled 

• Takes up to 1000 
Watt Lamps 

• Choice of Lenses 

• Pre-Focus Socket Aligns 
Filoment on Optical Axis 

• All Steel-Welded Structure 

• Built-in Tilting Device 

• Fully Adjustable Bellows 

Developed to meet today's needs 
in training centers and schools. 
Cooler-operating . . . for long 
projection distances. Shows 
standard 3'/i"x4" stereopticon 
slides. Has powerful but quiet 
high speed motor. Three ground 
and polished lens furnished. 30" 
long overall. Stands firmly . , . 
yet is conveniently portable. 
please address DEPT. C 



Page 92 

The Educational Screen 

Cutxsnt \jiLm ^sNt 

■ Brandon Films, Inc., 1600 Broad- 
way, New York 19, is jiroud to be able 
to announce tlie release in 16nim sound 
film of the following two remarkable 
film documents on our allies, the 
people of China and of the Nether- 

Inside Fighting China — 18 min. run- 
ning time — produced by the National 
Film Board of Canada and released to 
theatres in the U. S. by United Ar- 
tists. This film is a compact, clear 
action picture of Sino-Japanese rela- 
tions from September, 1931 until some- 
time after Pearl Harbor, showing how- 
China overcomes her" handicaps and 
problems in the war. It offers a true 
pictorial record of a fighting nation, 
seeking a new future even while en- 
gaged in a life-and-deatli struggle with 
a ruthless invader. 

The Dutch Tradition — a 3-reeI doc- 
umentary film 0!i contemporary Dutch 
history, made by John Ferno in co- 
operation with tlie Netherlands Infor- 
mation Bureau. It is an informational 
picture presenting the story of the 
Netherlands during the last four years, 
up to the brutal German invasion of 
Holland and the Japanese capture of 
the East Indies. The film represents 
a geographical, ethnological, historical 
and political lesson on the Netherlands, 
pointing out the geographical aspects 
of Holland, and the rich natural re- 
sources of the Netherlands East and 
West Indies, of such strategic import- 
ance in the current world struggle. 
Also described is the Dutch contri- 
bution to our common fight against 
the Axis. 

■ British Inkorm.wion Services, 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, re- 
port the availability of many new sub- 
jects for rental or purchase, among 

The Great Harvest — a tribute to the 
farmers of Great Britain who went 
into action the day was was declared. 
Over-night, food had become a wea- 
pon of war, and the farmers, with aid 
and advice from the Ministry of Agri- 
culture, set to work to reclaim every 
possible acre. When harvest time 
came, volunteers from the towns gave 
their holidays and week-ends, school 
children camped in the fields and 


worked, and men and women from the 
armed forces gave their services. 

South Africa — the first of a series 
entitled "Know your Commonwealth," 
made by Crown Film Unit. This film 
opens with a brief outline of the coun- 

try, sliowing how it is a land of con- 
trasts in farming, living, worshiping, 
trading and in transport, and tells how 
South Africa made her own decision 
to enter the war, and how she backed 
that decision. With the helii of the 
British Admiralty, a navy was Iniilt 
up to defend the coastline, and RAF 
ex))erts aided in South .'\frica's Air 
Training Scheme. 

Psychiatry in Action— made at the 
Millhead Emergency Hospital under 
the supervision of Dr. Walter Maclay 
to illustrate the wartime application of 
IJsychiatry to neuroses both in service- 
men and civilians. 

British Film Magazines — a new sc- 
ries of very short subjects assembled 
mainly for showing to war workers in 
factories who do not often have time 
Ic go to the movie theatres. The sub- 
jects are of special interest to those 
people as they show them what a close 
link there is between the workers on 
the home front and those in the Armed 

■ BeU, & HOWEU. CO.MPANV, 1801 
Larchmont Ave.. Chicago, have ob- 
tained several feature productions for 
their Filniosound Library, including: 

Men of Texas (ITniversaH — 9 reels — 
depicting the "Lone Star" State just 
after the Civil War. The courage and 
heart of immortal Sam Houston dom- 
inates this epic story of the conflict 
between those who supported their 
country and those who, under the 
guise of "State Rights", followed 
their own lawless interests. The cast 
includes Robert Stack, Brod Crawford 
and Jackie Cooper. 

Pardon My Sarong (^I'niversal) — 10 
reels of Abbott and Costello antics. 
Marooned on a South .Sea Island, they 
cram hilarious fun, romance and ad- 
venture into a prize example of pure 

■ Waltkk O. Gltlohx, Inc., 25 West 
45th Street, New York, has just added 
the following major features to its re- 
leases available for rental on an ad- 
vance approval basis: 

Eagle Squadron — with Robert Stack 
and Diana Barrymore. An exciting 
drama built around America's first 
flying fighters in action — the story of 
the Spitfires, the Commandos, the 
W.A.A.F.'s and the Channel Fleet. 

The Magnificent Ambersons — Booth 
Tarkington's prize-winning novel di- 
rected by Orson Welles, with Joseph 
Cotton and Dolores Costello. \ love- 
story motivated by pride, jealousy, re- 
venge and life-long devotion, against 
the background of a midwest city at 
the i)eriod when the automobile came 
into its own and brought great changes 
in the economic and social life of 

Also currently being released by 
Gutlohn are three new Soundies: 

Hail, the U. S. Marines^featuring 
the newest V. S. Marine song, inter- 

spersed with thrilling action close-ups 
of the invasion of the Jap-held island 
of Tarawa. 

Don't Be an Absentee — the singing 
of the song of this title backgrounds 
actual scenes from the invasion of 
Sicily and "Desert Victory". The sub- 

ject has received the approval of 
Donald Nelson, WPB chief, and of 
Secretary of the Navy Knox. 

Don't Change your Job — shows how 
the American home front is doing its 
part from steel mill to shipyard, back- 
groundnig a song that is dedicated to 
keeping our men and women on their 

(Concluded on page 94) 

February, 1944 

Page 93 



Use RADIO-MATS (RegulQf Siie) 

or the NEW DUPLEX 2" i 2" 

on sale by Theatre Supply Dealers 

Write for Free Sample 


222 Oakridce Blvd., Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Notes and News 

(Concluded frviii [>iigc 91) 

United States, Alaska. Henmula and Xewfoiindland. 
according^ to estimates of the War Department. 
The Army Service is now operating 1,162 houses 
■with a capacity of 786,000, and i.« adding 56 theatres 
to the total seating capacity to 817,000. 

Scholastic Bookshop Distributor of 
Visual Learning Guides 

Scholastic Bookshop, a division of the Scholastic 
Corporation, publishers of Scholastic Magazine, has 
become exclusive national distributor and sales repre- 
sentative for National Audio-Visual Council \'isual 
J, earning Guides. 

The National Audio- Visual Council, Inc., 160 North 
LaSalle Street. Chicago, 111., will continue to edit and 
publish the Visual Learning Guides but all sales and 
shipments will be handled by .Scholastic Magazines, 220 
East 42 Street, New York 17. N. Y. 

National Audio-Visual Council Visual Learning 
Guides are designed for use with U.S. Office of Educa- 
tion, the Army, the Navy and specially recommended 
Erpi classroom films. Guides are now available for 84 
<liflFerent films and a series of new titles are in prepara- 
tion and will he announced shortly. 
Recordings of Wartime Significance 

Two catalog revisions have been prepared by the 
Educational Script and Transcription Exchange. 
Transcriptions for Victory contains approximately 240 
educational ])rogranis dealing with topics of immediate 
wartime significance. All listings are annotated to in- 
dicate the nature of each ])rogram and the grade-level 
and teaching applications for which they seem best 

The new Scripts for Victory Catalog includes ap- 
proximately 50 recently acquired .scripts. More than 
half of them have been broadcast over national net- 
works. Eight are from the Cavalcade of America series 
and deal with current naval history. A .series of five 
Victory Corps in Action scripts was written for Victory 
Corps units and tells in dramatic form what boys and 
girls of our secondary schools are doing to win the war. 

Copies of each of these catalogs are available on re- 
(|uest to the Educational .Script and Tran.scription E!x- 
change, U. S. Office of Education. 

.V group of seven recordings on China have lieen 
made available to the Tran.scription Exchange through 
the Courtesy of The East and West Association of New 
York City. There are no charges for loan or for ship- 
ment either from or to Washington. These 16-inch 
(33 1/3 r.p.m. ) recordings, made by Pearl Buck. Lin 
Mousheng. and other well known writers and inter- 
preters of China, offer senior high school and college 
students a better understanding of the life and culture 
of the Chinese people. 

^e^^uia^ Re/ecUe! 


16MM Sound — 2 Reels 

One of the most important, but 
never well known services of Uncle 
Sam's Army are the Chaplains of 
all creeds. Watch this great moral 
army being trained to perform their 
duties on the front line. You'll see 
actual fiKhting scenes with these 
heroic men administering spiritual 
solace. For pure power of emotion, 
"Army Chaplain" is unsurpassed. 

"ARMY CHAPLAIN" is the 3rd in the 


Series produced by R.K.O. 

lOmm prints of all issues in 
THIS IS AMERICA available for 
Rental or Lease to Schools. Social 
and Educational Institutions. Write 
for descriptive folder and prices. 

>o.l. Private Smith 
No. 2, Women at Arms 

Exclusive 76MM Dhtribufors 


R.K.O. BIdg.. Radio City, New York 20. N. Y. 



FORTRESS OF THE SKY: 16mm— Sound— 25 min. 
Tells the Dramatic S+ory of the Spectacular 
Boeing Flying Fortress. 

LOADED FOR WAR: 16mm— Sound— 25 min. The 
Greatest Mass Movement of Armed Men and 
Military Might In the History Of The Nation's 

TANK DESTROYERS: 1 6mm — Sound — 25 min. 
Seek! Strike! Destroy! The Training Of The 
Troops Who Man America's Tank Destroyers. 

Nominal Service Fee Plus Shipping Charges 


Princeton 10. New Jersey 
Write for Complete Catalog 

Page 94 

■ Pictorial Films. Inc.. RKO BiiiUl- 
ing, Radio City, N. Y., announces tin- 
acquisition of the 16mni distribution 
rights to a series of fihiis produced by 
Pathe News and released through 
RKO Pictures, Inc.. entitled: 

This Is America — a monthly release 
which has been playing in 6000 tliea- 
tres throughout the country. 16nini 
prints are available for lease and rent- 
al from Pictorial Films, Inc., now for 
the first time. Beginning in February 
the first in the series will be avail- 
able, and thereafter one each month, 
as follows: 

February, .Iniiy Chaplain: March. 
Boomtoii'ii. D. C: April, .{ir Cr«i'/ 
May, Mediriiw on Guard: June. Mer- 
chant Seamen .- July. Lieutenant Smith : 
August. Pacific Island .\'o. 43 : Septem- 
ber, Broad-ivay Pim-Out. Arctic Pass- 
age; October. .-Ii/c of Flii/ht : Children 
of Mars. These films will be made avail- 
able to schools, organizations and insti- 
tutions on long term lease for permanent 
film libraries, or on a spot booking basis. 
Special discounts are allowed to schools 
on leases and all prints come reeled and 
boxed in metal containers. For complete 
details and descriptive folders, write to 
Pictorial Films. Inc., Radio City, N. Y. 

■ Post Picturks Corpor.vtion. 723 
Seventh .Ave., New York 19, has just 
released on 16nnii sound the gay mu- 
sical comedy: 

Road Show — portraying the hectic 
excitement of life with a traveling car- 
nival show. F'eatured is a galaxy of 
screen and radio stars, including 
Adolphe Menjou. Carole Landis. 
Charles Butterworth and The Ci'ar- 

The sixth edition of the Post Pic- 
tures catalogue is available on request 
by writing to the company. 

■ Thf. Princeton Film Center. Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, has started produc- 
tion on a two-reel film for the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American .\fFairs. 
bearing the title: 

University Town, which will pre- 
sent the wartime activities of an .\iiier- 
ican college community for Latin 
American consumption. 

Scenes are being photographed on 
the campus of I'rinceton I'niversity. 
at the Institute for Advanced Study. 
in the research laboratories of the 
Radio Corporation of .America, and of 
the famed singers of the Westminster 
Choir College. Professor .Albert Ein- 
stein of the Institute for .Advanced 
Study has broken a long-established 
precedent against motion picture ap- 
pearances by appearing in this fihiL 

The picture is being produced under 
the supervision of Gordon Knox. Film 
Center head. 

Consolidated-\'ultee .Aircraft Corp<ira- 
tion has just concluded arrangements 
with The Princeton Film Center to dis- 
tribute prints of PliV Record Breakers 
and Cradle of Victory. Both subjects 
are 16mm sound and deal with aircraft 
produced by the makers of the famous 
Liberator bomber. 

The Educational Screen 

czrfmona tliE. iJ\odi 


Walt Whitman on Victor Records 

Whitman's poetry is being made 
available for the first time on phono- 
graph records with RC-A-Victor"s re- 
lease in February of an album of se- 
lections from "Leaves of Grass". The 
dramatic reading is by Ral])h Bellamy, 
film and stage star. 

Speaking of war. of freedom and of 
the essential spirit of America, the 
poems included in the album are as 
timely as if they had been penned 
but yesterday. Included in the album 
besides an appropriate introduction 
are: To a Certain Civilian: I Think I 
Could Turn and Live with .Animals : 
To the Man-of-War Bird; For You. 

Democracy; Vigil Strange I Kept 
on the Field One Night; Long, Too 
Long, .\merica; Over the Carnage 
Rose a Prophetic Voice; O Star of 
France; To a Foiled European Revo- 
lutionairc; Europe; France; .A Broad- 
way Pageant; Years of the Modern; 

1 was Looking a Long Vt'hile; Pas- 
sage to India; By Blue Ontario's 
Shore; So Long!; and Song of the 
0])en Road. 

Leica Projectors for Civilians 

Through a recent order of the War 
Production Board, it is now possible 
for many civilian consumers to 
purchase Leica VII I-S Projectors. E. 
Leitz. Inc.. makers of Leica products, 
report that their present supply of 
\' 1 1 I-S \Projectors is sufficient to 
meet the requirements of the Armed 
Forces and .government agencies and 
still leave a quantity of projectors 
for imrcbase by civilians. VI I I-S 300- 
watt Projectors complete with slide 
changers and projection lenses can be 

Complete details on how to obtain 
the projector can be had from E. 
Leitz. Inc.. 730 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. 19, New York. 

New Kodachromes from "The 
Cavalcade of South America" 

A set of thirty-five 2" x 2" Koda- 
chrome slides from the collection of 
Charles Perry Weimer's The Cavalcade 
of South America has been added to the 
library of the Society For Visual Edu- 
cation, Inc.. 100 East Ohio Street. Chi- 
cago 11, Illinois. 

Mr. Weiiner made a 100,000 mile, 
ci.ghteen-nionth photographic survey 
of the continent of South .America. 
Slides representative of Brazil, Chile, 
Venezuela. Colombia, Ecuador, Argen- 
tina and Peru are included in the set 
offered by S. V. E. 

Especially beautiful in color and 
composition are two scenes, both pho- 
tographed in Chile-one pictures the 
peaceful little port at ."Kmargos; the 
other depicts vividly the breathtaking 
grandeur of the .Andean Pass at La- 
guna del Inca. 

Other slides in this set give authen- 
tic glimpses into the life, customs and 
architecture of our neighboring South 
American countries. A complete list 
will be furnished free upon request. 

A New Bell & Howell Product 

Bell & Howell Company, Chicago, has 
added another product to its long list 
of precision-made equipment, a double- 
duty Filnio Porta-Stand which looks like 
a suitcase when closed and is easily car- 
ried by means of its leather handle. 
Opened, it is a stand 42" high, with a 
platform 12j4"x24Vj" which accommo- 
dates any size projector — 8mm or 16mni. 
and boasts a convenient shelf for holding 
reels and cans during a show. The Porta- 
Stand puts an end to book stacking on 
chair or table for proper projection 

Constructed of rigid basswood-plywood 
finished in lustrous brown lacquer, with 
durable steel hardware used throughout, 
the Porta-Stand utilizes non-critical ma- 
terials and is available without a priority. 

Two views of the Porta-Stand 

Additional Valuable Literature — 

"lOOO AND ONE"— The Blue Book of Films 

"lOOO and ONE" The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
as the standard film reference, indispensable to film users in 
the educational field. The CURRENT, NINETEENTH 
EDITION lists and describes over 5,000 films, classified into 
176 different subject groups (including large groups of enter- 
tainment subjects). A valuable feature is a complete alpha- 
betical list of every film title in the directory. Other infor- 
mation includes designation of whether a film is available in 
16mm, or 35mm, silent or sound, number of reels and sources 
distributing the films, with range of prices charged. 
136 pp. Paper. Price 7Sc. (25c to E. S. Stihscribersj 


"1000 and ONE" under The National Film Evaluation Project 

A new and unique service to the teaching field. Film Evalua- 
tions made by nation-wide Judging Committee of over 500 
teachers after actual use of the films with classes. 

Each Supplement consists of 50 standard-size library cards 
carrying detailed evaluations of SO films, based on combined 
scores of 15 or more teachers on each film. Three Supplements 
have appeared to date. Another appears as soon as 50 more 
films attain their quota of 15 or more scores. 

Price per Supplement — 50 cards in carton, serially numbered 
I to 50, 51 to 100, 101 to 150, etc.. with full explanations ac- 
companying, 50 cents (postpaid if cash with order.) 


By C. F. Hoban, C. F. Hoban, Jr., and S. B. Zisman. 

Presents in theory and in practice the basic methodology of 
visual instruction in relation to classroom procedure. Pro- 
vides an abundance of technical guidance in the form of 
illustrative drawings of photographs, reports of school 
journeys, suggestions for mounting materials, for making 
slides, film strips, etc. It incorporates up-to-date material, 
provides a fine balance in the treatment of various teaching 
aids, evaluates various types of aids, and defines the functions 
and values of each in the learning process. 
320 pp. Cloth. Tllus. Price $2.75.(20% discount to schools) 

By Ellsworth C. Dent 

Presents in convenient form, practical information* for 
those interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to 
instruction. The six chapters include discussions on "The 
Status of Visual Instruction," "Types of Visual Aids and 
Their Use," "Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction," 
"Types of Sound Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio- 
Visual Service," "Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. Illus. Cloth. Price $1.75 

By Harry C McKown and Alvin B. Roberts 

A practical volume which shows the teacher and adminis- 
trator how to select, organize, and utilize audio-visual aids of 
all types, in all subjects, and at all levels, from kindergarten 
through the twelfth grade. ■ Primary emphasis is on actual 
practice and every effort has been made to include specific 
information and advice which will be most helpful in the 
classroom. 384pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.00 

By Joseph J. Weber. Ph. D. 

Presents in unusually interesting form the results of the 
extended investigations on the teaching values of the lantern 
slide and stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 
(67c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

A stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 
of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 
humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 
Well's dictum that the "future is a race between education 
and catastrophe." 124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25. 


A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination of teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution. 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Eleanor Child and Hardy R. Finch 

Based on first-hand experiences of the authors and those 
of many other teachers and movie enthusiasts. Chapters are 
"Organization (of a Club); Choosing the Idea; The Scenario; 
Buying Equipment; Using the Equipment; Filming the Pic- 
ture; Advanced Techniques; Final Preparation and Showing. 
A welcome book to those who want movie-making explained 
in simple terms. 151 pp. Paper. Illus. Price $1.50. 

AND PROBLEMS. By William H. Hartley 

Part I gives directions for obtaining, evaluating and utiliz- 
ing films. Part II comprises a fully annotated catalog of the 
most useful films for illustrating various aspects of American 
Civilization. Title of film, length, whether sound or silent, 
production date, producer, sale and rental price and grade 
level suitability, are given. Also synopsis of film content. 
Suggestions are offered concerning most effective application 
of the film to the teaching situation. 

275 pp. Cloth. Price $2.25. 

By Ella Callista Clark, Ph. D. 

Brief, clear, concise, authoritative. An attractively printed 
manual of procedure for all visual aids in teaching, with 
stimulating suggestions for the inexperienced teachers as 
well as for the veteran. 

24 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 25c. 

By G. E. Hamilton 24 pp. Paper. Price 10c. 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price ISc. 

TO ORDER, Check Material 

To Bub- 


Price of E. S. 

"1000 and One" Film Directory t .75 D I .25 Q 

Film Evaluation Supplements 

No. 1. No. 2, and No. 3 1.60 O 1.60 □ 

Visualizing the Curriculum 2.75 n 2.76 □ 

(To Schools) 2.20 n 2.20 □ 

The Audio-Visual Handbook 1.75 PI 1.75 PI 

Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction 3.00 3.00 □ 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 D .67 O 

An Alternative for Revolution and War 1.26 D 1.26 Q 

Evaluation of Still Pictur« BOD .BOD 

Producing School Movies 1.50 □ 1.50 □ 

Selected Films for American History 2.25 2.25 

Use of Visual Aids in Teaching .26 O .25 D 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .15 O -tS O 

How io Make Handmade Lantern Slides 10 O -lO D 

Desired and Fill in Blank Below 


2 years, $3.00 □ 
2 years, $5.00 D 
2 years, $4.00 D 

U. S. 1 year, $2.00 D 
Foreign 1 year, $3.00 D 
Canada 1 year, $2.50 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $. 


School or Street. 


Page 96 

The Educational Screen 

XJP'P'P "PHTV A'DF' A Trade Directory 

JiXJUiXXj.! X XXJ.J X ^^Xx£l for the Visual Field 


Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

142S Williams St., Denver. Colo. 
Audiofilm Studio 

1614 Washington St.. 
Vancouver. Wash. 

(See advertisement on pag*- 90) 

Bailey Film Service (3) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Calif. 

BeU & HoweU Co. (3) 

1815 Larchniont Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 53) 

Better Films (2) 

742A New Lots Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

(See advertisement on page 90) 

Brandon Films (3) 

1600 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 52) 

Brav Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave.. New York. N.* Y. 

British Information Services (3, 5) 

30 Rockefeller Plaza. New York City 

(See advertisement on page 85) 

Castle Films (2 5) 

RCA Bldg.. New York. N. Y. ' 

(See advertisement on page 49) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St.. 

Green Bay, Wis. 
College Film Center (3, 5) 

84 E. Randolph St.. Chicago. 111. 
Creative Educational Society (1) 

4th Fl.. Coughlan Bldg. 

Mankato. Minn. 
DeVry School Films (3) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 50) 

Eastman Kodak Stores. Inc. (3) 

Eastman Classroom Films 
356 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 
Films. Inc. /o) 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York N Y 
64 E. Lake St.. Chicago 
314 S. W. Ninth Ave.. Portland. Ore. 
(See advertisement on page 79) 

Fryan Film Service (3) 

2nd Floor, Film Building 

Cleveland, Ohio 
General Films, Ltd. (3 6) 

1^24 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 Knig St. W. Toronto 
Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. ^3) 

, 25 W. 45th St.. New York. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 89) 

Hoffberg Productions, Inc. (2 S) 

618-20 Ninth Ave, New York, N. Y. 
Ideal Pictures Corp. (3 g) 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, III. 

i.See advertisement on page .S3 1 

Institutional Cinema Service (3) 

1560 Broadway. New York 19. N. Y. 

Knowledge Builders Classroom Films 

625 Madison, New York, N. Y. (2, S) 
National Film Service (2) 

14 Glenwood Ave. Raleigh N C 
309 E. Main St., Richmond.' Va. 

Pictorial Films Inc. (2) 

RKO Bldg.. New York City. 

(See advertisements on pages 68 and 9.3) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3) 

723 Seventh .^ve.. New York. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 88) 

The Princeton Film Center (2) 

55 Mountain Ave., Princeton, N. J. 
(See advertisement on page 93) 

Swank's Motion Pictures (3) 

620 N. Skinker Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 
(See advertisement on page 90) 

Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 84) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Laniar. Austin, Tex. 

Vocational Guidance Films, Inc. (2) 

2718 Beaver .Ave.. Des Moines. la. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3) 
347 Madison Ave.. New York, N.Y. 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St., San Francisco. Cal. 
1700 Patterson Ave., Dallas. Tex. 


The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 87) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 53) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St.. 
Green Bay, Wis. 
DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

1111 .Armitage Ave.. Chicago, III. 
(See advertisement on page 50) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave.. New York. N. Y. 

General Films, Ltd. (3. 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina. Sask. 
156 King St.. W. Toronto 
Holmes Projector Co. (3. 6) 

1813 Orchard St., Chicago. 111. 

(See adverti.sement on page 88) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 83) 

Radio Corporation of America (2) 

Educational Dept.. Camden, N. J. 
) Sei' advertisement on page 56) 

Ralke Company (2) 

829 S. Flower St., 

Los .Angeles 14. Cal. 
S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corp. (3. 6) 

449 W. 42nd St.. New York. N. Y. 
Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport Iowa 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Lamar, Austin, Tex. 
Williams Brown and Earle, Inc. (3 6) 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co., Inc. 

2723 N. Crawford Ave., 
Chicago 39, III. 

(See advertisement on page 77) 

Radiant Mfg. Company 

1144 W. Superior St.. 
Chicago 22. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 55) 

National Film Service 

14 Glenwood Ave.. Raleigh, N. C. 
309 E. Main St., Richmond. Va. 
Society for Visual Education. Inc. 
100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25. N. Y. 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 


Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

(.See advertisement on outside baciv cover) 

The Jam Handy Organization 

2900 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit. Mich. 

(See advertisement on page 75) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway. New York 25. N. Y. 
Visual Sciences 

Snfifern. New York 

(See advertisement on page 90) 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 


C. Edward Graves 

P. O. Box 37, Areata. Calif. 
Klein & Goodman 

18 S. 10th St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

( See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway. New York 25, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, III. 

(See advertisement on page S3) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 54) 

Radio-Ma» Slide Co. Inc. 

222 Oakridge Blvd. 
Daytona Beach. Fla. 

(See advertisement on page 93) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N .Y. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago. 111. 
(See advert isemen ton page 50) 

General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St. Regina. Sask. 
156 King St.. W. Toronto 
Golde Manufacturing Co. 

1220 W. Madison St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 91) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 54) 

Society for Visual Education Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Ralke Company 

829 S. Flower St., 
Lds .Angeles 14, Cal. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., BufTalo, N. Y. 

( See advertisement on page 81 ) 

Williams Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 





















35 mm 




35 mm 



Continuous insertions under one heading, $2.00 per issue; additional listings under other headings, $1.00 each. 

March, 1944 

Page 97 

Scene from FrUtnis of tite Air. oiit- of KilmoHOUiid Library's wild life aeries. 

Will Dpti-onics 

vitalize* visual instruction? 

Yes ... in fact, the advances are already well under way! 

For out of the matchless accuracy of the secret OPTI-ONIC 
devices we make today, for war, will come truly significant 
refinements in the Bell & Howell Cameras & Projectors for 
tomorrow's classrooms. 

There will be mechanical refinements . . . cooler, quieter 
operation . . . simplified controls . . . improved general per- 
formance. But more than these, there will be a new realism 
for tomorrow's educational screen ... a seeming absence of 
mechanical intervention to bring to your screen even more 
of motion pictures' educational power and influence. 

We don't imagine these things. We're certain of them . . . 
for the wav to achieve them is already clear , . . through 

Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; New York; Holly- 
wood; Washington, D. C; London, ittahlithmd 1907. 

*Wehs/€r: To endow uitb I'lje. 


Engineers with a finished background in electronic or mechanical 
design can find a great future in helping Bell & Howell explore 
the peacetime horizons of OPTI-ONICS. Send complete details 
and photo to: Chairman, OPTI-ONICS Development^ 7100 
McCormick Road, Chicago 45, Illinois. 


brary has long made a specialty of films on nature . . . 
wild life... flowers. Among them are literally dozens 
of beautiful motion picture studies of the world's bird 
life. Technical difficulties encountered in filming birds 
in their natural environments have been ingeniously 
surmounted to bring to your students a series of 
unequaled coior films. 

Few other study methods can reveal more of the 
interesting habits and instincts . . . the intricate mark- 
ings and colorings of birds. Your classes will wel- 
come . . . and remember the lessons of these fine films. 

lists these and thousands of other films on many sub* 
iects. The Educational Utilization Digest helps you 
select the ones that apply to your subjeci and the 
age group you are working with. Send the coupon 
for your copy of each. 

Opti-onics is OPTIcs . . . elec- 
irONics . . . mechanics. It is re- 
search and engineering by Bell & 
Howell in these three related sci- 
ences to accomplish many things 
never before obtainable. Today 
Opti-onics is a WEAPON. Tomor- 
row, it will be a SERVANT ... to 
work, protect, educate, and entertain. 

mark resiiit«r«d 

Products combining fhe sciences of OPTtcs • electrONics • mechanics 


1817 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 13, 111. 

Please send Filmosound Library Catalog and 
Educational Utilization Digest — also new Filmo- 
sound V Circular 

Page 9« 

The Educational Screen 



16 mm. Silent Classroom Teaching Films ^^P^^' » •^'^^•^'^ 

\italize the subject of ECOXOMIC ( shelter-fodd-clothinj^) and I'LACE 
GEOGRAPH\' for Iiiterniediate Klenientary .school grades with FII.M- 
SETS — 200-ft. silent films. Start your own classroom film library with 
any or all of these 22 Economic and 26 Regional 16mm. Silent films. 
Planned and filmed over a period of five years — and at a cost of $100,000.00 
— individual FILMSETS are priced at the sur])nsin<rl\- low figure of 
S12.00 per reel. P)uy as many reels as you 

" FII.M.SP:TS are the only direct class- 

ri)oni teaching tihiis available to Intermediate 
Elementary grades that thoroughly cover the 
entire course of study in one major field. 

FILMSETS require only 8 minutes to' 
project, leaving time for discussion both be- 
fore and after films are shown. 

FILMSETS are factual . . , depicting av- 
erage normal procedure ratlicr tlian the un- 
usual . . . definite situations and infcjrmation 
authentically staged and accurately filmed. 

FILMSETS are up-to-date, currently re- 
vised to keep in step with the times. 


Wilhout dictating how lessons arc lo lie taught, 
tains accurate genera! information on each Him — 
arranged to provide adequate discussion material. 


you two sample FILMSETS and Te 
for ten days. No obligation. Con 


sectional self-humidifying film cabinet — each 
drawer built to house and preserve 12 films, is 
available to Fn.MSF.TS purchasers. 

I'MLMSETS are priced so i-easonably that they 
are within the budget limitations of even the one- 
roijm school. 

flLMSKTS library's value and utility is in- 
creased many fold by a 112-pasre teacher's manual 
with fi72 illustrations from the films. Each 2-pae:e 
spread in this manual is a Lesson Outline — ^a 
quick, convenient, studiously prepared guide to 
fi4m presentation and lesson review. FILMSETS 
Mfives you the teaching method of tomorrow im- 
mediately available. The time to use FILMSETS is 
now. The time to write for ten-day P'REE PRE- 
VIEW of two films and manual is today. Address 
FILMSETS. Inc.. 1956 North Seminary Avenue. Chi- 
cago ( 14 ) Illinois. 


ECONOMIC UNITS—Food. Shelter. Clothing 

I. Old Fashioned Farm 12. Growing Fibers 

nri^lCNAL UNITS— Ploce Geograahy 

2. A City Home 

3. Wheai and Bread 

4. Milk 

5. Fish 

6. Meat Animals 

7. Fruit 

8. Truck 4 Poultry Farm 

9. Coffee and Sugar 

10. Tea — Rice — Coconuts 

11. Rubber 

13. Textiles 

14. Leather 

15. Lumber 

16. Clay and Stone 

17. Peat ■'nd Coal 

18. Iron and Steel 

19. Petroleum 

20. Wate-'He-'s A Power 

21. Trans. & Cities 

22. Mass Production 

23. Zones 

24. Canada 

25. Alaska and Eskimos 
2i. Atlantlr Coast 

27. Mississippi Basin 

28. Rocky Mountains 

29. Pacific Coast 

30. Mex. & Cen. America 

36. Mountains of Europe 

37. Plains of Europe 

38. Russia 

39. Medl'erranean Basin 

40. North Africa 

41. Central Africa 

42. Desert 

43. South of ;he Himalayas 

31. West Indies & Panama 44. North of the Himalayas 

32. Andes and Pampas 45. China 

33. Amazon 46. 'apan 

34. British Isles 47. Pacific Islands 

35. Lowlands of Europe 48. Australia 

-For 31 Years an Oufsfanding Name in the Cinematic World- 


Star awarded for contin- 
ued excellence in the pro- 
duction of motion picture 
sound equipment. 


16inni. tSoiind- 
on-Film Projcrtor 



Extra — Special Discounts! 

WORLD OF PLENTY 1 16mrn. Sound) — 
concerning the world's number one problem : 
food production. Brings out interestingly 
and graphically, with scenes from wor!d'> 
various produce-growing areas, the world 
situation in regaid to sustenance. CAT. XO. 
L-208. Running Time 45 min. Rental $2.5(J 
per day. 

* * « * 

Sound in Full Color) — an excellent portrayal 
of the two billion dollar annual egg business 
in the United States. Shows all phases of 
production and distribution of this vita! food, 
including modern incubating, egg recording 
and mass testing and packaging methods. 
Also appetizing recipes for egg dishes. CAT. 
NO. L-204. Running Time 30 min Rental 
33.00 per day. 

4c * * * 

Sound I — South America, Africa, India, Bor- 
neo. Wild animals and a vivid picturization 
of jungle forest fire. Graphs and maps that 
illustrate why we have torrid zones. CAT. 
NO. L-178. Running Time 45 min. Rental 
«^..')0 p..r duv. 


16mm. Sound Film 
Rental price, $2.50*; Sale price, $66.50. 

*/>(*/- day through D?:VRY 


Starring Herman Brix, Eddie Nugent, 
Jean Martel, Betty Compson, in a rousing 
1 oUegiate drama packed with the punch of 
football stadiums, the charm of campus ro- 
mance and the ability of modern American 
youth to win over heavy odds. Furnished 
with interesting short subjects to make up 
full hour and a half show. C.\T. NO. F-1124. 
Running Time of feature 74 min. Reg. 
price $10.00. Introductory price of feature 
plus short subjects $6.00 per day ! 

* * « * 

A MILLION TO ONE (16mm. Sound) — 
Starring Herman Brix, Joan Fontaine and 
Monte Blue against the brilliant backdrop 
of the world Olympic games in an exciting 
story about a discredited athletic champion 
who raises his son to become the sports idol 
his father might have been. Plus extra short 
subjects to make up full hour-and-a-half 
show. CAT. NO. F-1123. Running Time of 
Feature 62 min. Reg. price of feature $10.00. 
Special introductory price of feature p/us 
short subjects $6.00! 

* • * * 

PECK'S BAD BOY (16mm. Sound)— Star- 
ring Jackie Cooper. Jackie Searl and Thomas 
Meighan in a typical American story filled 
with a heart rending drama of a boy's de- 
sire.s understood — a vital entertainment film 
that depicts the companionship so necessary 
to successful family life in our modern com- 
munities. CAT. NO. F in2. Running Time 
of Feature 74 min. Rental price of feature 
$15.00. Special introductory price together 
with short subjects sufficient for hour-and- 
a-half show $7.50 per day. 

* * » * 

1111 Armitoge Ave. Chicago 14, Illinois 




Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Adi'ertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - - Office Manager 

Department Editors 
John E. Dugan - Haddon Heights^ N. J. 
Hardy R. Finch - - Greenwich, Conn. 

Ann Gale - - Chicago, 111. 

David Goodman - - New York, N. Y. 
Josephine Hoffman - - - Chicago, 111. 
L. C. Larson - - - Bloomington, Ind. 
K. Dean McClusky - Scarborough. N. Y. 
Etta Schneider Ress - New York, N. Y. 
David Schneider - - - New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory. Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland. Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

James S. Kinder. Director PCW Film 
Service, Pennsylvania College for 
Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BovD B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director 
E.xtension Division. University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed, U. S. Office of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Maj. W. Gayle Starnes, Chief, Training 
Division, Signal Corps Depot, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Lelia Trounger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittinghill, Director of Trans- 
portation, Board of Education, Detroit. 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.50 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies 25 






Cover Picture — Skyline of Monument Valley, Utah 

Editorial 105 

"Know America Through Her Resources" Merrill Bishop 107 

V^ar Films and the Classroom . Edward F. Wheeler I 10 

The Use of Motion Pictures to Develop Better 

Human Relations Esther L. Berg-George E. Levinrov)( I 12 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Krows I 15 

The Film and International 

Understanding John E. Dugan, Editor I IS 

The New England Page John hi. Lyons, Editor 120 

Caring for Young Children — 

In Hand-Made Lantern Slides Ann Gale 121 

School-Made Motion Pictures. Hardy R. Finch, Editor 122 

The Literature in Visual Instruction 

A Monthly Digest Etta Schneider Ress, Editor 126 

Experimental Research in Audio-Visual 

Education David Goodman, Editor 129 

New Films of the Month L. C. Larson, Editor 130 

News and Notes Josephine Hoffman, Editor 134 

George Zehrung Leaves Y.M.C.A. Bureau 137 

Current Film News 138 

Among the Producers 142 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 144 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office. Pontiae, Illinois; Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiae, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, III. 

Page 100 

The Educational Screen 




Castle Films' 


Here is a thrilling action tribute to 
this country's mighty Navy! Your 
students see the gripping record of 
its incredibly swift growth. Here is 
the Navy with all its traditions, its 
gallantry, its mighty power ... a 
living chronicle in the spirit of 
Jones, Decatur, Farragut and 
Dewey! From the training of Blue- 
jackets to the final moments of 
blazing battle action, it's an inspi- 
ration for Americans! Own it now! 

The big guns speak 

^Qti . Own 16 mm. Silent Version for . . . $8^^ 
COS'' Own 16 mm. Soond-on-Film for . . . $1/50 

CASTLE FILMS' fducafionaf Sub/ecfs 
ore of permanent value to every school movie library! 



£i^/r^ "^O""" Photo or Visual Aids 
^f <^»X^ Dealer about the various titles 
under these and other heads, or write our 
Educational Department. 






VIotld'i largest Distributor of 8 mm. and 16 mm. movies 

March, 1944 

Page 101 

Tomorrow's Goal 

Sound Motion Pictures for ALL Schools 

Our armed forces have learned what our 
schools have long known, that talking motion 
pictures make learning easier, shorten the 
time required for instruction and increase 
the retention of important facts. Modern 
educators have looked forward to the day 
when this progressive method of audio- 
visual instruction will be available for all 
schools. Of course every projector we 
make TODAY goes to the Armed Forces. 
But TOMORROW all of Ampro's engineering 
skill and experience will be directed to the 
constructive task of helping teachers 
teach. Write for Ampro Catalog of 8 and 
16 mm. precision projectors. 

Ampro Corporation, Chicago • Precison Cine Equipment 

Page 102 

The Educational Screen 





It presents new teaching techniques 

This illustrated 36-page manual was pub- 
lished by Spencer in the interests of better in- 
struction through visual teaching. It contains a 
wealth of specific suggestions for the use of the 
opaque projector and includes some teaching 
techniques printed here for the first time. 

The majority of summer schools conducting 

courses in visual education utilize this booklet 
as a text. 

More than 20,000 teachers interested in this 
subject have requested copies for their personal 

Write Dept. CI 2 today for your copy. 

Spencer Lens Company 


Scientific Instrument Division oj 


Salci Offices: NcwYork,Ch!caso,S«nFrancisca,Washington, Boston, Lot Ang<l«,Dillas,Columbus.St.Louii,Phnad<lphi*,AllanU 

March, 1944 

Page 10} 


Lighted, Blackboard Pictures in 
this Air Age Physics Slidefilm Kit-set. Here are 
the titles of the 1 5 slidefrlms. 


Units of 


Force and Velocity 
as Vectors 

Uniform Motion 

Uniformly Accel- 
erated Motion 

Lows of Motion 


Rotary Motion 

Centrifugal Force 





Simple Machines 

JAM HANDY Air Age Physics 
(Mechanics) Slidefilms Help The 
Teacher Increase His Effectiveness 

The capable physics teacher, with the aid of textbooks and ade- 
quate laboratory equipment, will find his work most effective when 
he uses the new Jam Handy Air Age Physics slidefilms. 

In this Kit-set on Mechanics are 742 pictures, charts, diagrams 
and cutaway views arranged in logical sequence on fifteen slide- 
films. The instructor can present the sequences just as arranged on 
the slidefilms or he can make his own selection of pictures to fit 
particular instructional needs. 

Any single picture can be held before the class until the concept 
presented is understood by everyone in the class. The pictures can 
be projected on a screen, on a light wall, or even on a blackboard. 

Instructors who are teaching physics for the first time and those 
who have limited equipment for demonstrations will find these 
slidefilms of great assistance in presenting the subject. 

Mail the coupon below to get )our Kit-set promptly. Your set 
of these 742 helpful pictures can be shipped at once. 


The JAM HANDY Organization 

*OATT0N. TiiMH >i>ldii( * CHICAGO. 236 N. Micti(in Ihrl * HOLLTWOOD. Wt HoUimod iM. 

The JAM HANDY Organization, Inc. 
2900 East Grand Blvd., Detroit 11, Michigan 

D Please enter our order for the Air Age Physics slidefilm 

Kit-set at $57 f.o.b. Detroit. 

n Please' send synopsis of the subjects covered. 

Name _ 


School or Organization _. 

Address _ „ _ 

Page 1 04 

The Educational Screen 

Scene from TOM SAWYER 



One a Week for Three Months 

Jas. Stewart, Paulette Goddard 

Carole Landis, Adolphe Menjou 

Fredric March, Joan Bennett 

Joel McCrea, Laraine Day 


Victor MacLaglen, Patsy Kelly 

Janet Gaynor, Fredric March 


Oliver Hardy and Stan Laurel 

Ann Sheridan, Richard Carlson 


Martha Scott, William Gargan 


John Boles, Mona Barrie 

D. Fairbanks, Jr., M. Carroll 


Oliver Hardy and Stan Laurel 


Frank Morgan, Chas. Collins 


Brian Aherne, V. MacLaglen 


George Raft, Joan Bennett 


Roland Young, Joan Blondell 


Janet Gaynor, Fairbanks, Jr. 

Pat O'Brien, Ruth Terry 

Tommy Kelly, Jackie Moran 


Loretta Young, David Niven 

Fredric March, Carole Lombard 


Carole Lombard, Jas. Stewart 


Victor Mature, Louise Piatt 

Leo Carillo, Bruce Cabot 


Miriam Hookins, Alan Mowbray 

Billie Burke. C. Aubrey Smith 

Joan Bennett, Adolphe Menjou 


Marlene Dietrich, Fredric March 

Each feature has excellent TOP BANDS and other entertaining shorts attached. 

Ttvelve tvell-located offices to sert'e yon: 



Bertram Willouqhby Pictures, Inc. 

Suite 600 — 1600 Broadway 

New York 19, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

18 South Third Street 

Memphis 3, Tennessee 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

2408 West 7th Street 
Los Angeles 5. California 

and the following branches and affiliates: 

Stevens-Ideal Pictures Ideal Pictures 

89 Cone Street, N.W. 1739 Oneida St. 

Atlanta 3, Georgia Denver 7, Colo. 

Ideal Pictures 
2024 Main Street 
Dallas 1, Texas 

Ideal Pictures 
219 East Main St. 
Richmond 19, Va. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
915 S.W. 10th Ave. 
Portland 5, Oregon 

Ideal-Southern Pictures 
336 Barrone St. 
New Orleans, La. 


Ideal Pictures 

Room 1 — Lobby Floor 

Reliance Bldg. 

926 McGee Street 

Kansas City 6, Mo. 


16mm Pictures Co. 

9536 N.E. 2nd Street 

Miami 38, Florida 


March, 1944 

Page 105 


[The Post- War Heritage— 
'Priceless" Projectors 

D~ N ARMISTICE DAY sume .W.OOO 16nim motion pic- 

ture projectors, now busy in war-training centers, will 
be orphans needing new homes. The ideal homes, most 
[eager to take them in and care for them affectionately, will be 
[some 30,000 American schools that have never yet achieved 
heir "first projector." // such transfer ciiit he effected, it will 
(not only double the educational film market at a stroke— that 
narket cannot grow save as projectors come — but will also 
Idefinitely increase the new projector market. Whether such 
transfer can he effected, will depend wholly on the price to 
ithese schools. They could not afford a new projector before 
'the war or they would have bought long ago. Projector sales- 
men saw to it that no school lacked invitation, argument, and 
inducement to buy. Only the money was lacking. None of 
these schools will have more money after the war. often even 
less. Some could scrape up perhaps 757c of the new projector 
price— more could manage 50%— but a full 30,000 schools could 
pay, say 20% of list prices, and would jump at the chance. 
Wliy not give them the chance by making these projectors 
literally as "priceless" as possible? It can be done, and to the 
definite advantage of all concerned — the school, the manu- 
facturer, and the nation at large. 

The service already rendered by these projectors deserves the 
honor of a distinctive name. Let them be nationally known as 
"War Projectors" or "Victory Pnjjcctors." available to projec- 
torless schools. Of course, no school able to buy a new machine 
will be satisfied with anything less. But any school, unable to 
buy a new machine, will be proud to start with a "War 
Projector." Practice, experience, appreciation, enthusiasm then 
bring early ambition for another projector, a "new" one. A 
start is all the ball needs to roll. How soon it starts, and how 
fast it rolls, will depend on how the war-projector-surplus is 

The Baruch Plan 

The Baruch Committee offers a master formula for dis- 
posal of the vast total of war surpluses. In all respects — save 
one — it applies perfectly to the projector-surplus. The Plan 
insists upon moving the surplus promptly — upon scrapping uliat 
should be scrapped — upon no destruction of useful property — 
upon keeping the material out of the hands of speculators and 
promoters. Excellent! But then, Mr. Baruch would "sell all 
surpluses for all he can get" and "use the proceeds to reduce 
the National Debt." ( !) (We started to figure by what fraction 
of a hair's breadth of one percent these projector sales would 
reduce the national debt — but gave it up). At least one out- 
standing firm in the projector field, before the Baruch plan 
appeared, announced its readiness to buy back all its machines 
that the Government will sell. We call that a shining example 
of perfect cooperation in advance. We hope, however, that 
such cooperation will not be needed. 

The Baruch idea of "selling for all he can get" may be en- 
tirely sound for the mass of the war-surpluses. They will go 
largely to dealers, at fire-sale prices, for resale at a handsome 
profit to the general public. The general public (the non- 
white-collar part) will have more money than before the war — 
its own money — and can stand the luxury of paying a second 
profit on the same article. But the schools are in a very differ- 
ent category. They will rarely have more money than before 
the war. often less — and it is taxpayers' money! The taxpayer 
bought the original projector for the war services, paying the 
maker his full profit. He should not have to buy the same 
projector a second time for the schools and pay a second profit 
thereon. He should pay only re-conditioning costs-plus-profit. 

If the projectors are "sold" to the makers the price to schools 
must rise, eliminating many potential purchasers. The projec- 
tors should be (/kvii. not sold. The gain to .'\mencan Schools 
will be immediate and enormous — the loss to the National Debt 
microscopic and meaningless. 

When the Armistice Comes 

Ship the entire projector-surplus back to the makers "without 
money and without price." At the war centers juiik only the 
total demolitions. .'Ml the rest, even the seeming "wrecks," 
should be returned, each to its maker, for only the makers are 
qualified to decide what machines are worth repair. 

It will be an economical "gift." It avoids the gigantic task 
of inspecting 30,000 projectors to determine sale-price. The 
prohibitive cost of such inspection would soon compel the 
guesswork of blanket appraisal which would result in a price 
"safely" and preposterously low. This would mean not only 
less payment on the national debt but, more importantly, lost 
values for the taxpayer and unearned values for the manu- 
facturer. On such bargain-purchase the manufacturers could 
hardly avoid disproportionate profit on resale to schools. The 
"gift" plan .saves for the taxpayer the values he has paid f(jr 
and the profit he should not pay. 

It will be a simplifying "gift." It moves the projector surplus 
with minimum delay. It closes the original transaction without 
complications. It saves endless bookkeeping. It leaves the 
armed forces with all possible values they could derive from 
the original purchase, and the manufacturer with his full profit 
paid. It allows all unused values to go back intact to the tax- 
payer when he buys the projector for a school. 

It will be a profitable "gift." The manufacturer will profit, 
not on the "gift" but on further service. Such service he must 
supply and the schotjl must pay the costs and full profit thereon. 
The costs will include handling, transportation, storage, inspec- 
tion, adjusting, repair, replacement, refinishing, testing, resell- 
ing, packing and reshipment to the final school purchaser. 
Above all, the manufacturer secures, in every school where he 
sells a war-projector, a definite prospect for earlier purchase 
of a new projector. The school will have the benefit of a 
projector at a price it can afford and be on its way to better 
teaching. There will be new hope for a School Board awaken- 
ing and more projectors in the far less distant future. The 
war-projector, rightly handled, can be 'the catalyst to pre- 
cipitate swifter progress in the visual instruction field. The 
taxpayer, for once, will be paying no extra price or profit. He 
will have the satisfaction of helping his school now, instead of 
pouring his spoonful into the ocean of national debt. Inci- 
dentally, he might think, if the school is made to wait for the 
first installment to be paid on the debt what prevents waiting for 
the second installment, etc? Is it better to let the schools slide 
or the debt ride? Since the ride must be long, at least let the 
slide be short. Why use the taxpayers" money now for an 
infinitesimal nibble at a debt that is all but immortal, when the 
same money can start 30,(XX) schools now t)n the road to higher 
efficiency? The Debt can wait, will wait for generations. 
Educational progress should not be made to wait a single need- 
less day. Finally, The National Debt itself may profit, vaguely 
by the "gift." Present-day minds seem unequal to the feat of 
knowing how or when it can be paid. Better minds might come 
from better schools and ultimately find an answer. At the 
worst, better thinking may prevent the creation of another 
similar debt, leaving the present National Debt alone in the 
glory of its all-time record, to shrivel slowly through the years, 
serving as a practically permanent and thoroughly wholesome 
reminder of our egregious spendthrift years. 

Paper quotas say "stop." Our musings on "what price war- 
projectors to schools" must wait till .April. 

N L G 

Page 106 

The Educational Screen 


yhe Change of a Name 

the Maintenance of a Policy 

I. t. Shumaker 

V. C. Arntpiger 

H. C. Grubbs 

RECENTLY, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, itself an 
affiliate of the University of Chicago, acquired 
Erpi Classroom Filmst Inc. Accordingly, it was decided 
to change the name of the company to Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Films Inc., but to retain the established 
product name of Erpi Classroom Films. We believe our 
many friends in the field of education will be interested 
to learn that policies will remain unchanged — and the 
new company will continue under the leadership of the 
same men who directed Erpi's destiny in the past. 

Mr. E. E. Shumaker continues as President of the new company, 
and in addition becomes a member of the Board of Directors of 
Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. 

Dr. V. C. Arnspiger continues as Vice-President in charge of 
Research and Production, who will, of course, maintain the 
high standards for which Erpi Classroom Fihns are deservedly 

Mr. H. C. Grubbs continues as Vice-President in Charge of Dis- 
tribution and will follow the same policies which have proved 
so successful in establishing Erpi as the leader in the field of 
visual education. 



larch, 1944 

Page 107 

"Know America, Through Her Resources'' 

Scenic shots from two 
Castle Films, "New York, 
the Wonder City" (left), 
and "Washington" (below) 

An out-oi-the-ordinary educational activity correlating visual aids with 
a study program, developed as a by-product of the war emergency. 

Principal, Joel Chandler Harris Junior 
School, San Antonio, Texas 

IT is an ill wind that blows no one any good. So 
it happens that schools are frequently forced into 
new projects by reason of some calamity to a pro- 
gram of studies. In order to make room for war 
emergency, our manual training shops were taken by 
the government and the question immediately arose 
as to the placement of these pupils in some course that 
would take care of them each hour. The answer was 
a large visual education class to learn by seeing as well 
as hearing, and as it later developed, by speaking. 

The auditorium of the school was used, and two 
teachers were assigned, one a music teacher, the other 
a new type of teacher, an analyst and director of visual 
learning. The music of these classes was national. 
In some instances it was the music of a particular part 
of the United States, such as New England songs. 
Southern songs, cowboy songs, national songs, "God 
Bless America," "America," and "The Star Spangled 
Banner." Most of these had been learned in the ele- 
mentary division. Repetition, the enjoyment of sing- 
ing a song one knows, is really the major satisfaction 
of group singing. This part of the program takes only 
about one third of the period time, and is varied accord- 
ing to the time required for the picture. The words 
are copied from a large black board, and each pupil 
is required to have these words in a note book in 
which he keeps the analysis of the iilms he sees. 

The films were chosen by national zones, such as 
the New England States, the Middle Western States, 
the Southwest, the Far West and the Northwest. The 
subject matter of the films was scenic and industrial. 
For example, the fishing of New England was one; 
the cotton mill and the shoe factory were others. To 
a child situated in the desert a ship is an unknown 

object except as it appears in still life pictures ; but to 
see a two master tacking, to see her keel as she dips 
to the wind, is a new and exciting experience. The 
action of the boat speaks much more clearly than all 
the words it takes to describe it. The haul of fish, the 
.seines, the fish tackle, these are words now turned 
into action and actuality, and the vocabulary which has 
been read for so many years, meaningless and strange, 
becomes alive and imaginative. This is especially true 
in the retarded reader, or in the bilingual child, of 
whom there are many in the particular school in which 
this program has been tried. We forget so often that 
reading, to be pleasure, must create images or bring 
associations so that words have meaning. In a family 
of limited experiences the vocabulary must be limited, 
and its reading is correspondingly arid. The happy 
environment child, with many experiences, finds read- 
ing a renewed association of many forms of previous 

The moving picture has done more to enliven words 
than most teachers will allow. There are two methods 
of giving meanings to words, experience and defini- 
tion. Fortunately for the retarded child, in visual edu- 
cation the definition is voided. The talking machine 
enchances the chance of getting the full meaning, but 
most retarded children have as much difficulty in listen- 
ing as they have in reading. The picture moves too 
quickly for the retarded mind to keep pace with the 
voice. At least that is what some teachers feel who 
have been working on this experiment. 

There is another fault, which is true in reading as 
well as in the spoken story. The vocabulary used may 
be far above the mind of the average retarded child, 
even of the normal child, and so he teaches himself 

Page 108 

The Educational Screen 

Keystone slides from 
geography units on 
New England (left, 
drying codfish) and 
Our South (right, 
picking cotton). 

not to listen ; as the youngster once said of radio, "I 
just shuts off listening." There is no remedy for this 
in our present situation. In our group are all types 
of minds and all types of emotional personalities. This 
being the case, the ends accomplished are intangible 
and cannot be measured except factually, not emotion- 
ally. Which is the real end, the facts obtained or the 
subjective attitude acquired? The latter is more im- 
portant than the former in this course. What has been 
seen can be the more easily used in new experiences 
as well as in making over old experiences. The words 
New England States, may mean nothing objectively 
or subjectively ; but once the connection is made between 
deep sea fishing and New England there is one thing 
known, fishing is done in New England, and emo- 
tionally have been felt the roll of the boat, the pull of 
the seine, the roll of the spindle, the tapping of the 
sole, the thrill of work. These are known factors from 
the moment they are seen, and the host of associations 
made by the film will be a frequent aid to project the 
recall of these pictures whenever the same emotional 
or factual experience occurs in some other picture. 
Experiences multiply as interest increases, words be- 
come images. Reading must take on new delights. 
The three years in our junior school, seventh to 

ninth, have two semesters in each, equivalent to six 
grades. Each grade, except the first, has a period of 
forty-five minutes a day in the auditorium for this 
course. In all about eight hundred pupils pass through 
the auditorium daily. Some exceptions are made, when 
the best interests of certain pupils are so served, but in 
general each pupil is required to have this background 
course on "Know America Through Her Resources." 
The long experience and fine cooperation of the Direc- 
tor of Visual Education, Miss Emma Gutzeit, have been 
major factors in the success of the project. 

Two pupils are trained and assigned to the running 
of the machine and substitutes are trained for replace- 
ment in case of illness. The machine is in charge of 
one of the men teachers who is responsible for its up- 
keep, such as oiling and cleaning. Besides, each year 
the machine is forwarded to the Director of Visual 
Education who sends it to the factory for overhauling 
and repair. The teacher is relieved of as much detail 
as possible. The films are sent from the Director's 
Office to the school, and are returned by the school 
to that office. All the school does is to select and send 
to that office the names of the desired films. The Direc- 
tor of Visual Education orders and procures all films 
requested, if possible. If not, substitutes are made as 

Scenes from Erpi instructional films on "Early Settlers of New England" (left); "The Orange Grower" (right). 

March, 1944 Page 109 




Songs — The Sugar Party, Faiicuil Hall — Old North Church, Boston — Numerous references by volume and page num- 

Love's Old Sweet Song, Sweet Bunker Hill Monument — Lexington Com- her, to Book of Rural Life — Compton's Encyclo- 

and Low. nion — Abandoned New England Farm — pedia — World Book — Richard's Topical Encyclo- 

PiVm— Harvest of the Sugar Tap|)ing a Sugar Maple Tree — Drying Cod- pedia. Short Stories for Study and Enjoyment. 

Mafle. fish in the Sun— Logs Delivered at Stream. Poems— Trees, Be Different to Trees, Plant a 

Maine— Quarrying Granite— Looking into a Tree, What Do We Plant, Landing of the Pil- 

Songs— Blow the Man Down. Marble Quarry— Chiseling Ornamental grim Fathers, Mending Well, Courtship of Myles 

Polly Wolly Doodle, Thanks Marble— Spinning Silk— Sorting Raw Silk Standish, etc. 

wu'" A'if'nf"-''' ^^f ^""^ -Drawing Silk Fibers-Doubling Frame in Stories-Thc Village Singer, The Revolt of 
Wnom All Blessnigs rlow. ,,. , •,.,, t- ^ r- ^^ >i-ii • tt t^ ■.. . r.,. „ 

^fcl -^F / s^ / V ^^oolen Mdl— First Cotton Mill m U. S.— Mother, The Great Stone Face, Building Better 

B^ Elqhnd''^ " P""*""^ ^°°"' '" Cotton Mill— Spinning than They Knew, the Pilgrim Fathers, Settlement 
^L "f—H Cotton Yarn. of the Plymouth Colony, In Old New England, etc. 


iSongs— Sidewalks of N e w Palisades of the Hudson River— The Great Selections with page numbers given from Golden 
York, America the Beautiful, Brooklyn Bridge-Subway Station and Bells Around the World— Little Journeys to Amer- 
Praise the Lord and Pass the Train-Wall Street-Immigrants at Ellis ica-Ten Communities-Pageant of America- 
Ammunition, Anchors Aweigh isia,„l-Liberty Bell-Independence Hall- The National Capitol-Democracy in America- 
Film— jVra' York, the Wonder Washington from an Airplane— Zero Mile- ^'8*^ Ugh\.'i in American Literature, etc. 
!£. stone and White House— Printing Paper Poems— When We Were in Our Teens, New- 
Songs We're All Americans, Money— Coining Presses — Reading Room, York Bootblack, Mannahatta, On a Subway Ex- 
Navy Victory March, \rmy Air Congressional Library— View of Norfolk P""^^^' What .America Means to Me, My Land is 
Corps, Mariner Hymn ' Navy Yard-Great Warships in Hampton ^'^ ^^"^- '^''°" -^""''^' ''■"' "^^y E''"^'' 
Film— ^Fa.f/i!)i,(;foii on Parade Roads— On Deck of Oyster Boat— Weaving 

r r- ■"---.-■ Silk Taffeta Ribbon-Decorating Porcelain l'°"f ~'^''™ ^"jf^ °i*^' ij''^ ' ^""'^'=r °^ 

Songs— Juanita. Cielito Lindo ... _. . ^ ^, . ^ Broadway. The Fifth Wheel, The Devil and Tom 

Film-^,H.rfra„^ All ^Vare-Firmg Tableware in Trenton Pot- Walker, The Roar of a Great City, The Story 

-— — — 'SO'- of the Harbor, This is my Own, my Native Land. 


Fork^s'lt^H ^'^Ol S°^' ^''^ ^°""" °" ""^ ^^''^^' ^^"^ Orleans-Pick- References with volume and page number, to 

_., _ ', ■ "ig Cotton in Mississippi — Cotton Gin in National Geographic Magazine — American Inven- 

rilm — Cotton from Seed to -^ ^ . . . -, ..- ^.^t,, 

Clofh lexas — Primitive Cotton Spinning, Egypt— tion and Inventors — The Open Road to Reading — 

Orange Groves in California— Picking Va- Literature and Life— Echoes of the Southlands— 

Songs-Massa's in de Cold. j^.^j^ q^ ;„ Spain-Granulated Sugar Stories of Americans at Work, etc. 

Cold Ground, Dixie, De Camp 

Town Races Making— Beet Sugar Factory— P i c k i n g 

Film — Sugar Cane and Orange Grapefruit in Florida — Pineapple Plantation 

Croivcr u »• D t j- t^ Poem — Down the Mississippi, The Cotton Picker. 
,___ —Harvesting Bananas— Loading Bananas- 
Songs— Review of Southern A Hereford Cattle Drive in Te.xas— The 

Rtalr/i. River ^'''^"' "^ ^'"'''"^ Beef-Fine Wool Meri- Stories-Why Copper is Called King-The South's 
' "o Sheep Grazing. First Crop of Sugar. Cotton and the Old South. 

near the original as possible. These selections are made Because of this excellent coordination the teacher 

in advance for the ne.xt term or semester. Complete can make plans for a very fine piece of notebook work, 

coordination between the school and the Director's of- Each ptipil keeps a notebook in which the analysis 

fice is essential, or the plan fails. Without a picture the of the picture is made and correlation is established 

class would be lost, for there would be nothing for it between the picture and the class subjects in the school, 

to do except sing through the entire period ! For three For example, an indu.strial picture naturally correlates 

years there has never been a single session without a ^^''t'l Occupations as a subject matter course and with 

picture, so well does the adininistration work. A re- -'Social Science. This appears in the notebooks and each 

markable record, and one which shows how effectively P"P'' '^^* ^'* '^^"" '^'^o'*^^ °^ ^'^^ correlation to be made, 
.school officials can work together. It can be seen that ^™'" ^''^'^ correlations and skeleton outlines dis- 

,),„ \ \ ^ »i- • I . J cussion takes place. Comparisons are drawn between 

the same skeleton outline, given above, can be used • , , , . ' , . , , 

, , , ■ . pictures and the various correlations made bv pupils 

each term and vet the same pictures mav never be • .i i ^m, • i .u j- ' \. \i 

. • . ' ' in the class. Obviously these discussions are not the 

used twice. In some mstances, where it has been felt .^^^^ i„ ^„ g^^^^g f^^ the pertinent subject matter 

advantageous, the same picture has been used each se- differs for each. In this way the pupil may indirectlv 

niestcr. such as Texas Cavalcade, this being a Texas see the growth in his own school progress. " 
school. {Concluded on fage 119) 

Page 110 

The Educational Screen 

War Films and the Classroom 

Although the war has curtailed the supply 
of visual equipment to schools, it has made 
other beneficial contributions to education. 


Director of Audio- Visual Education 
Department of Education, Bristol, Conn. 

MUCH has been written, and still more spoken, 
about the impetus to be given Audio- Visual 
Education through war training and informa- 
tion programs. Optimism blooms in anticipation of 
the rosy future of visual aids in our schools and the 
wonderful effect they will have upon public education. 
While there is much evidence to support these proph- 
ecies it would seem important to examine the present 
efTect war conditions have upon the use of visual aids 
in schools and to estimate the values to be derived 
from these conditions. 

Fundamentally there still remain the three requisites 
essential to the development of intelligent use of audio- 
visual aids in schools. First must come mechanical 
equipment needed ; second, we must have the visual 
materials to use ; and third, teachers must have the 
know-how — that is, they must know what is available, 
which materials are most valuable and for what par- 
ticular subject area, and how to apply them intelli- 
gently. three requisites to a successful audio- 
visual aids program are not necessarily stated in order 
of importance — in fact, to develop a truly successful 
program all three must be fulfilletd. 

At first it may appear that the war has had an ad- 
verse eflfect upon availability of equipment. Its im- 
mediate effect is to limit the amount available to 
schools at the present time. It must be remembered, 
however, that many schools possessing audio-visual 
equipment were not making maximum use of it, and 
the present difficulty in obtaining new equipment has 
emphasized the value of old and thus created additional 
use. We must also consider that, with proper priority 
and planning, most types of equipment can be obtained 
even under present conditions. Beyond these considera- 
tions, the technical improvements being made in equip- 
ment by advanced production techniques will prove 

wholly beneficial in the long range view, despite the 
temporary difficulties occasioned by the war. 

Direct Skill Training Films 

Judged on the basis of pre.sent values, war condi- 
tions have made their greatest contribution in stimu- 
lating production of training and informational films. 
The two major areas of such development, which will 
bear careful investigation by educators as to applica- 
tion in schools, are the direct skill training films, and 
those designed for general informational purposes for 
showing to the public at large. One of the first and 
most important demands of the war was the necessity 
for training great numbers of people in new skills. 
It was early recognized that this type of training could 
be greatly speeded up by the proper use of training 
films with the result that the armed forces, the U. S. 
Office of Education and independent producers de- 
veloped hundreds of fine films of this type. 

One outstanding result of this activity is a series 
produced under the supervision of the U. S. Office of 
Education covering such subjects as Precision Measure- 
ment, Engine Lathe, Milling Machine, The Shaper, 
Bench Work and similar topics related to machine shop 
work. Many of these films are well-suited for trade 
school use and industrial arts programs. Some, such as 
the Micrometer and Vernier Scale, are useful in high 
school science and mathematics classes. Just released 
by this source is a new series of visual units consisting 
of a training film, film strip and manual, planned as a 
teaching unit in a number of other technical subjects. 
One of the first to be announced is a unit on The Slide 
Rule. When we consider the .scarcity of such material 
for mathematics classes during past years, it would 
seem that we are reaping real benefits right now from 
the war-time impetus given visual aid production. 

(Left) A greedy shopper tries to get an extra ration. (Right) A black market transaction in the dark of the night. 
From "Partners in Crime," British Information Services film. 

March, 1944 

Page 111 

Another unusual series is that on "Office Practice" 
Ijroduced by the Navy Department and released 
through the U. S. Office of Education, covering basic 
and advanced typing techniques and shortcuts, opera- 
tion and maintenance of office machines. Good material 
on this subject was virtually unobtainable before the 
war. Examination of the War Department publication 
FM 21-7 and literature from the U. S. Office of Edu- 
catifm will reveal many more films on hundreds of 
different technical subjects now available — many of 
which can be well adapted to school use. 

General Information Films 

The general informational type of material, brought 

^Hto being through war activities, may be of even 
^fteater immediate benefit to schools due to its wide 
^Hnge of subject matter and its suitability for many 
age groups. In this classification we have a number 
of films produced by the War Department, which at 
the present moment are unavailable for school use. 
In addition, we have a considerable supply from the 
Office of War Information, the Coordinator of Inter- 
American affairs and the film bureaus of many allied 
countries — all supplying films at moderate service 
charge to schools as well as to adult groups. 

Ships loading from grain elevators on "Great Lakes," 
of film released by National Film Board. 


Primitive Indian method of nlantinp corn, shown in the 
Disney film, "The Grain That Built a Hemisphere." 

The most widely discussed and better known gen- 
eral information type film produced by the War De- 
partment is the "Why We Fight" .series consisting of 
Prelude to War, Nasis Strike, Divide and Conquer, 
Battle of Britain, Battle of Russia, Battle of China 
(just completed) and Battle of America (still in pro- 
duction). This series is being produced by Colonel 
Frank Capra, of Hollywood fame, and is presented 
to members of the armed forces on the thesis that 
the best informed soldier is the best soldier. The 
series is designed to give an overall concept of this 
global war starting with world events leading up to 
and causing the present conflict, and covering the 
various phases of the war since its beginning. Pre- 
sented from a remarkably impartial viewpoint, con- 

sidering that they were produced during wartime, this 
series of motion pictures graphically illustrates the 
overall strategy and strength of our enemies, and the 
steps we have taken to combat this strategy. Generous 
use of animation in the form of maps and diagrams 
assist materially in making these films most effective 
aids for the study of the present world conflict. While 
these films are not immediately available for school 
use — many consider them rather "strong stuff" for 
that purpose — such outstanding material may perhaps 
not be denied the educational field indefinitely. 

Classroom Possibilities of War Productions 

Among the films released by the Office of War In- 
formation are many which will serve to enrich present 
day teaching. In the field of industrial activity studied 
in many social science classes, we find such material 
as Aluminum, Arm Behind the Army, Bomber, Build- 
ing a Tank, Lake Carrier. Right of Way and Troop 
Train — all of which are good illustrations of various 
phases of industrial accomplishment. Films depicting 
customs, resources and characteristics of other nations 
include Brazil at War, Dover, The Dutch Tradition, 
Listen to Britain, Pincers on Japan and Report from 
Russia. Various other films deal with nutrition, gar- 
dening, conservation and similar subjects important to 
a nation at war and likewise of real value for school 

The Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs has re- 
leased many excellent films on Mexico, Central and 
South America too numerous to mention in detail. 
The majority are in color, skillfully produced, and of 
tremendous value to classes studying these countries. 
One of the "^inost popular is the well-known travelog 
made by Walt Disney and his staff on a visit to South 
America in search of material for the production of 
a feature cartoon on that country. This is a film with 
a strong appeal to audiences of all ages. Some of the 
newer Disney-produced C.I. A. A. releases include Grain 
That Built a Hemisphere, Water, and Defense Against 
Invasion. These are, in effect, a new medium of com- 

{Concluded on page 119) 

Page 112 

The Educational Screen 

The Use of Motion Picture? 

A report edited by 

ESTHER L. BERG, Assistant to Principal 
Junior High School 99, Manhattan, and 


Bureau of Child Guidance, New York City Schools 

This timely discussion suggests some 
potentialities of the film as an effective 
weapon against juvenile delinquency. 

BETTER human relations, better personnel and 
social relationships, can be developed through 
moving pictures used as a springboard for class- 
room discussion. Since the techniques in this use of 
human relations films are not generallv known, we 
believe that report' of the experiences on which we 
base our conviction about the value of this medium 
will be of interest to other teachers. These experiences 
were part of our work during the fall of 1943. in the 
in-service course- on "Moving Pictures in the Pro- 
gram of Personality Adjustment". 

The films we used are known as "The Human Re- 
lations Series", and were edited from feature photo- 
plays by a Commission of the Progressive Education 
Association with Dr. Alice V. Keliher as the chair- 
man. In the complete series there are over 50 excerpts 
from full length feature films. These excerpts cover 
such situations as the young child in his family, the 
older child in his social group, the young person choos- 
ing his life work, mob behavior, racial discrimination, 
relations of communities and nations. The running 
time of each excerpt averages ten to fifteen minutes. 

The use of these films is to be markedly differen- 
tiated from the use of the instructional film designed 
as a classroom teaching tool. The usual procedure for 
the latter is to have a clearly formulated purpose for 
the use of the film in learning situations, to preview 
the film to determine how its elements will aid pupils 
in developing an understanding of the unit of work, 
to prepare the pupils before the film is shown by giv- 
ing suggestions of some significant aspects to observe 
or by raising cjuestions that can be answered through 
study of the picture, and after the showing, to have 
definite pupil participation in activities such as dis- 
cussion, written tests, reading assignments, and proj- 
ects for research and creative expression. 

The human relations film on the other hand, is 
first previewed by the teacher so that she may be 
ready to lead a discussion. Preparation of students, 
if required, can be limited to questions of the "why" 
of certain behavior or situations in the pictures. When 
di.scussion is opened after the showing of a film the 
class can be a.sked what problems of human rela- 
tions, of conduct, of behavior, they saw in the movie. 
The pictures .stimulate the observers' feelings, atti- 
tudes, memories, and it is these personalized, indi- 

^CoUaborating on this report were five teachers of the cour.'-e 
at the Julia Riclniian Junior High School — Bertha Balsam. 
Juliet Furnian, Ruth Gadrich, Marion Scully, Margaret 
Wilhelni — ^and June Harris, Bureau of Child Guidance. 

-Given by Mrs. Esther L. Berg. 

(Top) A dramatic moment in "Black Legion." (Warner) 
(Bottom) Main characters in "Captain Courageous." (MGM) 

vidualized reactions which are the subject of discus- 
sion by the group. The teacher's role should not be 
one of judgment, but rather of acceptance. Conflicting 
points of view will inevitably be expressed, and the 
teacher, neither by word, tone, or gesture, should take 
sides. Learning by the pupil comes through the pro- 
cess of .self-exploration created through class discus- 

Mr. Louis Relin of Benjamin Franklin High School, 
as an expert, first demonstrated the method for us. 
.\n excerpt from Black Legion was shown to a group 
of high school boys and girls, whites and negroes, of 
varying intellectual abilities, who came from Julia 
Richman and Benjamin Franklin High Schools. Mr. 
Relin then opened the discussion in a very casual 
manner by asking whether the picture presented a 
real situation. The response of the group was imme- 
diate. The film had aroused strong emotional and 
intellectual reactions. The discussion moved along 
swiftly and smoothly. It was so deftly and skillfully 

March, 1944 

Page 113 

velop Better Human Relations 

IMiolos courtesy of New York University Kilni Library 

(Top) Trial scene in "The Life of Emile Zola." (Warner) 
(Bottom) School episode in "The Devil Is a Sissy." (MGM) 

handled that the direction along which it was guided 
was not apparent to the group and hardly apparent 
to the observers. Mr. Relin at no point attempted in- 
doctrination or a superimposing of any personal 
opinions upon the group. At one point when a stale- 
mate occurred he suggested sources for further study 
and research. 

The excerpt dealt with economic prejudice, and the 
members of the class debated what they felt were the 
real reasons for racial and religious persecutions. 
Problems of minority groups, especially negro prob- 
lems, were aired frankly and honestly in a most friendly 
spirit. One of the white boys, towards the end of 
the discus,sion, made a deeply moving plea for toler- 
ance. This boy told how he often invited negro friends 
to his home, and how his warm welcome was recipro- 
cated in their homes. The class finally had to be 
closed by Mr. Relin against the wishes of the boys 
and girls, who wanted to continue the discussion. 

The next demonstration was conducted by one of 
the authors of this article to whom the method was 
completely new. The class assembled from several 
schools ranged in age from nine years to fifteen years, 
in intelligence quotients from 73 to 140, and in school 
placement from a class for children with retarded men- 
tal development in an elementary school, to a superior 
high school group. The film was an excerpt from 
Captains Courageous which portrayed cheating by a 
young boy. The teacher opened discussion by asking 
how many of the pupils enjoyed the picture. She 
then raised a number of questions as a basis for dis- 
cussion, which included the following : 

1. What do you think of the boy in this picture? 

2. When we punish a person for doing something 
wrong, ought we to punish him only on the basis of 
what he has done, or ought we also to consider why 
lie has done it? 

3. Can you think of any incident in your own life 
when you did something wrong with a reason for 
doing it which was perfectly all right? 

After the first ten or twelve minutes during which 
the students were slow to respond, the problems of 
spanking and punishment were mentioned. The entire 
class then participated in the discussion which pro- 
gressed rapidly from incidents in the picture to per- 
sonal experiences of punishment by parents and 
teachers. It was amazing how keenly these young 
people realized that punishment so often reveals the 
uncertainty and insecurity of the adult who punishes. 

When we analyzed this demonstration lesson we 
recognized how difficult it is for a teacher to shift 
from the more traditional instructional method to an 
informal discussion method. Nevertheless, the per- 
missive, accepting attitude of the teacher encouraged 
the free expression which finally swept the entire 
group. The personal experiences described by the 
children were stimulated, not by the teacher's ques- 
tions, but rather by the feeling of security and the 
atmosphere of free inquiry in the group. 

The Julia Richman girls had been so stimulated by 
tlie first session with Mr. Relin that they requested 
the formation of a Human Relations Club at which 
this kind of film would be shown. Several of the 
authors of this article were asked to sit in as faculty 
members and to guide the first few discussions. Three 
meetings held after school hours were attended by 
third and fourth year pupils with a wide range of 
intellectual abilities. Bringing together children of 
varying intellectual levels has been surprisingly suc- 
cessful. The brightest children do not seem to domi- 
nate, and the others do not seem to be overwhelmed. 
On the plane of human relations evidently, intellect is 
not the determining factor. 

The choice of films was left largely to the discre- 
tion of a committee of pupils who studied the catalogue 
of the Human Relations Series. Through their first 
choice, Emile Zola, we were introduced to one of the 
pitfalls in handling a group of this kind. A discus- 
sion of race and religion, although lively and pertinent, 

Page 114 

The Educational Screen 

proved disturbing to some whose deep-seated preju- 
dices were uncomfortably stirred. They were not suf- 
ficiently used to each other, to the technique of this 
type of exploration, nor to a free and open-minded 
give and take. The girls realized this mistake, but 
felt that eventually an esprit could be developed which 
would make possible open discussion of even the most 
delicate matters. They therefore decided to lay a firmer 
foundation by continuing with such films as Alice 
Adams and White Angel which deal with domestic 
and economic relationships. These problems, while 
vital and pressing, seemingly do not involve issues 
which create high emotional tensions. 

The preliminary discussion after each film, was either 
discursive or launched directly at the heart of the 
problem. Eventually the girls revealed themselves, their 
experiences, sentiments, and problems. There was an 
atmosphere of good-will, and interest in others' points 
of view. Also noteworthy was the participation by 
every member of the group. 

Such generalizations which have become apparent 
to us may be summarized as follows : 

1. The discussion leader must proceed warily be- 
tween the extremes of being too passive and letting 
the discussion disintegrate, and of being too active in 
directing the course of the discussion. She must be 
ready to pick up leads, to broaden perspectives, and 
to guide interests which manifest themselves, without 
attempting to elicit answers by leading questions- 
answers which may be no more than expression of lip 
service to socially approved ideals. She must be willing 
and ready to follow all lines of inquiry which develop. 

2. Inherent in laying open certain problems in 
human relations is the inevitable danger of their explo- 
siveness. On those issues which are causing world- 
wide strife and bloodshed, it is to be expected that re- 
percussions will be felt by children. There is positive 
value in bringing these tensions to the surface and pos- 
sibly vitiating their cankerous tendencies by deliber- 
ately examining them. 

3. In using these human relations groups as a 
technique in "living together", we cannot claim that 
it will effect overnight a change in attitudes. We 
rather hope to develop the ability to discuss anything, 
openly and amicably, and with respect for others' 
points of view. 

These few experiences with the Human Relations 
films suggest the excellent potentialities this technique 
has in a program for personality adjustment. One of 
its outstanding contributions appears to be the stimulus 
it gives to self-expression. Educators have come to 
appreciate more and more the emotional components 
of learning, and modern methods have proven the 
value of encouraging children to express themselves 
and to approach their studies as real life problems 
rather than as isolated academic drills. The stimulus 
and appeal of the motion picture is so great that even 
inhibited children tend to speak up and express opinions. 
With the imaginary situation as a starting point the 
child can gradually approach problems that concern 
him most in his everyday living. The fact that he can 
project his own problems onto fictitious characters 
lessens his self-consciousness and oflfers him a starting 
point. The intrinsic appeal of the motion picture char- 

acters and the glamour associated with the players 
portraying them heightens interest and eagerness to 
take part in the discussion. Thus we have an excel- 
lent opportunity for the expression of feelings and 
opinions, for the exercise of critical faculties, for self- 
analysis, for sharing exp^iences, and for evaluating; 
attitudes, prejudices, and the like. Some children di 
rive emotional release merely from the opportunity of 
expressing themselves ; others gain a sense of security 
in sharing their experiences or in realizing that others 
face problems similar to their own. To adolescents 
particularly, the realization that their problems are not 
unique is often a great relief and an opening wedge in 
helping them develop means of meeting their difficulties, j 
From observing children in the groups described above I 
it is clear that discussion meets a basic need that 
youngsters themselves recognize. All of the children 
derived great satisfaction and clamored for more op- 
portunities for similar group meetings. 

In addition to the release and satisfaction they ofler 
children, the human relations films indirectly provide an- 
other means of developing beneficial pupil-teacher rela- 
tionships. The points of view that are expressed duriui; 
the informal discussions following the films are not 
likely to be evoked during regular class periods, and 
can be of inestimable value to the teacher in helping her 
understand the individuals in her class. Where the ac- 
tivity program has been adopted teachers have re- 
ported gaining added insights into the psychology of 
children through the opportunities the new program has 
given them to listen to what children have to say. The 
use of human relations films can offer similar oppor- 
tunities for getting to know children better and under- 
standing their problems more intimately, and is espe- 
cially valuable at Junior and Senior High School levels. 

In inculcating an appreciation of democratic 
princijiles. the type of discussion that can follow a 
human relations film offers a practical, living experi- 
ence, more meaningful and telling than many a lecture. 
Tolerance, respect for the opinions of others, apprecia- 
tion of factual evitlence, fair play, critical evaluation of 
prejudices, take on meaning to boys and girls who have 
had an opportunity to witness arid act upon them. Dc^ 
mocracy becomes more vital when it is presented in 
realistic human terms with an emotional appeal. By 
utilizing constructively youth's inherent interest in the 
motion picture and the ego ideals already built up in 
connection with popular .screen personalities, it is pos- 
sible to develop deeply felt and lasting convictions.. Tin- 
specific situations portrayed in the pictures enabled 
the children to identify themselves with the victims 
of injustice and to experience the situations emotionalh 
as well as intellectually. The conclusions they arrive 
at as a result of this kind of educational experience art- 
bound to have a more lasting effect than those reached 
after a purely hypothetical intellectual discussion. 

New attitudes seem to be immediately motivated In 
this method of exploring human relations. Some of tlu- 
children organized a club ; a number said that they 
would discuss these experiences at home in order to 
"educate" their parents. The dynamic, challenging reac- 
tions of the children are the basis of our conviction 
that this use of moving pictures is a unique method 
to help create better human relations. 

March, 1944 

Page lis 


"KT/^'T' "C/^IP T'I_IT7 A TlPl^C! *^® waxing and waning of WQliam Fox's notable 

Installment 55. — An intercalary section about 

school films program in pioneer talkie days. 


THE committee thereafter chosen by 
Col. Devcreux for Erpi's education- 
al program was well-balanced. Dr. 
Engelhardt, expert in school administra- 
|tion, had organized the educational sys- 
tis of approximately sixteen States, Paul 
lort was director of the .'\dvanced School 
Education at Teachers College ; Alex- 
|,nder J. Stoddard, superintendent of 
chools at Providence, Rhode Island, was 
^dll known as a leader in his especial .field 
nd had even been known to Devereux pre- 
viously as superintendent of the Bronxville 
hools. There surely should be expert 
guidance for an educational program 
here. But it was necessary, too, to have 
a "director of educational research" reg- 
ularly at Erpi. and, on the advice of the 
committee, because his name had led all 
their lists of likely men, Devereux en- 
gaged to fill the niche Varney Clyde 
Arnspiger, an occasional special student 
at Columbia and regarded as an up-and- 
coming schoolman. Arnspiger, born in 
Grayson County, Texas, in 1896, was su- 
perintendent of schools at Drumright, 
Oklahoma, where oil wells had gushed 
unusually ample funds for education, and, 
in that place, had developed a system of 
cooperative industrial education known 
favorably as the "Drumright Plan." 

Erpi's first production group of 
teacher-training pictures threw 
some of the heaviest committee 
responsibility on Dr. Paul Mort. 

.•\t that early date the Western Electric 
Company was too busy meeting orders on 
theatrical installations to do much with 
the expected portable sound projector. 
The sales staff marked time, declaring 
that as soon as the machines could be had 
there would be a flood of orders. In the 
meantime the educational committee felt 

that much might be accomplished if they 
could have a concrete illustration of the 
new possibilities of sound pictures in the 
teaching field. 

Such non-theatrical sound possibilities 
as had been demonstrated then and were 
convenient, were some miscellaneous sub- 
jects produced by Fox Films. My recol- 
lection is that they included industrial 
shots of the printing of the Chicago Daily 
N-ews, of weaving Mohawk Rugs, and of 
making Firestone automobile tires- There 
were also Fox newsreel items showing 
Chief Justice Taft administering the presi- 
dential oath of office to Herbert Hoover, 
with Calvin Coolidge standing by; George 
Bernard Shaw — obvious subject for a 
talkie — in a personal explanation of why 
he was superior to Mussolini, and a poli- 
tical statement by Lloyd George. The 
scheme was to use excerpts from these 
to illustrate a talk by some educator who 
would, of course, be duly presented at the 
start of the film, and would draw neces- 
sary conclusions when seen again in per- 
son at the close. 

Demonstration Pictiires 

The choice of the educator to do this 
narrowed down to Harry Dexter Kitson, 
professor of education at "T.C.," probably 
because, in addition to his very full quali- 
fications as an obliging gentleman not 
afraid to take a chance on a project 
which interested him, he was a specialist 
in vocational guidance and might be ex- 
pected to know and to talk authoritatively 
about the world of industry. The amiable 
Dr. Kitson was thereupon hustled into a 
studio one afternoon, plastered with make- 
up, given a very limited time to decide 
what to say, and put before the cameras. 
The result, in two reels, entitled "The 
First Experimental Demonstration of 
Educational Talking Pictures," was not 
precisely cruel to Dr. Kitson, but it 
scarcely presented him to advantage. His 
voice was well recorded, however, and, 
with the interpolated shots, the resultant 
talkie served the transitional purpose very 

The screen likeness of Dr. Kitson and 
prints of the interpolated industrial shots 
went into immediate service for the ela- 
borate sales force, and for a time silenced 
the protests of insufficient demonstration 
material. The first programs were, in- 
deed, rather an odd conglomeration for 
use in convincing educators. By now, in 
addition to the new Kitson reel, there 
were primarily the animated cartoon, 
■'Finding His Voice" ; a theatrical short 
in which Robert Benchley presented a 
monologue called "The Treasurer's Re- 
port" ; a Libby-Owens-Ford industrial on 
the factory production of shatter-proof 

glass ; the Chicago Daily News subject ; 
and the antic address of Bernard Shaw. 

.^s it happened, Kitson shared his 
apartment with a young friend, Edgar M. 
Stover, who, while studying for a degree 
at Columbia, also was employed as a sales 
representative of the Erpi educational di- 

ce) BachracU 

Dr. Alexander Stoddard was Erpi's 
expert on film usages in the ele- 
mentary and junior school grades. 

vision. Stover, of course, knew what had 
been done, so, to further the cause, he 
and William Lewin, a young educator 
interested in school films (he was a high 
school teacher of English on leave of ab- 
sence to study educational motion pictures 
for a doctor's degree at Columbia) ar- 
ranged a showing of the new picture for 
the naturally interested other educators at 
Columbia. Now that I think of it, I be- 
lieve that it was Lewin who had directed 
the production. 

During the first few months in 1929, 
William Lewin, this young high school 
teacher of Newark, New Jersey, where 
Balcom had been so active in visual edu- 
cation, had visited Devereux urging upon 
him the importance of making a survey 
of the school market, especially now that 
existing surveys of silent film uses would 
soon be obsolete. The Colonel had agreed, 
and plans were made to send Lewin on a 
tour to "line up" the colleges of a wide 
area. Stokes, in the meantime, about 
July, 1929, had come from abroad to begin 
his new duties ; and his first work was to 
assist Lewin in deciding where to go. 
Lewin then went forth, and in reasonable 
course of time returned with generally 
favorable reports from about fifty-eight 

I had made Lewin's acquaintance about 
five years before when an advertising 

Page 116 

The Educational Screen 

Harry D. Kitson's good nature and 
high hopes for a noble experiment 
made him the guinea-pig of Erpi's 
first "educational" demonstration. 

agency, which he had started in Newark 
while still a teacher at the high school 
there, undertook to develop industrial 
film accounts, and he wanted me to esti- 
mate on production for a prospect. With 
an earnestness which I later found to be 
characteristic, he was then grounding him- 
self in the subject as a student of Mrs. 
Patterson's course in photoplay compo- 
sition at Columbia University. His doc- 
tor's thesis, in 1933, was "Photoplay Ap- 
preciation in American High Schools." 
His brother, Albert Lewin, was at the 
same time on his way to his subsequent 
places as a successful scenarist and pro- 
duction supervisor in Hollywood. In 
years soon to follow, William Lewin 
was to begin his admirable work of de- 
veloping motion picture appreciation as 
a curriculum subject in some thousands 
of high schools, this activity served in 
large part by his monthly Film and Radio 
Discussion Guide, published at Newark. 

The next important undertaking of the 
Erpi educational committee was the pro- 
duction of a four-reel talkie on civics, 
entitled, "Our Government at Work." It 
was produced for the Erpi educational 
division by Fox Films, and Stokes was 
turned at once to the supervision of that 
project, involving for him an arduous 
examination of material which was to be 
taken for the purpose from the library of 
the Fox Newsreel. 

It is advisable to digress here to ex- 
plain this leaning toward Fox. The origi- 
nal Western Electric Sound System con- 
sisted of a phonograph record synchro- 
nized with the running picture. The meth- 
od bore the specific protected name "Vi- 
taphone." The possibility of putting the 
sound impulse directly on the film, instead 
of using the separate disk record, was 
well known. De Forest's Phonofilm was 
a popularly shown example of it, and the 
Bell System had long held patents on cer- 
tain phases of the process, but acoustical 
experts held that the sound quality of 
the disk was much better. It probably 
still is better to their keen, trained ears 

and to their dehcate instruments ; but the 
saving and convenience of having sound 
on the film was quickly manifest, and the 
original system was rapidly superseded by 
this combined form. 

In this change William Fox figured 
prominently. In common with other 
Hollywood producers who had under- 
estimated the talking picture innovation, 
he had seen the Warners start their sky- 
rocketing rise with the sensational Vita- 
phone method of the Western Electric 
Company which they alone had agreed to 
take. He decided to capture some of the 
sure profits by contracting for another 
sound picture development which had 
been worked out by Theodore W. Case, 
an engineer of Auburn, New York, one 
putting the sound-track on the film, and 
brought to Fox's attention by Courtland 
Smith. Case, it may be mentioned, had 
been an important assistant to De Forest 
in his development of Phonofilm, but he 
was now working "on his own." Earl 
.Sponable, co-inventor with Case, joined 
Fo.x as chief sound engineer. The nego- 
giations of Fox and Case soon revealed 
that Fox could not proceed far without 
running afoul of the Bell System patents 
and, as the Bell people were willing to 
consider this other form of sound pictures, 
too, they signed an agreement with Fox to 
share in that development as well as with 
Warners in the current sound-on-disk 
variety. The newer method was called 
"Vitaphone." But both methods were 
known indifferently almost from the be- 
ginning, as the "Western Electric Sys- 


Howard Gale Stokes was drafted for 
Erpi service from preferred work 
at Telephone headquarters. He be- 
lieved in hewing to the line, let 
chips and glory fall where they may. 

Possibly because the agreement with 
Fox was newer, it was somewhat more 
flexible at that time, and the Fox Eastern 
studios and laboratories, on Tenth Avenue 
in New York City, were not nearly so far 
from the P'rpi headquarters offices as the 
Warner Studios and laboratories, former- 
ly the Vitagraph plant at Flatbush, on 
the remote outskirts of Brooklyn. In ad- 

dition. Fox was interested in developing 
the educational field, and Warners had 
no interest then, to speak of, in anything 
but theatres. Fox even then had made 
some talkie industrials. The organization had, from its "Movietone News," an 
appreciable library of educational ma- 
terial upon which Erpi might draw. So 
the first of the formal Erpi educational 
talkies — excepting the Kitson "quickie," 
that is — made under supervision of the 
committee, was produced by the Fox stafT 
with Erpi's close control. As the sound 
engineers were also generally former Bell 
Laboratories men, and sound engineers 
were the top authorities in talkie pro- 
duction, the work actually remained pretty 
much in the Bell System family. 

"Our Government at Work" purported 
to show a visit by two schoolboys to the 
Washington office of the late Dr. William 
J. Cooper, then United States Commis- 
sioner of Education. From him, and from 
some other rather obvious agents, the 
boys learned — mostly through shots from 
the Fox library — about the functions of 
the main Government divisions. The 
staged sequences were produced under the 
direction of Richard F. Chapman, bor- 
rowed by Stokes from his regular work 
for the Fox Industrial Division. Dr. 
Cooper came to New York from the na- 
tional capital to appear, and there was 
further cooperation by J. W. Crabtree, 
secretary of the N.E..^. 

Fox Educational Talkies 

In making his agreement with the A. 
T. & T., Fox had tried to reserve to 
himself the exclusive newsreel license and 
an exclusive right to develop sound films 
for the educational, industrial, religious 
and scientific fields ; and he felt that the 
A. T. & T. had violated the understanding 
by licensing other newsreels and organ- 
izing its own educational division. The 
reason Fox did not try to cause trouble 
over this, he said later in published state- 
ments, was because he wished to obtain 
a fifteen-million-dollar loan from the 
Telephone Company, and a condition to 
his receiving it was that he should drop 
all such charges of interference. This 
situation, however, naturally gave rise to 
a mutual distrust, and the Fox studio 
was no longer favored by Erpi for its 
own productions. 

That William Fox genuinely wished to 
develop the non-theatrical field and had 
thought ad interim of the possibilities for 
many years is not to be doubted. His 
official educational and industrial division 
had been opened early in 1922 under Her- 
bert Hancock, former head of Fox News. 
Fox had spoken many times about "the 
250,000 churches and the one million 
classrooms" in America, and had esti- 
mated the revenue which might be made 
to accrue from their regular use of film. 
And he was not impelled by the profit 
motive alone, as justifiable as that might 
be. He had talked about putting films in 
churches and schools even if they paid 
nothing at all for the service ; and, when 
he seemed to see millions for himself in 
the ultimately disallowed Tri-Ergon talkie 
patents, the philanthropic idea came upper- 

March, 1944 

Page U7 

i most. The expanding library fed by the 

successful Fox Newsreel. and the recur- 
ring accomplishments of that competitor 
which owned the Pathe News, stimulated 
the entire conception ; and Fox made sev- 
eral attempts to establish a really com- 
manding educational department. 

In 1926 the affairs of Fox News (run 
by a separate organization known as the 
Fox-Hearst Corporation) were placed 
under the direction of Courtland Smith. 
He it was who negotiated for Fox the 
deal known as Fox-Case. Smith, an 
outstandingly able executive, had been 
president of the American News Associa- 
tion from 1908 to 1921, then had become 
assistant to Postmaster-General Will H. 
Hays and. when Hays took command of 
the M.P.PJ)..\.. Smith had served as 
secretary of that organization. As head 
of Fox Movietone News, Smith promptly 
began development of the Fox educational 
idea. His editors endeavored not only 
to make the most of the established news- 
reel opportunities, but constantly investi- 
i^ated the possibilites of sound ; and all 
this made grist for the educational project. 
The pioneer work was carried on with 
l)articular energy by the assignment editor, 
William O'Hagan Hurst, the same who 
had blazed so many interesting educa- 
tional trails through the old Paramount 
Pictograph. In this latest place Hurst 
obtained what is said to have been the 
first sound newsreel interview — with Sir 
Thomas Lipton, arriving from abroad — 
while, among numbers otherwise contribu- 
ting to the educational prospect, he seems 
to have helped to initiate those 1929 ex- 

William Lewin directed for Erpi 
its first college-professor talkie 
and made its first school survey. 

periments at Auburn, New York, wherein 
Professor A. A. Allen, of Cornell, with 
P. Kellogg, and Albert' R. Brand, a Wall 
Street broker riding a hobby, went hunt- 
ing the songs of vanishing birds with a 

Edward Percy Howard was made editor 
of the new Fox educational department 
and, after nearly a twelvemonth of in- 
vestigation and experiment, three films 

Lcen-'s already surround the name 
of Will'am Fox. From the start he 
dreamed of the super film market 
awaiting in churches and schools. 

assembled under Howard's supervision 
by, I believe, Harold E. Wondsell, were 
shown to educators attending the Dallas 
meeting of the Department of Superin- 
tendance of the N.E..^.. Februarv 2". to 
March 3. inclusive, 1927- The subjects 
were "Raising the Submarine S-51," 
"Our Climate,'' and "Conquest of the 
North Pole." It may be noted incidentally 
that the exhibition was presented not at 
the convention hall but in one of the 
neighboring Dallas movie theatres. Each 
film was accompanied by an outline for 
teachers, reconmiending topics for pupil 
study before and after each screening. 
The entire projected program— that is, 
including others expected to follow— was 
given the felicitous general name "Fox 
Hour" pictures. The first service was to 
be on the obvious newsreel opportunity. 
Current History. Others in immediate 
prospect were Geography, Civics and 
Nature Study. 

October. 1929, occurred the 2Sth anni- 
versary of the William Fox advent in 
motion pictures. Fox made it the occa- 
sion to issue to the press a long statement 
of his plans for the next quarter-century, 
and the text was devoted mainly to non- 
theatrical aspects, promises to install a 
talkie projector in every classroom, in 
every church and parish house. He told 
of medical talkies being made by his 
people — of one reproducing a cancer op- 
eration by Dr. Nelson H. Lowry, of Chi- 
cago, using a radium knife (which, in- 
cidentally, being a commercial property, 
aroused some criticism of professional 
ethics among the doctors). Fox would 
soon be able, also, to tell of the caesarian 
section talkie demonstration by Dr. De 
Lee, another Chicagoan, and of various 
industrials, including talkie reels for In- 
ternational Harvester, Cadillac Motors, 
the Edison Company, Standard Oil of In- 
diana, Firestone Tire and Rubber Com- 

pany, and a novelty subject for Armour 
& Company with prints of which a vice- 
president there simultaneously addressed 
thirty regional meetings of sales repre- 
sentatives in as many different cities. 

These were made in the boom time of 
s])onsorcd films by Richard F. Chapman. 
His work attracted the attention of Para- 
mount, and he obtained similar work there 
almost until the Paramount decision not 
to take out an industrial W^estern Electric 
However, for Fox in this period of 
revolutioii in the film industry there could 
be no golden season of peace in which 
a Croesus of education might work bene- 
factions. To protect his already tre- 
mendous holdings, to care for expanding 
production schedules, it was necessary to 
enter upon a juggling of partnerships, 
pools, chains, holding corporations, fi- 
nancial trusts and all the bewildering 
expedients of modern business which is 
not merely Big but Gigantic and involves 
the President of the United States, Con- 
gress, Supreme Court justices, interna- 
tional banking, questions of worldwide 
peace and sums of money so fantastically 
tagged with ciphers that they could not 
possibly have significance as anything 
but paper profits and losses. It was a 
sphere in which the old-time wielder of 
mere personal power could not hope to 
survive for long, certainly not in com- 
petition with great governing boards. It 
was notorious that Fox rarely employed 
even a lawyer to counsel his decisions. 

In this rarefied air Fox encountered an- 
other lone genius of finance, Harley 
Clarke, one-time wizard of the Society 
for Visual Education. Clarke by this 
time had pyramided his holdings in Acme 
and International Projector into a near- 
monoply of amusement apparatus called 
General Theatres Equipment Corporation. 
He joined Fox first as partner in a 
scheme for wide-screen projection called 
Grandeur Films. Then he, too, revealed 
his intention to acquire theatre chains 
and studios and, by advancing steps, to 
take over the selfsame chains and studios 
held or coveted by Fox. In April, 1930, 
Fox had so far lost his power to the 
A. T. & T., the bankers, and Harley 
Clarke, that he sold out his voting con- 
trol, and Clarke became for eighteen 
months the president of Fox Films. 

Clarke Rides Again 

During that eighteen months there 
arose one more remarkable manifestation 
of the non-theatrical idea, which is that 
sort of idea — an insidious, creeping, per- 
meating notion — that, once acquired, it can 
never be fully shaken off. It had welled up 
in Harley Clarke in the time of the SV.E., 
and he had never completely subdued it. 
Now, with theatrical interests to sustain 
him instead of unappreciative educators, 
he would prove his mastery. And yet, 
with all due regard for his natural lean- 
ing toward what must have seemed a 
providential opportunity, he was not un- 
mindful of the lessons which he had learn- 
ed so expensively. When the question 
as to the future of the educational pro- 
(Continued on page 142) 

Page 118 

The Educational Screen 

The Film and International Understanding 

DR. JOHN E. DUGAN. Editor 

Haddon Heights, New Jersey, Schools 

From War to Peace in World Understanding Through Films 

Tremendous Expansion in this Field 

THE expansion of the field of films for inter- 
national understanding in connection with the 
war effort has been phenomenal and far beyond 
any previous expectation. The producers' and dis- 
tributors' catalogues now coming ofT the presses list 
film after film in this field. Scarcely any program 
of any length fails to include something on the subject. 
There are films about our allies, about our enemies, 
about our new concept of a global world, and about 
our relationships to all of these things. 

Last month we described the program of the Over- 
seas Branch of the Non-Theatrical Section of the Mo- 
tion Picture Bureau of the Ofifice of War Information, 
a program involving the use of more than twenty dif- 
ferent languages, and designed for the civilian audience 
in all countries outside of the western hemisphere not 
controlled by the enemy. The film program of the 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs for this hemis- 
phere is too well known to need further description or 
elaboration here. 

Films to Win the War 

All of these films and programs mentioned above 
are concerned with international understanding chiefly 
in connection with one great objective — the winning 
of the war. They may serve other objectives later, but 
victory is their immediate goal. And their contribu- 
tion toward the attainment of diat goal is tremendously 
greater than any man foresaw. 

What Follows Victory? 

What about the days following victory? Will the 
contribution of films in this field of international under- 
standing be just as powerful and important? 

If we consider carefully what those days will be 
like and what services the film can render, we can 
conclude with confidence that the contribution of the 
film in the field of international understanding will be 
even more powerful and important. As bases for this 
conclusion, however, several things should be clearly 
understood : 

1. The present objective of the use of films in this 
field is to help win the war. 

2. There will not be an abrupt transition from war 
to normal peace conditions. 

3. There will be a transition period during which 
the problems in this field will be unlike those of either 
war or ordinary peace times. 

4. In the peace which follows the transition period, 
there will be other problems and great opportunities 
for the film to prove itself an instrument which can 
contribute much to world understanding and civiliza- 

Films in Transition 

Consider certain implications of the foregoing. 

First of all, the transition period will present the 
problem of letting light and truth into those countries 
which have been darkened by propaganda and totali- 
tarianism. The problem in the defeated axis countries 
will be somewhat diflferent from that of the countries 
which were blighted by axis conquest and occupation ; 
but in both cases a picture of the world as it actually 
is and their relationships to it must be presented. 
Then there is the problem of getting these peoples to 
understand the United Nations and their ideals. The 
film can contribute to all of these. 

In this period of transition the chief aim is to bring 
back sanity and humanity. Reason and understanding 
must replace prejudice and persecution. The tenets 
of totalitarianism must be replaced by sound concepts 
of civilization, economics, philosophy, etc. An educa- 
tional film plan for these countries, similar to the 
Educational Film Plan for the United Nations which 
was outlined by Dr. Herbert S. Houston in the May, 
1943, Educational Screen, might render a mighty 
service in this connection. 

But the educational task to which the film in inter- 
national understanding can contribute in this transi- 
tional period is not limited to the vanquished. Our 
own people will need to know many things about these 
countries and the conditions and problems which exist 
there. For without mutual understanding there can be 
no real understanding nor any real and lasting peace, 
based upon an understanding of the problems to be 

Foundations laid in these days of transition, through 
the use of films in the field of international under- 
standing, can contribute much to the strength and 
permanence of the peace to follow. 

Films for Peace 

When peace actually is established, the film will as- 
sume its rightful place as one of the great instruments 
of civilization, an instrument which can leap the bar- 
riers of language and distance to bring enlightenment, 
understanding and enjoyment to all the world. World 
outlooks and interests which were built up during the 
war will not vanish with the coming of peace. Men 
still will be interested in the rest of the world, will be 
more interested than ever in how others live, work, 
play and think, and the film will be an instrument 
which can tell all this and bind the world together. 

Immediate Implications 

The foregoing discussion was not intended to be an 
idle look into the future. It has concrete and imme- 
diate implications. The film of international under- 
standing is contributing much to the winning of the 


Marcb, 1944 

Page 119 

[war. If we wish it to make the same contribution to 
the winning of the peace, we must begin to look ahead 

The four-point discussion of the sequence of victory 

:was intended to show the road which we will follow 

land the steps which we must take. So far as the film 

and international understanding are concerned, taking 

those steps and following that road involves tremendous 

problems of personnel and equipment. 

The personnel available has proved itself capable of 
producing and distributing films in many fields and 
many languages to bring about international under- 
standing where it was needed to help win the war. 
[Will it be available to help us to get through the 
[transition and to "win the peace"? 

We have distributed excellent projection apparatus 
[throughout the world. Reports indicate that we can 
give an excellent showing of almost any film any- 
[ where. This apparatus was bought to help win the 
' war for a decent world and to bring about better under- 
standing for establishing further understanding where 
it was needed. Will this apparatus be just as available 
for establishing further understanding and "winning 
the peace" ? 

So long as the armed forces need any piece of pro- 
jection apparatus, they clearly are entitled to it. When 
[the need no longer exists and the apparatus is to be 
[disposed of, however, the needs of our educational 
[programs, either at home or abroad, certainly should 
' take precedence over any bargain sale, political gift, 
i or carload auction. 

War Films and the Classroom 

(Concluded jruiii page 111) 

munication as they depend largel}- upon animation 
techniques perfected by Disney. Grain That Built a 
Hemisphere is concerned with a history of the de- 
velopment of corn, its distribution on the earth's sur- 
face, its value to man as a food and as a base from 
which man, by the application of science, can produce 
materials to satisfy niany of his needs. Water vividly 
illustrates the dangers of a polluted water supply and 
how to guard against such pollution while Defense 
Against Invasion is a most unusual presentation of the 
simplicity of and need for vaccination. This series 
of color shorts should be carefully examined by all 
educators as an indication of the type of teaching aid 
we may expect in great abundance after the war. 

War Production by Our Allies 

The .scope of film material produced by our allies 
is so extensive that we can consider only a few ex- 
amples selected at random. Partners in Crime, released 
by British Information Services, is an unusual treat- 
ment of the black market situation. For school use it 
is a most interesting di.scussional type film for eco- 
nomics and economic geography groups. Desert Vic- 
tory and Target for Tonight are two outstanding 
British documentary films of the war, available from 
the same service. W'hile these are not classroom teach- 
ing films in the usual sense, they serve to illustrate 
in a most vivid manner two distinct types of warfare 
now being waged. A quite different subject is covered 

in World of Plenty concerned with the production, 
distribution and consumption of food, both before, 
during and after the war. This is remarkably good 
material for in economic geography and domes- 
tic science. Britain also has made available numerous 
films on nutrition, health, gardening and similar sub- 
jects of value to schools. 

The Canadian Film Board likewise has developed 
an extensive film program including consumer films, 
war production and subjects depicting various aspects 
of Canadian life. Among films of the latter type Peace 
River, Iceland on the Prairie and Great Lakes are 
sound subjects in natural color especially suitable for 
school use. Peace River deals with the most recently 
settled Canadian territory between Northern Alberta 
and British Columbia. The film outlines the settle- 
ment and activity of this district and points the con- 
trast between pioneer settlement and modern develop- 
ment of the region today. Iceland on the Prairie gives 
an intimate glimpse of the Icelandic settlement on the 
Canadian prairies including agricultural, professional, 
and business developments. Perhaps the most popular 
of this series in schools is Great Lakes which was 
designed to convey the idea of the Lakes as one of 
the greatest industrial settlements on earth, with an 
immense flow of diversified cargoes flowing along the 
shipping routes between the U. S. and Canada. In- 
cluded are sequences on transportation, steel production, 
pulp manufacture, shipbuilding and grain storage. 
Many of our other allies have made available motion 
pictures valuable for school use. 

The Army, Navy and commercial producers have, 
of course, produced hundreds of training films not 
pertinent to this discussion. But, unquestionably, the 
war has added importantly to our store of films that 
are genuinely educational, and has likewise taught us 
to value equipment presently available and to make the 
best possible use thereof. In addition it has speeded 
the perfection of many types of projection equipment 
which will be available to schools after the war. Finally, 
and not by any means the least important, experience 
in war training has emphasized to educators and the 
public the urgent necessity for the intelligent use of 
visual aids in any efficient educational program. \\'ith- 
out question visual education will develop after the war 
as a direct result of war training experience. But, 
further than that, visual education in our schools has 
already made great advances as a definite result of 
war conditions. Destructive, wasteful and heartbreak- 
ing as war is, we must learn to recognize those small 
gains brought about by the conditions it creates, and 
waste no time in putting into practice the constructive 
lessons it does teach. 

Note: Further information relative to the motion pictures 
mentioned and the name of the nearest distributor may be ob- 
tained from : War Department, War .Activities Committee. Room 
1.351 Paramount Building, New York City. (Films not avail- 
able to schools) — U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D. C. 

or Castle Films, 30 Rockefeller Plaza. New York City 

Office of War Informatioh, Bureau of Motion Pictures, Wash- 
ington, D. C. — Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Motion 
Picture Division, 444 Madison Avenue, New York City — British 
Information Services, Film Division, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York City— Canadian Film Board, Ottawa, Canada — United 
Nations Information Office, 610 Fifth Avenue. New York City. 

Page 120 

The Educational Screen 


Conducted by 

The New England Section (Zone 1) of the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the 
National Education Association of the U.S. 

Editor, JOHN H. LYONS 

Officers of The New England Section 

President, Edward F. Wheeler, Department of Kducfttion, Bristol, Coun. 
Vice-President, John Gammons Read, Rhode Island College of Education. 
Secretary-Treasurer, Dorothy A. Allard, Public Schools. Reading, Mass. 
Executive Committee, C. X. .\llen, Dartmouth College — Wilfred Berube. 
Pawtucket Public Schools — R. Haven Falconer. Armed Forces Film Serv- 
ice, New York City — Abraham Krasker, Boston University — John H. 
L.vons. Enfield Public Schools, Thompsonville, Conn. — -J. L. Senechal, 
Windham High School, Willimantic, Conn. — David E. Strom, University 
of Connecticut. Storrs, Conn. 

Teachers' Reactions to Visual-Aids 

By Superintendent WILLIAM E. GILLIS 
East Haven, Connecticut 

N speaking to one of our teacher.'; recently concerning 

her reactions to the values of audio-visual aids, she 
stated that quite often pupils retained a great deal from 
films which have been used in connection with planned 
lessons. Sometimes the response is not innnediate but 
will come up during a discussion long after a picture has 
been viewed by the pupils. Some of these responses are 
brought out by questions of the teacher but many are the 
spontaneous reports given by the pupils. 

One of the difficulties in using pictures is the need of 
a sufficiently darkened room, another is to educate the 
children to the fact that motion iiicture time is not neces- 
sarily entertainment time and tliat there is something to 
be learned from every picture. The third obstacle, which 
unfortunately still exists, is the misuse of motion pictures. 
It seems difficult for some teachers to realize that films 
should be shown with a purpose and are not just some- 
thing with which to take up time. Teachers often seek 
invitations to pictures which are planned by another 
teacher in the building, regardless of the type of picture 
or the age of the pupils. This is a sheer waste of time. 

One of the other teachers stressed the use of still flat 
pictures on bulletin boards. It seems advisable to avoid 
constant use of sound pictures or motion pictures. Wise 
use of material for bulletin boards will give pupils time 
to think over the implications which should result from 
the pictures. Such material serves the need whicli fleeting 
motion pictures do not meet. 

Visual Aids at Dartmouth 

C. N. .'\llen. Director of Dartmouth College Films, 
gives us the following report on the use of films in their 
V-12 program. 

"One full time program of motion pictures, slide-films 
and slides, both as visual aids and as morale builders, is 
being carried on at Dartmouth College where the largest 
V-12 Unit in the country is located. The usual classroom 
movies are shown on a larger-than-ever scale with some 
departments using movies where they have felt in other 
times that available pictures were not of College level. 
Part of the improvement in this respect is due to the use 
of technical films provided by the Navy and by the greater 
availability of more technical films from commercial sources 
and research organizations. In addition, Dartmouth Col- 
lege Films has entered into a contract to show the excellent 
G. I. Movies which are distributed to all armed forces 
scattered in various camps all over the world. These 
movies are always carefully planned to present a balanced 
diet of current news releases, more serious background and 
morale building topics (such as Plan for Destruction, which 
describes Haushofer's elaborate theory of Geopolitik), 
and comic cartoon reh'pf. Finally, the Hanover P. T. A. is 
working with the local school system to develop a larger and 
more integrated program of motion pictures. Many New 

An Innovaf ion by New England — o pag 
Lef tfce nine other OVI Zones read, 

Hampshire schools will be benefited by the availability of 
government-owned movie equipment after the war, when they 
can buy within their budgets equipment which is no longer 
needed by the government." 

Wheeler Resigns 

In a letter addressed to the members of the New England 
Section on February 14th, PMward F. Wheeler announced his 
resignation as President of Zone 1. The letter reads as fol- 
lows : 

"It is with great regret that I tender my resignation as 
President of this .Association effective February 15, 1944. 
After March IS, 1944 I shall be associated with General 
Motors Institute, Flint, Michigan as Supervisor of Visual .Aid 
Development. While I leave my present work with reluctance 
and feel that I shall sincerely miss the many pleasant 
ciations with members of Zone 1, it is with considerable 
interest that I anticipate the small part I may be permitted 
to play in the rapidly growing field of industrial training. 

"I cannot urge too strongly the importance of maintaining 
and strengthening the Department of Visual Instruction. I 
feel it represents one of the most important trends in present 
day education. We must all recognize the powerful forces 
acting as an impetus towards speeding the development of 
the audio-visual field. It is likewise our mission, as members 
of the D.V.I., to see that these forces and the attendant pro- 
gress of the field is brought to the attention of those charged 
with the responsibility of shaping school policy. For the 
above reasons I strongly urge that each member give his 
full support to all activities of our association. Contributions 
to the bulletin, expanded membership, attendance at confer- 
ences, and similar professional activities are all needed for the 
development of our field. 

"My duties as president will be most efficiently discharged 
by our Vice-President, John Gammons Reed, Rhode Island 
College of Education, Providence, R. I. I am sure you will all 
give him your unqualified support." 

Edward F. Wheeler h^ been one of the outstanding leaders 
in this field for the past ten years. He started out at Bristol 
with one projector and a corner of a classroom. Today he has 
developed that into a department composed of thousands of 
dollars worth of visual equipment. Under his leadership visual 
aids have become a vital part of the educational program of 
the City of Bristol. When the Connecticut War Council 
wanted a man to develop a film library and film program for 
the State they called upon "Ed" to do the job. He has, during 
the past year, developed this program to such a high degree 
that War Council Films are being shown in practically every 
community of the State. This position as Chief of the Film 
Section of the War Council is being taken over by David 
Strom, Director of the Visual Aids Center at the University 
of Connecticut. 

We of New England are going to miss "Ed" greatly, but 
we do know that through his new p«sition he will be able 
to further the use of visual aids in a field that will eventually 
influence educational policies throughout the country. We of 
New England, "Ed", extend to you our best wishes for suc- 
cess in your new venture. 

e of !U own for felling Ifs own story, 
weigh, and act according/y. — N.L.G. 

March, 1944 

Page 121 

Caring for Young Children — 


CARING for the young children of employed mothers 
is a very important contribution to the war ettoit. 
High school or college girls who do this work could be 
trained by illustrated talks given by the dean, the health 
teacher, or some one from the Parent-Teacher group. 

The main rules are to keep the child physically com- 
fortable, to help him in learning to be his own manager, 
and to keep his play on a creative level. 

1. The child must know that his mother is leaving, and 
that the person in charge is one his mother respects and 
therefore places in full authority. 

2. The assistant should know the child's routine, food 

In Hand-Made Lantern Slides 

Roosevelt High School, Chicago 

habits, and bedtime procedure. She needs to know where 
to reach the mother and the doctor in an emergency. 

3. Well cooked and attractively served food will help 
in making mealtime pleasant. Small portions should be 
served, and no comments made on uneaten food. 

4. The child needs to be relaxed before going to sleep; 
so quiet games are best at bedtime. 

5. Bathroom procedure should be handled pleasantly in 
a spirit of fun. 

6. Creative games where the child depends on himself 
are more fun for him. Having several different toys ready 
is a good idea, for children tire easily. 

The sim- 
plest type 
of h and - 
made slide 
is made by 
drawing or 
tracing on 
finely fin- 
ished etched 
glass with 
-medium lead 
pencil. Col- 
or, by spe- 
cial crayons 
or inks, en- 
hances the 
slides great- 
ly. Fine ef- 
fects are ob- 
tained by 
with cray- 
ons. About 
one - third 
inch margin 
should be 
left all 
around the 
slide. The 
slide is read- 
ily cleaned 
with soap or 
powder to 
a new pic- 

Page 122 

The Educational Screen 



Head of the English Department 
Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

Women's Colleges and the War 

A CLEVER variation of the usual college public 
relations film is the 1000-foot production reported 
by Eunice De Clark Davidson, Alumnae Field Secre- 
tary, New Jersey College for Women, New Brunswick. 
Mrs. Davidson's account of this unusual film follows : 

"College — Designer for Democracy represents an at- 
tempt to show, through the medium of the motion 
picture, the contributions and adjustments that the 
liberal arts college for women is making in these war 
years and as a preparation for the peace to follow. 
Although this motion picture in 16mm. kodachrome was 
made by the author of this article for New Jersey 
College of Women, was filmed on the campus of 
that institution in New Brunswick, and shows its 
students and professors, the film speaks for all colleges 
of N. J. C.'s type. 

"When it became apparent that New Jersey College 
for Women needed a new reel of motion pictures for use 
witli alumnae and preparatory school groups, the staflf 
member responsible felt that it would be completely in- 
sensitive to the mood of the times to create the usual 
"campus tour-college-life' type of film and searched 

With a question box on the making oj 
school film productions, conducted by 

Evander Childs High School, New York City 

of the first day back on campus resolves into a close-up 
of the printed program for the opening Convocation. 
Faculty members are seen lining up in their academic 
vestments, choir members in the basement of the chapel 
look over their music before the service begins, and 
student feet hurry along the paths and up the chapel 
steps. Many devices are used to create the effect of 
nearly a thousand girls entering the chapel and of all 
the college group hastening to Convocation. The hands 
of the organist on the keys and a shot of Dean Cor- 
win on the cliapel platform precede the choir proces- 
sional, which is followed by the entrance of the senior 
class in cap and gown. Great use of is made 
throughout — of hands, of hymnals, of the varying ex- 
pressions on the faces of the students. 

"The processional hymn concluded, the student body 
is seated and Dr. Corwin rises to give her Convocation 
address. Only the actual words of her speech are 
given in professionally made captions. All other titling 
is accom])lished by the reproduction of legends appear- 
ing on programs, books, signs, et cetera. The content 
of each of the eleven captions which give Dean Cor- 
win's own words studiously avoids the mention of New 

(Left) An art class at New Jersey College for Women. (Right) Dormitory scene. 

for a theme that would portray, in some measure at 
least, the important intangibles of a large liberal arts 
college. The device of using the Opening Convocation 
of the College as a skeleton framework was finally 
chosen and this '..chapel ceremony, highlighting the 
year's keynote speech by Dean Margaret Trumbull 
Corwin, provides the setting. 

"The film opens with a shot of the College news- 
paper announcing Freshmen Registration Day and 
with glimpses of students returning to campus after 
the summer recess. The excitement of the first days 
of the fall semester is suggested by the greeting of 
old friends and the settling and decorating of dormitory 
Ti^ms. A fade-out as two roommates retire at the end 

Jersey College for Women and plirases the message 
in terms of college in general. 

"Tlie several direct quotations from the address 
which are reproduced, one by one, on the screen sum- 
marize eight outstanding reasons for college at the 
]3resent time ; ( 1 ) the academic and technical training 
provided for sub.sequent war jobs and intelligent citizen- 
ship, ( 2) college emphasis on physical fitness, (3) the 
campus as a 'laboratory for democracy,' (4) opportunity 
for community service, (5) the importance of college 
friendships 'and traditions, (6) 'the right kind of 
laughter,' (7) a deepening religious faith and (8) the 

{Continued OH page 124) 

March, 1944 

Page 123 


Typical RCA FM Transmitter Control Ro 

Now's the time to start 
planning how your school 
make the best use of an 


FM (frequency modulation) radio, first introduced in 
1938, has proved itself to be the most practical type of 
radio for school systems. 

Already several big city school systems have FM 
transmitters, and there is literally no limit to the educa- 
tional advantages of radio when the broadcasting can be 
controlled within the school and the school system. 


Here, for example, is a recently compiled list of FM uses: 
news and current events programs adapted for age 
levels; subject motivation programs; supplementary aid 
programs; teaching by radio; story-telling; guidance pro- 
grams; library programs; talks by prominent guests; 
In-Service teacher training; adult education programs; 
music for special activities; announcements; student 
talent programs; forums and discussions; sports; com- 
munity cooperation programs ; holiday and special events ; 

school public relations ; programs for handicapped children. 


RCA has been and will continue to be a leader in the 
development of FM transmitters. That's because RCA 
engineers have more experience in building (and oper- 
ating) radio transmitters than any other group. Further- 
more, RCA has always pioneered in the development of 
high-frequency antennas and is now building many 
models for the armed services. 


While the war has stopped production of FM trans- 
mitters and receivers for civilian use, those connected 
with school management will certainly want to learn about 
FM to help them do a better job of post-war planning. 
A letter or postal card addressed: — The Educational 
Department, Radio Corporation of America, Camden, 
N. J., will bring details concerning RCA's FM Transmitters. 

RCA Victor Division — Education Department 



Page 124 

The Educational Screen 

dual privilege and resjionsibility which every college 
girl should feel today. 

"After each caption a close-up of an individual sen- 
ior, listening intently to the words, is seen and then 
her face fades into a shot of that same girl engaged 
in some college activity which illustrates the point 
under discussion. In some instances thtee or four 
different personalities, with their respective experiences, 
make vivid a single topic. Students at work in science 
laboratories and art studios, various sports, student gov- 
ernment activity under the College's dynamic and trea- 
sured Honor System, special war courses and fund- 
raising drives on campus, 'bull-sessions' and formal N. 
J. C. traditions, amusing situations in the dormitories, 
and religious discussion groups provide typical examples 
of the personal memories into which each student trans- 
lates the message she is hearing. Closeups of Dean 
Corwin's expressive face and of the intent, responsive 
expressions of the girls themselves lend a deeply per- 
sonal appeal. 

"The 1000-foot film concludes with the convocation 
recessional, and the figures of the departing choir mem- 
bers fade into darkness. For the opening title and 
'The End,' plasticine was used, with a tool tracing the 
words in the clay, as this seemed to provide an artistic 
medium in keeping with the title itself. 

"The film is silent, with a running time of forty 
minutes. Although .sufficiently meaningful through its 
titling, the picture gains much in effectiveness, how- 
ever, from the spoken commentary with which it is 
usually presented. N.J.C. motion pictures are generallv 
shown by the alumnae field secretary or some other 
staff member and so sound has never proved a neces- 
sary addition to the many films which the College has 
produced. All shots were made with a Cine-Kodak K, 
having a 1.9 lens, and Type A kodachrome was used 
throughout, since it was constantly necessary to shift 
from indoor to outdoor scenes. A detailed scenario 
was prepared before any pictures were taken, but most 
of the lighter touches in the film were permitted to de- 
velop spontaneously according to student suggestion. 

"College — Designer for Democracy has been shown 
to over 12,000 persons since its completion in October, 
1942, and is in almost constant use this year in con- 
nection with the field work program of N.J.C, whicii 
is celebrating her twenty-fifth anniversary during 1943- 
1944 with a large number of alumnae-sponsored birth- 
day parties at each of which the film is shown. For- 
tunately its message is every bit as true for the cur- 
rent year, and probably will remain so for the dura- 
tion of the war. as it was for the time at which the 
picture was made." 


Question: Please explain parallax; how it occurs 
in the movie camera, and methods of correcting it. 

Answer: Parallax may be defined as an apparent displace- 
ment of an object due to the relative position taken by the 
observer. To illustrate this phenomenon more clearly, I tell my 
students to stand about two feet away from a wide bulletin 
board. Each student covers his right eye and scans the field 
he can see with his left eye. He is told to select some object 
that occupies the center of the field, and to keep that in mind 
for the next part of his experiment. Standing in the same 

Diagram Illus- 
trating Parallax 

With a camera 
having the view- 
finder \]4 inches 
to the left of the 
camera lens ob- 
jects placed in the 
center of the field 
at various posi- 
tions will appear 
exactly as shown 
in viewfinder. If 
pictures are taken 
with the camera 
in this position, 
only those parts 
which are shaded 
will appear in the 
film. From this 
diagram it is ap- 
parent that the 
further away the 
object is placed 
from the camera, 
the lesser will be 
the problem of 
parallax. (Beyond 
six feet this prob- 
lem does not exist 
for 2Smni lenses.) Viewfinder Camera Lens 

position, without turning as much as one degree, each student 
now removes his hand from the right eye, and by similarly 
covering his left eye, views the field in front of him. It is 
quite apparent to all that the object which occupied the center 
of the field of the left eye is almost pushed out of the field of 
vision of the right eye. 

This experiment becomes meaningful when the students ob- 
serve that the positions of the viewfinder and of the lens in their 
motion picture camera parallel those of their eyes. They begin 
to realize that for close-ups, six feet, and under, the lens does 
not "see" everything exactly as revealed in the viewfinder. We 
are now ready for some mathematical calculations. 

Two sets of figures are necessary before we can devise ways 
and means of overcoming paralla.x. The distance between the 
center of the lens and the center of the viewfinder can be care- 
fully and accurately measured. The second figure, the angle 
covered by the 25mm. lens of the camera is furnished by the 
manufacturer. In the case of most 16mm. cameras the hori- 
zontal angle is about 21.5 degrees, (the vertical angle about 
16 degrees). Our own camera, having the viewfinder on the 
horizontal plane and 1% inches to the left of the lens, gave us 
no trouble in making our calculations. 

In making close-ups showing the pulsations of the blood 
vessels of developing chick embryos (see Educational Screen, 
June 1943) we had to work as close as one foot from the 
embryo. In order to find out exactly what our lens could 
"see" at that distance and beyond we made the following dia- 
gram on the blackboard. At a distance of 1^4 inches apart, 
representing the distance between viewfinder and lens, we drew 
two angles of 21.5 degrees in such a way that their correspond- 
ing sides were parallel. Next we drew bisectors of these two 
angles. The points on these bisectors were now regarded as 
the centers of the fields covered by the viewfinder and the 
lens, respectively. 

One foot in, the bisector of the left angle serving as the 
center, we drew an outline of the egg. By noticing how much 
of the egg is revealed in the second field (lens) we could tell 
that only the right portion of the egg would show up in the 
film. (See accompanying diagram.) 

In order to get the egg to appear exactly in the middle of 
the field of the camera lens it becomes quite obvious that if 
we could place the camera lens in such position that it could 
"see" what the viewfinder "saw" our picture would appear in 

(Conclud'cd on page 141) 

March, 1944. 

Page 12 5 

Four Manuals in One 

*The Fundamentals of MACHINES 
'The Fundamentals of SOUND 
*The Fundamentals of LIGHT 
'The Fundamentals of ELECTRICITY 

To assist in the more effective illustration of 
problems and theory of Physics, Keystone View 
Company offers a visual presentation method 
employing carefully prepared slides and a com- 
pletely revised and enlarged manual — really four 
manuals in one. 

Through the use of this well-planned instruc- 
tion system, student attention is focused on the 
material presented in the slides; therefore a more 
complete understanding of the subject is acquired. 

Developed by war needs for faster, more effec- 
tive training of students in basic Physics, this 
improved method will prove invaluable for 
better teaching in peacetime. It should be in 
YOUR school. 

Write today for complete information. 



Page 126 

The Educational Screen 

^riE J^itE%atuxE in ^ l/iiuaL iJn±ixuation 

A Monthly Digest 


New York University Film Library 


What the Weil-Dressed School Will Wear— William Dow 
Boutwell, Director of Information and Radio Service of the 
U. S. Office of Kducation — National Parent-Teacher 38:27 
January, 1944. 

Much that will niaUe the school of tomorrw modern can 
be found in the training camps of today. Tlie .Army and 
Navy have found how much faster and how much more eas- 
ily troops learned from audio-visual aids. The author recom- 
mends the following installations for the postwar school: 
teacher and student-operated projectors, a more ilexible 
school schedule, simple provisions for darkening classrooms, 
electrical outlets conveniently placed, portable 16mm soimd- 
film projectors (one projector for every two classrooms), 
radio receivers for every classroom, portable radio playbacks, 
filmstri]) projectors ("approximately one for every two class- 
rooms), public address enuipment, central FM radio station 
operated by the school board, mirrorpliones, larger libraries, 
laboratory workshops, listening tables or rooms, new charts 
and pictographs, and television receivers eventually (poten- 
tially a more effective aid to education than radio). 

Films and Education — V. C. Arn.spiger, Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Films, Inc. — Sierra Educational Neivs, p.20 Febru- 
ary, 1944. 

"Any progiam of education for the future must contem- 
plate the use of all technological advances which will con- 
tribute to the effectiveness of classroom instruction." In- 
creasing demands will be made steadily on our educational 
system to provide our people with the knowledge and un- 
derstanding which will equip them to participate intelligently 
in the modern world. Reading alone is adequate today. 
To meet this demand for more education for more people 
there must be a readjustment of the educational program 
both in content and in method, with a more efficient presen- 
tation of instructional materials. The expanded use of the 
soundfilm is seen as a result of the necessity for vicarious 
experience through the visualization of concepts. 

A greatly expanded program of teacher education is a 
"must" if this modern aid is to be used effectively. There 
must be a moie complete integration of the film with the 
school program. The major areas of study in which films 
for the modern school should be produced are: Conservation, 
Regional Geography, Modern Science, Historical Perspec- 
tive, and Recognition of the Individual. 

A Plea for a People's University on the Radio and Screen — 
Margaret Monrad — The Social Studies. 35 :S1 February, 1944. 
"Who are the real enemies of democracy ?" asks the 
writer, and points out that we, ourselves, are — we who 
have taken our democracy for granted and have never even 
taken the trouble to use our vote. "The problem of keeping 
any democracy alive and growing is synonymous with the 
problem of the continued education of its adults. Adult 
education, including that of the heart as well as the mind, 
is the only safeguard for democracy." 

We have no schools for adults comparable to the Danish 
folk schools, which have been an important factor in the 
transformation of the Danish farmer, but neither are con- 
ditions here comparable to those of Demark. "However, 
as if to solve this most vital problem of sustaining our 
democracy by adult education, we have been given a new 
and marvelous invention by means of which the spoken 
word may reach all of our vast and varied population. With 
the advent of the radio, we may have a people's university 
in truth, as wide and as free as the air over which it speaks." 
The writer laments our failure to avail ourselves of this means 

to the fullest extent possible to educate our own people for 
our pattern of life, to stimulate them to higher thinking and 
instill in them a desire for something more than material 
gain, thus imparting ideals as well as knowledge. "There 
is no end to what might be accomplished if all existing 
educational forces could unite to establish a great people's 
universitj on the air, whose staff was dedicated to the build- 
ing of a better world." The author declares that the 
carrying out of such a program may very likely necessitate 
that broadcasting stations be placed under the control of the 
Office of Education. 

The educational potentialities of the moving picture are 
also recognized, but like the radio, such an invention, af- 
fecting the cultural education of the masses, belongs to the 
people and not to money-making corporations. 

Can Our Schools Teach the G. I. Way? — Walter Adams — 

Better Homes and Gardens 22 : 30 February, 1944. 

It is significant to find a popular magazine concerned 
with the teaching technique employed by our armed forces, 
and the effect it will have on the teaching methods in to- 
morrow's classrooms. If schools adopt the Army-Navy 
technique, the class will learn a foreign language as a child 
learns his own language — by listening to and imitating na- 
tive speakers provided by records. This language technique 
is one of those our armed forces adopted to teach faster 
than anyone had ever taught before — teaching the "bread- 
and-butter" essentials of a language in eight to twelve 
hours. With them, education is the intense application of 
such visual aids as charts, diagrams, movies, cartoons, strip 
films, sand tables and cutaway models. Educators help 
work out the techniques, and psychologists help determine 
aptitudes and place men in the jobs to which they are best 

Of all teaching aids, the movie film is declared to be most 
versatile. Outlined is a sample teaching-film-technique, 
pointing out the desirability of preparation before the film 
showing, and a thought-provoking quiz following it. Illus- 
trating how real a film can make a subject, the writer tells 
■of two men who had to be carried out at a showing of a 
first-aid film in one basic-training class. 

Teaching must be tops — the old education isn't enough, 
concludes the article. "Either we help improve education 
this way, or we find another way." 


Report from Virgina— Donald Slesinger — Film News, Jan- 
uary, 1944 p. 2. 

The Extension Division of the University qf Virginia 
undertook to explore by first hand contact the possibilities 
of using films in community programs. Jean and Jess 
Ogden were sent out to three counties, and within the 
limitations of projection equipment and few suitable films, 
programs based on nutrition and later, on health, history, 
resources and contemporary events, were developed. 

The groups attended with enthusiasm, attracted by the 
novelty of movies, and often led to follow-up which "was 
not discussion; not conversation; maybe not even communi- 
cation. Out of the dark had come a parable, and explana- 
tion rose naturally to the lips of the speakers. Sometimes 
the lesson was wrong, but not so far wrong that a little 
tactful remark could not correct it." Among the tentative 
conclusions are these: that movies better than any other 
medium can bring people together; that people believe what 
they see on the screen beyond means of communication; 
and that films better suited to rural audiences are needed. 

(Concluded on page 128) 

March, 1944 

Page 127 

FOOD is Important TODAY and will be 
More Important TOMORROW! 



The Scientific Documentary Picture Collection for use in Ele- 
mentary and Junior H.S. Social Studies, Based on the Theme 



on Problem No. I— FOOD 
Consisting of: 121 Documen-j-ary pho-fographs on Food. 
Size 8I/2" X II", under the sub-divisions of Health, Grains, 
Vegetables, Fruits, Milk, Poultry, Meats, Fish and Distri- 

Individualized reading texts on back of each picture. 

Scientifically designed filing system. 

Teacher's Manual of 95 pages. 

Cross-Reference Index Book. 

Attractive prestboard container to hold entire problem. 

Regular Price $12.50 per Problem 

$9.50 Per Problem 

(Limited to April 25, 1944) 



under the direction of Etta Schneider Ress and a corps 
of subject matter and photographic specialists. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. Board of Education 
purchased five sets v/hen first completed and on De- 
cember 22, 1943, they wrote us: "We have found these 
so helpful we wish to put them in more of our schools." 
Then, February 23, 1944, they wrote again as follows: 
"Our recent purchase of 37 additional sets now gives us 
a complete series for each of our elementary schools in 
Rochester." — Signed, Sabra T. Harris, Acting Director, 
Department of Visual Education. 


Creative Educational Society 
Mankato, Minnesota 

Please ship prepaid Problems on Food for FREE exam- 
ination. We will either return them within ten days or you may 

bill us on 1944. for $9.50 per Problem. 

plus transportation charg:es. 



School or Library , 

Page 128 

The Educational Screen 





Holmes Projectors made for both civilian and government 
uses have shown the greatest stamina in day-after-day. 
year-after-yeai operation. 

Our armed forces still need all our present output, but at 
the earliest opportunity we'll resume production of new 
projectors for schools and the general public, built to exact- 
ing Holmes standards. 



Manufacturers of 16mm and 35mm Sound-on-Fiim 
Projectors for over 25 years to Dealers and Users 



uni'versa//y acclaimed the greatest 
documentary of 7943 

Now Available in 16mm! 
Latest films on United Nations at War 

United States 

Our Enemy, the 

The Dutch Tradition Q^,„g 

Battle of Britain 
Know Your Ally 


Food, Weapon of 

at War l*"orward Commandos 

Day of Battle 
Cadet Classification 

Up Periscope 

Women are Warriors 
The Peoples War 

Hundreds of teaching films 

Social Studies 

The City 

I/IO of our Nation 


The River 

U. S. History World History 

Servant of the People Tsar to Lenin 
Sons of Liberty Expansion of Germany 

Monroe Doctrine The World at War 

The Flae Speaks Battle of Brains 

Also: Films on Biology, Geology, Physics, 
Chemistry, Psychology, Child Psychology, 
Guidance, Teacher Training, Geography. 

Oire of the largest tibraries 
of Foreign Language films 

For further information and catalogs -write 



How to Use Audio- Visual Aids: Part 3. Radio, Recordings, 

and Use of the Microphone — Elizabeth Goudy and Lt. 

Francis W. Noel, VStiB.— Business Educatinn World, 24:258 

January. 1944. 

Radio broadcasts and recordings can be valuable teaching- 
training tools. They can motivate, convey information, 
build attitudes, and develop auditory skills. This article 
discusses possible uses of these aids as applied to business 
education. Many commercial radio programs, for instance, 
offer students dictation and note-taking experience, vo- 
cabulary study in many occupational fields, and the oppor- 
tunity to study at first hand basic advertising techniques. 
Recording equipment can be used to improve telephone 
techniques and improve speech. Short skits over the mi- 
crophone set up with a loud speaker can illustrate many 
aspects of junior business training and secretarial practice. 
There are also available a few commercially prepared re- 
cordings directly bearing on business practices which pro- 
vide practical teaching aids in business courses. 

Films for Schools — William P. Davies, Albuquerque High 

School — AVii' Mexico School Rcvien\ 23:14, January, 


A teaching or classroom film should be distinguished 
from an educational film. The former is defined as one 
which was written and produced for the classroom after 
much preliminary research and planning, followed by ex- 
perimentation in classroom situations. Educational films 
may be dramatizations or the description of an industrial 
process. They include many sponsored films (industrial 
or public service-sponsored), theatrical shorts and excerpts. 
The latter type are usually free. The superior educational 
effectiveness of classroom films is usually acknowledged 
by most teachers. 

Film Educational Program at E. N. M.— Ruth Midyettc— 
Netv Mexico School Review, 23:15. January, 1944. 
A weekly program of educational films is available to 

the students of Eastern New Mexico College and to the 

general public through the college library. 


Food: A World Problem — Film Discussion Guide — by Frank 
Ernest Hill. Educational Film Library .\ssociation, Inc., 45 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20. 50c. 50p. 1944. 
Although prepared with special reference to the film. 
"World of Plenty," a British Ministry of Information film 
presentation of our most important postwar problem, this 
Guide can be used with other films dealing with food as 
it covers the entire problem of food, considering aspects of 
the question which can not be covered in a short motion 
picture. The purpose of the Guide is to lay out the ground 
that may be covered in the discussion of Food. It presents 
facts and opinions, suggests questions to be considered, 
lists articles, books and pamphlets on the subject, and shows 
how to conduct a discussion. In addition to summarizing 
the contents of the picture "World of Plenty," eleven other 
films on food, which treat some of the problems raised in 
the guide, are fully described. 

The Introduction explains how to use the Guide. Use 
of it should save discussion groups considerable time and 
effort in the carrying out of their programs. 


16mm Exchange Practices — B. .\. .^ughinbaugh. Director, 
Ohio Slide & Film Exchange, State Department of Edu- 
cation, Columbus — Film and Radio Discussion Guide 10 :7 Jan- 
uary, 1944. 

One of the most grievous problems with which a film 
distributor has to deal is the return of damaged reels by a 
customer. All sorts of plans have been tried in the attempt 
to eradicate this costly nuisance. Mr. Aughinbaugh de- 
scribes the successful plan put into operation by the Ohio 
Film Exchange which put an end to the unsatisfactory 
reel condition and prevented friction between the Exchange 
and its customers. 

March, 1944 


Victory Gardens for Community, Home, School — compiled 

by Lili Heinicrs— Visual Aids Service, New Jersey State 

Teachers College, Upper Montclair, N. J., 2Sc 4p. 1944. 

A list of sources for films, filmslides and publications on 

Gardening, with brief description of contents of material 

available. Audio-visual and teaching aids concerned with 

the fight against injurious insects, and the preservation of 

the victory crop, are also given. 

War Films for War Use — Office of War Information, 
Bureau of Motion Pictures, Washington 25, D. C. Feb- 
ruary, 1944 20p. 

This is the latest catalogue of Office of War Information 
16mm motion pictures available as of February 1, 1944. The 
films are listed alphabetically by title, with contents sum- 
marized. For quick reference as to films on a particular 
aspect of the war, the titles are classified under the follow- 
ing subjects: our fighting forces, the people of our Allies, 
the nature of our enemies, news reviews, the production 
front, the farm front, the home front, song shorts. Dis- 
tributors are given in state order. 

Sources of Films on Foreign Countries — Maurice P. Hunt, 
Kenton, Ohio — Social Studies, 35:34. January, 1944. 
A summary of distributors and the types of films each 

Experimental Research 

in Audio- Visual Education 



Investigator: Thomas W. Howie. 

Summary of doctoral dissertation completed for degree of 
Doctor of Education at New York University, 1943. 

A running description of ten chapters presents the pro- 
duction of a documentary motion picture, "The Delaware 
State Police" by a Senior Civics group in the High School 
of The Alexis I. DuPont Special School District, Kennett 
Pike, Wilmington, Delaware. The author is the Superin- 
tendent of Schools of this district, having served in that 
capacity for seven years. 

The document gives in its introduction a description of 
the school, the school population, the community served and 
the philosophy and objectives of this high school. 

The origin, inauguration of the project and personal data 
of the two Civics groups in the high school are discussed. 
The group chosen to work on the project was not hand- 
picked but represented a truly average group as was shown 
by examination of these groups. 

The motion picture project evolved out of the study of 
a unit on "Crime." The activities participated in by the 
group in the study of "Crime" and its ramifications is dis- 
cussed in detail together with the planning, taking and pre- 
paring the film. 

A testing program was conducted, using both pre and post 
testing. The cost and time consumed are shown as compiled 
by student-kept records. 

The conclusions which are arrived upon are: 

1. High School students can produce a satisfactory docu- 
mentary motion picture. 

2. The average school with a limited budget and teachers 
who are not professional photographers working with a 
non-selected group of high school seniors, can guide to 
a satisfactory conclusion a project of this type. 

3. Making of a motion picture was a worthwhile teaching 
aid as shown by satisfactory subject-matter test results, 
changed attitudes, personality adjustments and develop- 
ments of proficiency in certain manual skills. 

4. In a strictly traditional school, there are limitations which 
would make a project of this type practically impossible. 

It is hoped that any educator who is an amateur could 
profit by the experiences of the investigator, the teacher and 
the group if he so chose to attempt a similar project. 

Page 129 

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and WPB 1319 application forms for authority to 


D*pt. 3 E.S.. 2723 N. Crawford Av(. Chicago 39. Illinois 

Page 130 

The Educational Screen 


As They Look to A Teacher Committee 

L. C. LARSON. Editor 

Instructor in School of Education 
Consultant in Audio- Visual Aids 
Indiana University, Bloomington 

Assisted by CAROLYN GUSS 

Extension Division 

Indiana University, Bloomington 

Principles of Baking (Flour Mixtures) 

(Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 1841 Broadway, New York, 23, 
New York) 11 minutes, 16mm sound. Sale price $50 less 10% 
educational discount. Apply to producer for rental sources. 
Discussion guide will be available. 

The film e.xplains the fundamentals of baking and illustrates 
the methods of mixing different baked products. As the film 
shows a farmer inspecting wheat grains, the commentator ex- 
plains that flour is the common ingredient of all baked products. 
By varying the other ingredients and techniques of mixing, 
different bread and pastry items are produced. 

While a demonstrator assembles materials and equipment to 
illustrate the principles explained, the commentator relates that 
the quality of baked products depends upon the leavening agent, 
the manner of mixing, and the baking temperature. Yeast, a 
slow acting leavening agent, is used as the dough for bre,ad is 
mixed. The demonstrator kneads the dough to make the mix- 
ture elastic and then sets it aside to allow the yeast to ferment. 
A diagram shows that the yeast, feeding on the sugar, produces 
carbon dioxide which forces the walls of the protein cells farther 
apart. To redistribute the air bubbles, the demonstrator kneads 
the dough a second lime. After the bread has risen again, the 
action of the yeast is stopped by baking at a high temperature. 

Baking powder which produces carbon dioxide quickly is used 
to make the quick breads — biscuits and muffins. Pastry flour is 
correctly mixed, and a diagram shows the large globules of fat 
which are flattened when the pastry is rolled. High temperature 
during the first part of the baking increases the air spaces be- 
tween and around the fat globules. In this way, flaky pastry 
is produced. 

The second part of the film explains and illustrates the im- 
portance of correct mixing. Since air is the chief leavening 
agent in non-butter cakes, care is used to incorporate air in the 
beaten egg whites and the flour is added gently to prevent the 
collapsing of the cells containing the air. A butter cake is mixed; 
and the finished product, a firm but light-textured cake, is 
shown as the film ends and the commentator reiterates his 
opening statement that the quality of baked products depends 
uixjn the leavening agent, the manner of mixing, and the 
baking temperature. 

Committee Appraisal: This film and its companion "Prin- 
ciples of Cooking," both of which were produced in collaboration 
with Dr. Natalie K. Fitch, demonstrate the fundamental factors 

This monthly page of reviews is conducted for the 
benefit of educational film producers and users alike. The 
comments and criticisms of both are cordially invited. 

Producers wishing to have new films reviewed on 
this page should write L. C. Larson, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana, giving details as to length, content, 
date on which the film was issued, basis of availability, 
prices, producer and distributor. They will be informed 
of the first open date when the Teacher Committee will 
review the films. The only cost to producers for the 
service is thfc cost of transporting the prints to and 
from Bloomington. This Cost Must Be Borne By The 

involved in cooking and baking. Animated diagrammatic draw- 
ings show the scientific principles which underlie the procedure 
and which explain the "why"' of recommended methods. The 
film may be used in classes in foods, diet and nutrition, and 
general science on the junior and senior high school and adult 

Cadet Classification 

(Bureau of Motion Pictures, Office of War Information, 
Washington 25, D.C.) 19 minutes, 16mm sound. Produced by 
U.S. .Army Air Forces. Apply to distributor for a list of 
depositories and terms governing purchase. 

Presents in detail the basic principles inherent in the classifica- 
tion procedure employed by aviation cadet examining boards in 
the selection of cadets to be trained as pilots, navigators, and 
bombardiers. The methods shown are those used by one par- 
ticular school, but they are typical of those universally employed 
to assure the individual cadet's being placed in the job where 
he can best execute his abilities. 

Complex machines that not only test abilities but also register 
the score are used to test coordination, finger dexterity, steadi- 
ness, reaction time, coordination, ability to adjust to variation 
in altitude and temperature, and ability to think and work under 
stress. Through physical examinations and immunization and 
innoculation the health of the cadets is assured. 

The film ends with a dramatic portrayal of how the Board 
handled the case of Frank McCord who thought he wanted to 
be a pilot and not a bombardier. He is shown by his test score 
and statistics that he is better suited for training as bombardier ; 
consequently he willingly accepts his assignment with an opti- 
mistic determination ti> make a good bombardier. 

Committee Appraisal: Essentially a recruiting, pre-induction, 
and induction film, "Cadet Classification." shows in an inter- 
esting maimer the battery of tests given aviation cadets in order 
to discern their aptitudes and abilities which determine their 
classification as bombardiers, navigators and pilots. The film 
succeeds in maintaining objectivity in presenting the testing 
program and classification of cadets while arousing one's interest 
in certain individual cadets and inspiring confidence in the men 
of the Mr Forces. Should be suitable for use by aviation cadet 
examining boards, high school pre-induction classes, and adult 

Six-Legged Saboteurs 

(V. S. Department of .-Xgriculture, Washington, D. C.) 
11 minutes, 16nini. sound. .Apply to producer for purchase 
price and rental sources. 

A cartoon sequence opens the film: Adolph Anopheles, 
Tojo Fly, Benito Boll Weevil, and Pierre Screwworm plan 
the sabotage of the insect Axis on the people and crops of 
the United States. 

As each figure promises to do millions of dollars of 
damage each year, the symbolic figure of Uncle Sam ap- 
pears and emphasizes that their plans of havoc are a yearly 
reality. Uncle Sam then introduces the Chief of the Bureau 
of Entomology. Doctor L. O. Howard, who denounces 
insects as the worst enemy of mankind and points out that 
the destruction of crops by insects means that the work 
of one million men annually goes to feed these saboteurs. 

(Concluded on page 132) 


March, 1944 

Page 131 

The World Acclaimed Film 
On Juvenile Delinquency! 

^ ENTERTAIN',^,, ^,^„„ 

said famed Hollywood director. King Vidor, 
of ROAD TO LIFE. His judgment was based 
on good reasons, for this dramatic story of 
the reclamation of homeless and wayward 
children in Russia after World War I, 
achieves that rare rich quality of the classic 
creation in any art: validity for all iime, for 
all countries. 

NOW, in a war-stricken world the warm, 
understanding, constructive story of how 
the former "wild boys of the road" 
were taught social living and industrial 
trades is of most fimely interest for all 
audiences. The efforts of the social worker 
and teacher to arrange for a trial of the 
honor system and community life of training 
and opportunity for the "boys"; and the 
story itself of how the "boys" rejected 
temptation and became useful, honored 
young citizens constitute a vital, absorbing 
combination of fine enferfainmenf and 
sfimu/af/ng education. 

HERE is a full-length film that helps us 
"see" our problem better because it is set 
far away — because it is on unforgetfab/e 
production, compelling in its combination 
of effects of sound, music, songs, photog- 
raphy, acting, direction and intent. 

Directed by 

Nicolai Ekk, 

former Assisfant to 


L 4t^ 



NEW YORK 19, N. Y. 



— N.y. Hero/d-Tribun« Editorial 

"Exceptional Photoplay". 

— National Board of Review 

"Astounding resurrection of young people 
wtio tiQve been re-born into iioppy, useful 
citizens." — Maxim Gorky 


— New York Timet 

"One of tile most stirring ond satisfying 
pictures" — Richard Wottj, Jr. 

Suggested Uses: 

Deligtitful entertainment for all age groups; 
and for auxiliary educational use in teacher 
training, child study, social studies, educa- 
tional methods, drama, industrial training 
motivation; history, area, language back- 
ground of Russia. 

Page 132 

The Educatiottal Screen 



Washington, th*- 
nation's pulsing 
heart — the peace- 
time governmen- 
tal center of the 
country. But war 
has changed 
Wash i ngto n ' s 
profile. Side by 
side with re- 
splendent build- 
ings are newly 
constructed boom 
houses to accom- 
modate the hundreds of thousands of defense workers. These 
are the little people and big people who direct the war and 
run the government. See how they live — see the humdrum 
of the nation's busiest city — Boomtown, D.C. — an authentic 
record of our capital. 

"BOOMTOWN, D. C." is the 4th in the 


%9Tie% produced by R.K.O. 

16mm prints of all issues in 
THIS IS AMERICA available for 
Rental or Lease to Schools, Social 
and Educational Institutions. Write 
for descriptive folder and prices. 


No. 1, Private Smith 
No. 2, Women at Arms 
No. 3* Army Chaplain 

Exclusive 76MM Distributors 


R.K.O. BIdg.. Radio City, New York 20. N. Y. 


Now available to Schools! 

Delivery 60 to 90 days 


614 North Skinker St. Louis 5, Mo. 

(Send for our big, new 
I6nifn sound film catalog} 

H WITH ymir quickly 



Use RADIO-MATS (Reqular Sin) 
or the NEW DUPLEX 2" x 2" 

on sale by Theatre Supply Dealers 

Write for Free Sample 
222 Oakridle Blvd.. Daytona Beach. Fla. 

(Concluded from patjc 130) 

Later scenes show the damage done by the more com- 
mon insects — the bollweevil, the grasshopper, the screw- 
worm, the Colorado potato beetle, the housefly, and the 
most dangerous of all, the mosquito. Close-ups of each 
insect, the wide-spread damage done annually, the ways of 
controlling their spread are shown. The extent of the 
ravage is illustrated in terms of the war material the same 
amount of money could purchase. 

As Uncle Sam makes a final plea for control and ex- 
tinction of insects, the film closes with a scene showing 
the insect axis being exterminated by modern means. 

Committee Appraisal: Through actual scenes that por- 
tray in a graphic fashion the vast amount of damage done 
annually by the more destructive insects the film empha- 
sizes the importance of the control and extermination of 
insects. Close-ups are used advantageously to depict dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of each of these pests. While 
the introductory sequence consisting of a cartoon delinea- 
tion of insects as dictators has a popular appeal, the com- 
mittee felt that this representation weakened the over-all 
effectiveness of the film. Teachers of agriculture, general 
science and biology and leaders of farm groups will find 
the film especially useful. 


(Modern Talking Picture Service, New York) 16nim. 
sound, black and white, two reels, $25 purchase price. 
Produced by Audio-Productions, Inc., New York City. 

The film presents the history of man's measurement of 
time and explains the relationship of astronomy to the 
correct measuring of time necessary in the world of me- 
chanical appliances, large scale productions, and vast trans- 
portation systems. 

The first part of the film shows and illustrates man's 
early attempts at marking time — tying knots in rope, cut- 
ting notches in sticks, and marking lines on walls or sur- 
faces. Soon, man was able to divide the day or night 
into periods by which all people of one group could con- 
veniently live and work. Some of these early time-keepers 
were the Egyptian water-clock. King .Alfred's candle, the 
sundial, hour glass, and Renaissance tower clocks. 

Familiar situations show the passing of time — change of 
seasons, generations within a family, old and new civiliza- 
tions. The use of animated drawings illustrates the rela- 
tionship of astronomy to the correct measurement of time. 
Diagrams explain the difference between the solar and the 
sidereal day. The principle of the pendulum and its coun- 
terpart, the escapement, is shown and exi>lained. The de- 
velopment of the escapement and the fine hair spring 
explains the reduction in size of the modern timepieces. 
Many early clocks and watches are shown — bulky in size 
and elaborate in design — in contrast to the small, compact, 
simple clocks and watches of today. 

The film concludes by showing how modern astronomical 
observatories and our modern time pieces combine to 
schedule accurately our railroads, automatic manufacturing 
processes, radio broadcasting and, in fact, all of the events 
of our daily routine. 

Committee Appraisal: An interesting and instructional 
treatment of the progress in the measurement of time and 
be neeil for a common and accurate measurement of 
Sme. This -film will be of particular interest to teachers of 
gcnerah science, physics, mathematics, and social studies. 

March, 1944 

Page 133 

LAUREL and HARDY 76mni. Sound Features 

HAL ROACH Producfions Now Available on Rental or Long Term Lease basis 

Packed with gales of laughfer — a barrage of fun 
and excitement as Laurel and Hardy get into 
trouble and out of it! 


One of their funniest! Laurel and Hardy join the 
Army as a couple of misfit privates, with hilarious 
situations from start to finish. 


In I6fflin. Sound 


How mail is handled, why leHers are stand- 
ardized as to form in business, the difference 
between social and business forms, the head- 
ing, the introductory address, the salutation, 
the body and many other details. One Reel. 
Rental $1.50; Sale Price $24.00. 


Every move, offensive and defensive, demon- 
strated by Carl Seibert, veteran boiing in- 
structor and his students. One Reel, Rental 
$1.50: Sale Price $21.00. 

A Time// Feature That Should Not Be Missed! 

stirring, powerful expose of the treachery of the Japanese 
and their contempt for Western civilization. 

We are also releasing 

CHARLIE CHASE and many other famed Hollywood Comedi- 
ans. Write for full information. 
Send for Catalog of 3000 Entertalnmont a«d Educational Subjects. 

25 West 45th Street Dept. E-3 New York 19, N. Y. 

Know America Through Her Resources 

(Concluded from jyat/c 109) 

One special feature of this course should be espe- 
cially mentioned, the work with the school library. 
Each week the library has carried stories of the locality 
being studied. These stories may be fiction or non 
fiction, such as historical events of the country shown, 
or vocational books showing the industries of the lo- 
cality being shown. This work is absolutely necessary, 
for here is the transfer of the visual percept to the 
symbolic word. The librarian must know the picture 
that is. being shown and must choose books that deal 
with the same subject matter as the pictures show. 
The retarded reading mind must find simple read- 
ing material, while the brilliant reading mind must 
find material suited to it. There are numerous slides- 
that can be shown with a lantern. These add to the 
experience, hut are not as fascinating as a movie, and 
the skilled teacher will not contrast the two. In fact 
these slides can give value when viewed in the library 
by holding them to the light. The stereoscopes yield 
still greater values in individual use. The retarded, 
special cases are given these further visual aids to 
enhance the experience and give more associations 
from which the word may receive its life. From this 
bibliography, and the accompanying visual aids, have 
come special reports that have been given by the pupil 
gifted in speaking during the auditorium discussion 
period. Due to the war there are many states repre- 
sented in a school and here the gifted pupil steps out 
to make a report on the state from which he comes. 

when that state is included in the zone being studied. 
.A further coordination should be made here between 
the speech arts class and the report made in the audi- 

W'e have taken it for granted that .America is great. 
We know she is, but we have failed to realize that 
patriotism can be imitative or intellectual. Too often 
it has been imitative. This course hopes to make each 
pupil realize that America is great in her resources 
as well as in her military strength. The latter is well 
shown in the moving pictures which the government 
has loaned to the schools. They are exceptionally fine. 
In a city so close to the border the Good Neighbor 
films of the Government have also given a new atti- 
tude to the two races that meet daily in this school. 
Such pictures have been shown to the classes described 
in this article. They have been received with special 
attention. The cities of South .America, Central Amer- 
ica, and Mexico have become places where pupils in 
these classes have walked and observed — Buenos Aires, 
Rio Janeiro. Mexico City ; countries, such as Argen- 
tina. Guatemala. Brazil, are familiar names and not 
jjlaces cf)lored green on a map, or red. They have be- 
come places. They have become realities. Realities in 
mind picture, in word picture, in feelings of brotherlj' 
understanding. There is no way to measure this accom- 
l)lishment arithmeticall)'. P>ut the three years have 
given us the abiding faith and conviction that these 
pictures will live in the minds t)f all the pu])ils. that 
thejr experience has been enlarged and that the learn- 
ing process has been enhanced. 

Page 134 

The Educational Screen 

Botk m THREE of these 
Exdting New COLOR Films! 

Hmm — Sound — 25 min. 

FORTRESS OF THE SKY : Dramatic Story of the 
Great Bomber Which Makes Newspaper 
Headlines Daily — The Boeing Flying Fortress! 

LOADED FOR WAR: A Fascinating Picture Show- 
ing How America's Railroads Keep 40,000 
Trains Moving Every Day — Troops, Guns, Food 
and Other War Materials — as Illustrated by 
Operation of the Santa Fe Railway System. 

TANK DESTROYERS : An Epic of Camp Hood. 
Texas, Where 80,000 Officers and Men are 
Trained to Seek! Strike! Destroy! An Inspira- 
tional Picture Which Makes Americans Proud 
of Our Fighting Forces. 

Small Service fee P/us Sh/pp{ng Charges 


Princeton 10, New Jersey 

Wrife for Cafalog of Other Outstanding Fllm%l 





available for the first time 
on 16mm Sound 


"With Roland Young, Joan Blondell, Carole 
Landis, and Eddie (Rochester) Anderson. 

"Topper", as an amateur detective aided by a disappear- 
ing girl, turns strange and thrilling happenings into out- 
bursts of gaiety. 

Other HAL ROACH Features: 




ZENOBIA (An Elephant 
Never Forgets) 






Available for rental at your Film Library. 

Send for our Free Catalog with complete list of 
many other educational and recreational 16mm 
sound films. 


723 Seventh Ave., Dept. 10. New York 19, N. Y. 

£071 a/2« 

Expanded Film Activity in 
State Department Reorganization 

Thie U. S. State Department has been granted an ad- 
ditional $500,000 by the House Appropriations Com- 
mittee for extensive post-war motion picture operations 
involving reorganization of the department and the es- 
tabHshment of a new tihn division. 

.\ccording to the new set-up, commercial motion pic- 
tures will be handled by the State Department's new 
Telecommunications Division, headed by Francis C. De- 
Wolf. George R. Canty, picture specialist for the De- 
partment of Commerce, will be in charge of foreign 
marketing of commercial films. 

Non-commercial films will be the concern of the new- 
ly-created motion picture and radio division of the Of- 
fice of Public Information, under John M. Begg, who 
has been working with non-theatrical pictures for five 
years and was with the now-defunct division of cultural 
relations. This new division will act as "liaison" between 
the State Department and other departments in the 
dissemination abroad of information regarding the war 
effort, and in the development of cultural programs 
through the media of motion pictures and the radio. 

Army-Navy Incentive Film Distribution 

All efforts of the OWI to release the Army and 
Navy industrial incentive films through regular OWI 
distribution channels have failed up to now. A confer- 
ence was held in New York last month between Stan- 
ton Griffis, director of the OWI Motion Picture Bu- 
reau, C. R. Reagan, head of the non-theatrical division 
of the Bureau, and .'Vrmy and Navy officials to discuss 
the separate and competitive distribution of war incen- 
tive films to war plants by the .'\rmy and Navy. The 
Army claimed that under its present distribution con- 
tract with Castle Films, Walter Gutlohn, Inc. and Mod- 
ern Talking Pictures, Inc. it does not need the services 
of the 241 OWI 16mm. film depositories to achieve 
widespread circulation. (Each of the three national 
distributors serves 16 states and in their respective ter- 
ritories, each selects local distributors.) Mr. Reagan, 
however, urged that the Army and Navy utilize OWI 
depositories in addition to their other outlets "in order 
to achieve the best possible coverage nationally for these 
vitally important war films." 

To promote the widest possible use of the incentive 
films in any given war plant district, the War Depart- 
ment has assigned an Army officer to take charge of 
film distribution in the individual Army service com- 
mand areas. The officer works with the local distributor 
and with local war plant managers in arranging the 
screenings. The War Department is preparing a re- 
port on distribution of the films under the present sys- 
tem. It is reported that during the month of January 
in one area alone, 24 incentive pictures were given ap- 
proximately 4,000 screenings in war plants, reaching a 
total audience of more than 7,000,000 or an average 
attendance per screening of about 200 persons. 


March, 1944 

Page 135 


Arthur L. Mayer, on leave from his executive posi- 
tion with the \\'ar Activities Committee of the Theat- 
rical Industry, has been appointed film adviser to the 
War Department to supervise the distribution of Army 
films. The War Department has moved its Industrial 
Motion Picture Branch from the Pentagon Building, 
Washington, to the Offices of the War Activities Com- 
mittee, Room 1351, Paramount Building, New York 

I War plants desiring to exhibit incentive films pro- 
duced by the Navy should write to the Industrial 
Incentive Division, U. S. Navy, 2118 Massachusetts 
Avenue, NW. Washington 25, D. C. 
Battle of the Beaches, a swift moving film preview of 
our all-out invasions, is a new Navy film now ready for 
showings to war workers in both 16mm. and 35mm. 
sound. Narrated by Ouentin Reynolds, it is based on 
actual combat scenes, many hitherto unrevealed, vividly 
portraying the high cost of men and material involved 
in storming enemy beaches. The picture traces the 
many amphibious operations to date that have turned 
the course of the war in our favor. It also shows 
captured German film depicting the Nazi version of the 
Dieppe "Dress Rehearsal". 

New WAC Theatre Releases 

Official Marine Corps films of the battle of Tarawa 
are now being distributed to theatres through the Wac 
Activities Committee. The U. S. Marine Corps camera- 
men are said to have made some of the best combat 
films yet produced in the toughest battle in American 
history. Two of the camera unit lost their lives in this 
action. The footage was filmed in 16mm. Kodachrome 
and blown up to 35mm. by Technicolor for theatrical 

Another current WAC release is At His Side, made 
especially for the Red Cross by the March of Time from 
footage obtained from the Signal Corps, Army Air 
Forces, Navy, Office of Strategic Services, newsreels, 
March of Time and Red Cross photographers. It 
shows how the work of the Red Cross contributes to 
fthe welfare and morale of our Armed Forces. 

Both these subjects are being considered for OWI 
16mni. distribution. 

Bureau oi Mines Film Report 

The free educational motion pictures of the Bureau 
of Mines were given almost 100,(X)0 showings during 
1943 before war training classes. Army and Navy per- 
sonnel, engineering and scientific societies, schools, col- 
leges, civic groups, and other organizations, according 
o a year-end report just submitted to Secretary of the 
Interior Harold L. Ickes by Dr. R. R. Sayers, Director 
of the Bureau. 

The gross attendance — nearly 8,000,000 persons — 
was slightly under the previous year. Dr. Sayers said, 
but the films reached more war workers in all parts 
of the Nation and proved valuable for training men 
and women in manufacturing plants and for schooling 


Film Slide Projector 



For 2x2 Slides 

2. For Single Frame 35mm 

For Double Frame 35mm 

the Armed Forces 



- New Non-Rew"!*' ""■'«" 
' Eltminotes R.W.nd.n, 

• Motor Drl»«« For"'' 
Air Cooled 

, instontly Adiustobl. 
, includes ManMniatie 
Slide Carrier 

and other features 

This new easier-to-operate 
projector simplifies your pro- 
jection problem in war train- 
ing and industrial education. 
Provides clearer visibility for 
larger audiences. The Film- 
atic is built like a pro- 
fessional model — yet is easily 
portable. Has corrected pro- 
jection lens (5" f 3.5). Uses 
300, 200 or 100 watt lamp. 
Complete with switch, cord 
and custom-built carryinc 

>tbove Items Are 
Available Now en 
Proper PrJorify for: 

Educational Institutions 
— Army and Navy — 
Maritime Bases — Lend- 
Lease — ^War Industries — 
Government Agencies — 
Medical Profession, etc. 


» Forced-Air Cooled 

• Takes up to 1000 
Watt Lamps 

• Choice of Lenses 

Pre-Focus Socket Aligns 
Filament on Optical Axis 

All Steel-Welded Structure 

• Built-in Tilting Device 

• Fully Adfustoble Bellows 

Developed to meet today's needs 
in training centers and schools. 
Cooler-operating . . . for long 
projection distances. Shows 
standard 3'/^"x4'' stereopticon 
slides. Has powerful but quiet 
high speed motor. Three ground 
and polished lens furnished. 30" 
long overall. Stands &rmly . . . 
yet is conveniently portable. 
When writing, please address DEPT. C 



Page 136 

The Edticational Screen 



(Series of Six) 

Imporrant as visual education . . . stimulating o$ 
an insight into a vital world areal A scientifically 
accurate, artistically direct study of Pacific ethnol- 
ogy, economy, art, botany, native housing and 
transportation, in brilliant color. 





Mexico Today ^'^^ ''^°' products, Indian nnarkttts, regional 
' costumes, handicrafts, etc. 

Mural Arf of Rivera '^^^■onal Palace, Cuemavaca, Minis- 
try of Education. 

Colonial Architecture ^colman. Puebia, San Miguel. 

Tepoiotlan, etc. Interiors, 

Cathedral treasures. 

Archaeology ^^^^^ peoples; buildings, and EXCLUSIVE 

examples In color of pottery, jewelry, sculpture, 
from Mexican National Museum. 

Mayan Cities of Yucatan *^'^ chichen. chichenitza. 

— Uxmal. 

Guatemala ^'7 .''**• products, Indian markets, costumes, 
Colonial architecture, Mayan ruins. 



1305 Lombard Street 
San Francisco 9, Calif. 

•NEW VICTOR 16mm- 

Now >lva//ab/e to 




Atk tor our New >6nim I ''/e hrve lome used B. 6 H.. 

I ^f^p-^ V'-fory, DeVry f^nd 

SOUND FILM CATALOG \ Mogull Oup/ex Sound OuWfj. 


iS WEST 48th ST. Oept. E NEW YORK 19. N. Y. 


FINGER- /^^^ 
MARKS 1 1 



W °'*' 







130 W. 44*h St. 
N.w York City 




It N. Labroa, Hollywo 
801 Larchmont, Chicat 



35 mm. 



General Science 

Principles of Physics 

...11 rolls 
... 7 rolls 
... 8 rolls 
... 8 rolls 

New York 

Principles of Chemistry 

Fundamentals of Biology 

ite for Folder and Free Sample Strip 

SCIENCES, ISi Suffern, 

members of the armed forces in maintenance and re- 
pair work. 

Bookings were made months in advance for fihiis 
showing production methods, processing techniques, 
and the industrial utih'zation of such metals as alumi- 
num, nickel. c()])per, lead, and steel. There was a heavy 
demand, too, for pictures depicting first-aid procedures. 
In addition to the widespread domestic distribution of 
the Bureau's films, some of the pictures were flown 
across the Atlantic for showing to aircraft production 
workers in England. Others were sent to South Ameri- 
can republics through arrangements with the State 

The Bureau's film library, believed to be the largest 
and most complete of its kind in the world, had a total 
of nearly 9,000 reels of sound and silent films at the 
close of 1943. The main distributing center is the 
Graphic Services Section at the Bureau of Mines Ex- 
periment Station, 4800 Forbes Street. Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Sub-distributing centers are maintained in 18 other 
states. No charge is made for the lf)an of the films, 
although borrowers are required to pay transportation 
charges to and from the distributing centers. 

Addition to OWl Non-Theatrical Staff 

Miss E. A. Marquardt, formerly with the Bureau 
of Visual Instruction, Extension Division, University 
of Wisconsin, and more recently with the Visual Aids 
Branch, Training Division, Third Service Command 
Headquarters, Baltimore, recently joined the staff of 
the Non-Theatrical Division of the OWT Bureau of 
Motion Pictures, serving as Film Registrar and Assist- 
ant Head, 

SMPE to Meet in April 

The Society of Motion Picture Engineers will hold 
its 55th semi-annual technical conference at the Hotel 
Pennsylvania, New York, April 17, 18 and 19, instead 
of April 25-27, as previously scheduled. Technical ses- 
sions, following a general business session opening 
the conference on Monday tuorning, are scheduled to 
be held throughout the three-day meeting, with sjjecial 
sessions in the evening. 

Industrial Firm Institutes Film Division 

Owen Illinois Glass Company of Toledo has organ- 
ized a film division to handle film activities of the or- 
ganization. Manager of the new division is Harlan 
Hobbs, formerly with Paramount. Charles W. Bentley 
will have charge of the photographic end of the new 

Walt Disney has been engaged to make an extensive 
survey of the company's activities that will lend them- 
selves to the use of films to popularize them as well as 
merchandising the completed products of these depart- 
ments. Raphael Wolff studios will also make a survey 
of the industrial films to be used by the company. 

March, 1944 

Page 137 

George Zehrung Leaves Y.M.C.A. Bureau 

Ol'l-'ICIAL aiiiiounccnieiit has been made of the re- 
tirement of George J. Zehrung from the Directorship 
of the Y.M.C.A. Motion I'icture Bureau, and Visual Edu- 
cation Service, and of his new connection with Walter O. 
Gutlohn. Inc., in New York City. 

Despite the strict personnel requirements of tlie V.M.C.A. 
National Council, which automatically called for Zehrung's 

retirement in Febru- 
ary, 1943, his pioneer 
status and the unique 
character of his long 
service led to his be- 
ing retained for an 
extra year. That 
twelvemonth, ending 
in February, 1944, 
with his final with- 
drawal under pen- 
sion, was expended 
in characteristically 
earnest preparation 
for a successor to 
take over. The twen- 
ty-six years of his 
splendid devotion to 
Y.M.C.A. work be- 
gan in 1918 during 
the stirring period of World War No. I. In that year he 
was assigned the sole responsibility for the then new and 
struggling Industrial Department's Motion Picture Bureau. 
His progressive acconiplishments in that sustained com- 
mand have been summarized as follows: From one case of 
six one-reel subjects to a library of 1500 carefully .selected 
titles; from a part-time individual function to a loyal, 
efficient, technically-trained staff of 45 persons: from one 
case of films entrusted to a small, private responsibility to 
four exchanges in New York, Chicago, Dallas and San 
Francisco to provide national service; from a contribution- 
supported budget of a few hundred dollars to a self-support- 
ing enterprise with an allocation of $153,000 for 1943; from 
a few industrial Y.M.C.^'s to 1099 colleges and universities, 
1469 senior and junior high schools, 1540 churches, 1026 
clubs, 1046 industries, 591 Y.M.C.A's and 1656 other ex- 
hibition places of miscellaneous sorts; and from audiences 
comprising a few hundred industrial workers to over 93,- 
000,000 annual attendance. 

George jay Zehrung was born on a farm near Tarlton, 
Ohio, February 9, 1883. His early education carried him 
through the Roseville High School in the same State. 
During the closing terms there he learned his father's trade 
of sheet-metal workijig and hollow ware manufacture. His 
prime interest, however, was shaping towards a career in 
art. .Mter two years of studio instruction under Karl 
Kappes, he went on a first year scholarship, to the Art 
School of the State capital, Columbus, ending his three 
years there with a graduate scholarship to I'ratt Institute 
in New York. The two scholarship years at Pratt were 
succeeded by training in educational backgrounds and tech- 
niques at New York and Columbia Universities, following 
which, in 1907 he became an industrial art teacher in New 
York elementary and high schools. .\ passing engagement 
as freehand-drawing instructor at the Bedford Branch of 
the Y.M.C.A. was the occasion, in 1916, for forming his 
long connection, terminated this past month, with the 
National Council. His name has long appeared on the 
executive committee roster of the National Board of Review 
of Motion Pictures, and on the list of the advisory com- 
mittee of the East and West Association. In the present 
war period he has been a member of the O.W.I, and 
C.I. A. .A. Distribution Commit'tee of 17. 

The standing of the Gutlohn Company is well known, 
and Zehrung's function in it, which is understood to be 
the direction of its educational and industrial divisions, will 
be watche<l with warm and appreciative interest by all per- 

(Coiitimicd on page 141) 

74/i(A, a o^At o^ tAoiOUUteU o^ 7i. S. 

tt^ to- ftCUf «t /^^^^^^^ vi^t to ^owi 
6o<f? "T^e* 4«e tA<4. ^Uctecte meieie Ctf 

tiOK to aAo6U t^ ^oi/^ Ctt t^ 7{*utcci 

Sta(t4. ^oca t^dn 4o*t4.. 4*t4^^iKeCi. ohcC 
aateet^earta^ etnc iivinf Ch. (^neeit 
"SiUcUh. tfuUtUtt^ ^on. t^ itwoMott. 

16 mm Sound Film 
22 minutes 
Sale $23.50 

2 reels 
Rental: 75 cents 

Write for catalogue "Films of Britain at 
War" to find out about the latest films, all 
in 16mm sound, including: 



The tense story of a 
British submarine patrol in the North 


Five men in a tank 
stranded in the desert — and how 
they get away. 


The War heroes 
who take these pictures in actual 


Nos. 1-5 

Brief bright stories of the workers 
behind the guns. 


The famous saga of the 
British Eighth Army in the Libyan 


An Agenc/ of the British Government 

30 Rockefeller Ploio, New York 20, N. Y. 

360 North Michigan Avenue, Chicogo 1, III. 

260 Colifornia Street, Son Froncisco U, Calif. 

1005 Toft Building, 1680 North Vine Street, Hollywood 28, Calif. 

1336 New York Avenue, N.W. Washington 5, D. C. 

1238 Conol Building, New Orleons 12, Lo. 


Page 138 

The Educational Screen 

L^uxzsnt \jiun ^/Vevcti 

■ Encyclopaedia Britannica Films 
Inc. (formerly Erpi Classroom Films), 
1841 Broadway, New York, produced 
twelve films in 1943, among tliem the 
following four films on Canada for the 
regional geography series, made in collab- 
oration with Dr. J. Russell Smith of 
Columbia University : 

The Prairie Provinces — covers agri- 
lulture, with especial attention to grain 
growing, peopling, furs,, transportation, 
mining and commerce in the prairie prov- 
inces of Manitoba. .Mberta and Sas- 
katchewan. Includes also the Northwest 

Pacific Canada — traces routes of dis- 
ccivery and exploration. Portrays the 
peopling of the region, with emphasis 
(in part played by climate and by trans- 
]iortation. Sequences on fishing, lumber- 
ing, mining and smelting, agriculture 
and interdependence. 

Maritime Provinces — shows fishinj>, 
fur farming,, lumbering, farming, min- 
ing and smelting, commerce and peopling, 
indicating flows to and from the United 

The Industrial Provinces — delineates 
typical activities and industries of On- 
tario and Quebec, the Heart of the 
Dominion. Shows distribution of popu- 
lation, and relation of region to the 
remainder of Canada, the United States, 
and world. Summarizes products and im- 

Other areas in which new films have 
been produced are : 

Home Economics — Fundamentals of 
Diet. Principles of Hakinii (Flour Mi.x- 
tures) ; Principcis of Cooking (Meats and 

Physics — Elements of Electrical Cir- 
cuits, Vacuum Tubes. Receiving Radio 

Biology — Care of the feet. Common 
.■Inimals of the Woods. 

■ Bell & Howkll Company, 1801 
l.archmont Ave., Chicago, report the 
acquisition of the following two Univer- 
sal feature pictures for approved non- 
theatrical audiences : 

Between Us Girls — a modern comedy 
concerning a young stage star who mas- 
querades as a twelve-year-old to help 
her mother win the man she loves. The 
cast includes Diana Barrymore, Kay 
Francis, Robert Cummings and John 

Eagle Squadron — in which real com- 
bat photography made over England, 
France and the Channel serves as a 
background for a romantic drama of men 
and women at war. 

Also released by Bell & Howell is: 
Gateway North — a silent reel in 
color produced by Karl Robinson, 
showing the initial stages of the new 
roadway through British Columbia 
toward Alaska. 

■ Pictorial Films Inx., R.K.O. 
Building, New York, is releasing this 
month the fourth subject in its series 
of thirteen films on This is America, 
on which they have exclusive 16mm 
rights. Title of the current release is : 

Boomtown, D. C. — the story of the 
nation's busiest city, our capital, and of 
the big and little people in Washing- 
ton who direct the war and run the 
government. Side by side with resplend- 
ent buildings are seen newly constructed 
boom houses to accommodate the hun- 
dreds of thousands of defense workers. 

Previously released films in this se- 
ries are : 

Private Smith of the U. S. A.— the 
dramatic story of the transformation of 
Mr. Average Citizen when he sheds his 
"civies" for khaki, and his experiences 
in army life. 

Women at Arms — a tribute to Anieri- 
ican women in war work, to those in 
defense plants as well as to those in 

such organizations as the WACS, 

Army Chaplain — an inspiring ac- 
count of the work of these heroic men 
of all creeds, showing how this great 
moral army is trained to perform their 
services on the front line, under the 
enemy's fire. 

■ DeVry Films & Laboratories, a 
subsidiary of DeVry Corporation, 1111 
.■\rmitage Ave., Chicago, has been 
named a depository for Office of War 
Information films, which are now avail- 
able. It is also announced that the 
16mm. film-on-sound edition of the 

British war epic Desert I'ictory i^ 
available through DeVry Films & 
I.atxjratories. .^ccording to Lt. Col. 
David MacDonald, under whose direc- 
tion this document was filmed, 95% of 
its footage was made with DeVry 35 
mm. motion picture cameras. 

■ British Information- Services, 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York, have an- 
nounced that the first joint feature pro- 
duction of British and .American army 
film units, recording the Tunisian cam- 
paign, will soon be released in the 
United States by their exchanges and 
the Office of War Information, through 
M-G-M, under the title: 

Tunisian Victory — 75 minutes run- 
ning time — a successor to last year's no- 
table war film. Desert Victory. The new 
picture begins with the .(Kfrican landings 
and ends with the Germans thrown out 
of Tunisia. It reports the joint action 
oi' British and American troops through 
six months of desperate fighting. 

Produced by the British .\rmy Film 
Unit, under Colonel Hugh Stewart, and 
the United States .\rmy Signal Corps, 
\nider Colonel Frank Capra. the film cost 
the lives of many cameramen. Except 
for a few scenes, Tunisian Victory is 
made up of "combat footage." T.ike 
Desert Victory it reproduces the real 
tiling. There are also sequences from 
cai)tured film which provide glimpses of 
Kirmmel and Kesselring. In contras! to 
the worried Nazi leaders, is shown the 
happy and historic visit of Churchill and 
Roosevelt at Casablanca, and their meet- 
ings with the confident British and 
.American generals. There is also a 
st(|uence of the German surrender which 
shows thousands of German prisoners 
surrendering with their hands in the air 
or being checked into pri.son camps by 
their captors. 

■ HoFFBERc; Productions, Inc.. 630 
Ninth Avenue, New York, have secured 
U)mm and 35inm prints of the latest 
documentaries and film shots of the 
Polish Army and Navy, imported direct 
from the field of action by the Polish 
Information Center. Among them are 
the following titles : 

Poland Forever — 2 reels — depicting 
the pleasant pre-war Poland, its in- 
vasion, and now — the armed forces of 
I'ree Poland fighting back. 

Scottish Majurka — 2 reels in tech- 
nicolor — activities of the Polish Army 
in Scotland, training for the invasion 
of the continent with allied armies. 
Presents festivals, dances and typical 
Polish music. 

The Poles Weigh Anchor — 1 reel — 
life of a Polish destroyer in the ser- 
vice of the allies. 

The Price of Freedom — 3 reels — 
story of the development of the port 
Gdynia, illustrating Poland's progress 
in the tvvo decades between the two 

The Shortest Route— 1 reel — a vision 
of the day of Poland's liberation when 
her sons serving with the paratroop 
divisions will return home. 

(Concluded on page 140) 

March, 1944 

Page 139 

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Page 140 

The Educational Screen 

■ The Natioxai. Film Board of Can- 
ada, 84 E. Randolph St., Chicago, an- 
nounces the availability of the first three 
films in its new Knife and Fork Scries 
dealing with wartime nutrition problems. 
These films, produced with the sponsor- 
ship ol the Canadian Wartime Prices 
and Trade Board, were planned specif- 
ically to meet the needs of urban women 
and provide a practical guide to war- 
tiine housekeeping. Each is 16mm sound 
and runs 18 minutes. The three completed 
subjects are: 

The Main Dish — conserva- 
tion needs and economic food planning 
ill regard to wisely chosen cuts of meats. 
\arious cooking methods are demon- 

strated to help housewives prepare ap- 
|)ctizing meals from cheaper cuts. 

Vitamin-Wise — in which the vitamin 
categories of the main fresh vegetables 
and fruits are explained. The film shows 
proper cooking methods to obtain the 
maximum food value, and conservation 
of both food and fuel. 

Coupon Value — a practical demon- 
stration of how best to cut down home 
food consumption to insure equal food 
distribution. It e-xplains the Coupon 
\'alue Chart which aids housewives in 
the selection and preparation of meat. 

.Additional films in this series are in 
preparation and will be available for 
liurchasc within the next few months. 

B Office of Wak Information. Bu- 
reau of Motion Pictures, W'asliington, 
D. C, have received 16nuii prints of 
four National Film Board of Canada 
productions which will be shipped to 
OWI distributors. These subjects are: 

Handle with Care — a 2-reel docu- 
mentation of a Canadian explosives 
plant. The stages of manufacture are 
depicted with the necessity for eternal 
vigilance emphasized. 

Sicily, Key to Victory — the record 
of the Canadian First Division in the 
Sicilian campaign. Shots of war work- 
ers at home are used to demonstrate the 
essential link between war and home 

New Soldiers Are Tough — an ex- 
ample of the new type of "tough" war 
films, presenting the new type of train- 
ing and psychology of attack. 

Pincers on Japan (Canadian title, 
"Road to Tokyo") — dealing with Can- 
ada's place in the strategy of the Paci- 

Suggestion Box — a 1-reel industrial 
incentive film for war plant workers — 
is another • recent OWI release, prints of 
which were donated by the War Pro- 
duction Board. It shows how produc- 
tion has been greatly increased in plants 
by ideas of the workers. 

Other films deposited with the OWI 
are The Dutch Tradition, a 3-reel subject 
leleased by The Netherlands Informa- 
tion Bureau, and Desert Victory, pro- 
duced bv the British Information Serv- 

■ Waltkr O. Gutlohn. Inc., 25 
West 45th Street, New York City, has 
(,pened a branch office at 19 LaSilie 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. Marcia Shiro, 
who has been handling the Photographic 
Dealer Department of the Gutlohn orga- 
ni/ation, has been appointed to take 
charge of the new office which will di- 
rectly service Gutlohn customers in the 
area. With their Chicago branch, Waiter 
( ). Gutlolm, Inc. are now in a position 
to facilitate film deliveries to midwest 
schools and the photographic trade, as 
well as provide a greater degree of 
personalized service. 

Recent Gutlohn 16nim releases in- 
clude the two Hollywood productions: 

My Favorite Spy — an RKO feature 
presenting Kay Kyscr in a gay, tuneful 
comedy. Late for his own wedding, 
Kay reaches the church to find that 
Uncle Sam has called him to tfie colors 
and he must report that very day. He 

becomes involved in the "Intelligence" 
Service amid a daze of girls and under- 
cover plots. 

Pardon My Sarong — a riotous Ab- 
bott and Costello comedy produced by 

■ Bl RKAU OF Mines Expf.rimf.nt Sta- 
tion. 4H00 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa., 
has comi)leted five new instructional 16 
n-.m. sound films depicting some of tiie 
nianufacturing processes used in the 
fabrication of aluminum and aluminum 
alloys. These films constitute a series 
of //oil' /() Form .Aluminum pictures, 
but each is complete in itself. Titles of 
the separate subjects are: 

General Sheet Metal Practice (21 

Blanking and Piercing (16 niin.l 

Tube and Shape Bending (14 niin.') 

Drawing, Stretching, and Stamping 
(22 mill.) 

Spinning (17 min.) 

.Applications for free short-term loans 
oi these five films should state specifically 
that the borrower is equipped to show 
sound films. 

■ Brandon Films Inc., 1600 Broadway, 
New York, have re-issued in 16nini 
sound the world famous feature film 
story of the re-education of the former 
"wild boys of the road," called: 

Road to Life — 95 min. — classic ju- 
venile delinquency film, based i^n the 
actual story of the work done by social 
workers and teachers in Soviet Russia 
during the early 1920's. Although the 
setting is the post-World War I period 
of economic restoration in Soviet 
Russia, the warm, understanding 
approach, the universality of the sub- 
ject, and the linglish super-imposed 
titles make this film of special interest. 
It tells th'; dramatic and often amus- 
ing story of the steps taken to re- 
habilitate the delinquents by way of 
personal attention, vocational guidance, 
honor system, self-discipline, and pro- 
ductive work in a cooperative. How the 
"wild boys" learn a trade and become • 
useful, happy citizens is a source of 
in.cpiration to teachers, social workers, 
jjarents, and children. 

■ Offici.\l Films. Inc., 625 Madison 
Ave., New York 22, have compiled a 
valuable historical reel featuring three 
recent important events, in Volum.e I 
of their 1944 News Thrills, namely: 

Roosevelt-Stalin-Churchill Meeting 
— showing the first get-together of the 
"Big Three" at the Teheran confer- 
ence to map the campaign against the 

Roosevelt - Churchill - Chiang Kai- 
shek in Cairo — where cooperative An- 
glo-.American-Chinese strategy against 
the Japanese took concrete form. 

Marines Take Tarawa — a visual rec- 
ord of the fierce fighting for the Jap- 
held isuanl. 

Women's Athletics Section Films 

VoT several years the Visual Aids 
Committee of the National Section of 
Women's .Athletics lias had a rental 
library of films on the techniques of 
sports including archery, hockey, swim- 
ming, Softball and tennis. These films 
have been distributed through their 
Washington, D. C. office. Due to a re- 
duced budget for secretarial service, the 
Washington office no longer can aflford 
the time required for distributing and 
servicing films, and have turned their 
films over to the Bell and Howell Com- 
pany, Chicago for future distribution. 

The Visual .Aids Committee of the 
N.S.W.A. will continue to function 
tlirough the previewing of teaching 
films in physical education, appraising 
.-ind listing them and telling how and 
where they may be obtained. The or the committee, will pub- 
lish article;, in 'he Journal of Jleallh and 
Physical Education from time to time 
stating reliable sources of information 
on films for school use and on other 
visual aids, such as, posters, charts, 
lantern slides and film strips. For in- 
formation on Visual .Aids please ad- 
dress; Frederica Bernhard, Chairman, 
University of California, Berkeley 4, 

March, 1944 

Page 141 

School-Made Motion Pictures 

(Ciiiichidrd jroin page 124) 

tltc cciitiT of the film. This can he accoinplislied in several 

1. If yours is a magazine loading tyi)e of camera this ijrob- 
leni need not bother you. You can buj' or borrow a device to 
be inserted into the camera before taking pictures. This device 
shows you exactly what you get if you leave the camera in 
the same position with the film magazine as you took with 
the paralla.x correcting device. 

2. If your camera contains a ground glass focusing device 
I am sure your camera can assist you in your calculations. 

.3. If your camera does not come under either of the head- 
ings above you may be able, if you look around hard enough, 
to obtain a reflex focusing finder. Should you be unsuccessful, 
you can save your thirty or more dollars, and do what I did. 

Take a rolled steel bar, 3!'2xlJ^xJ^ inches. In the center 
of that bar drill a bole of the same diameter as the tripod hole 
in the camera. This hole is to receive a flat headed b<ilt having 
the same pitch as the tripod screw. Now drill two holes ■>» of 
an indi away from tlie center — one hole on each side. These 
holes should be threaded to take the tripod screw. .-Ml this can 
be done in the machine shop of the scliool. 

For close-up filming, bolt the bar through its center to the 
camera. .Attach to the tripod screw the left hole of the bar. 
Sight through the viewfinder to get the object in the center. 
Where t!ie camera meets the bar at right angles place a 
scratch line across the bar. Keeping tlie tripod in the same 
position, remove the bar from the tripod screw, and tliis time 
attach to the hole on the right, making .sure that tlie line 
formed at the conjunction of the camera and bar is paral- 
lel to the first .scratched line. For future use it's advisable to 
maik the second line. This time as you sight through the 
viewfinder the object will be off center to the right but cor- 
rect for the camera lens. 

Some cameras have on the front element of their viewfindcrs 
etched markings for close-ups of two and six feet. Otlicr 
short distances not marked have to be guessed at. In order 
to eliminate possibilities of error I find that the metal bar is 
more reliable than my eyesight. .\f, for cameras whose view- 
finders are situated above the lenses, the technique for parallax 
correction should be practically similar — with one change. The 
metal bar should be built like a frame, the height of which 
should equal the vertical distance between the centers of lens 
and view finder. D. S. 

George Zehrung Leaves Y.M.C.A- Bureau 

(Conchidrii frniii page 137) 

sons engaged in the non-theatrical and educational field. 
Mr. Harry .\. Kapit, President of Walter O. Ciutlohn, Inc., 
states that "Mr. Zehrung will have one of the nation's 
most extensive 16nini film libraries at his command, em- 
bracing more than 3000 entertainment and educational sub- 
jects." (ieorge Zchrung's many friends throughout tlie 
country will rejoice that the change assures his cojitinued 
activity in the field where he belongs. 

The National Council has named Mr. J. Raymond Bing- 
ham as successor to Mr. Zehrung. Mr. Bingham comes to 
the Bureau from the program Directorship of the YMC.A- 
USO service, with previous experience in two large city 
YMC.A's. Under his direction, with Mr. .\. L. Frederick 
as associate director, the Bureau will continue to stimulate 
the widest possible use of the best films available from all 



First Northern Ohio Visual Aids 




■operation with 


Department of Visual Instruction 





Monday and Tuesday, April 3-4, 


Hotel Hollenden Ballroom, Cleveland, Ohio 




. . . f/re Wsua/ IVoy /s f/ie Besi Way 

Whether ;+■$ world affairs or home 
affairs . . . the war front or the political front 
. . . the thrills of your favorite sport in or out 
of season . . . travel in America or the four 
corners of the earth ... or Hollywood's greatest 
stars in their greatest pictures . . . the motion 
picture is the great medium of expression! 

Here are some of the outstanding dramatic, 
musical and comedy successes pronounced by 
leading motion picture critics as 

''Pictures You Must Not Miss' 

qre<t s!ng!n<| star in 


. . . the com«dy team voted 
America's number one funny 






wifh Allan Jones, Phil 
Spitalny and His All- 
Girl Orchestra 


the people's own young fa- 
vorite in 






• r 

GET HEP TO LOVE with lovely little GLORIA JEAN 

And These Great Pictures ISoui Showing 
at Your Favorite Theatres 


the Story of Carlson's Marine Raiders on Makin Island 


Another Technicolor Fantasy of the Arabian Nights 


Adventure in the Supernatural with an All-Star Cast 


Based on the book that amazed millions; starring Franchot 
Tcne. Ella Raines and Alan Curtis 


Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

Page 142 

d^monq ihs. Lproduas.i.1 

Elsie Cross Kodachromes 

An important scnnxc for 2x2 Koda- 
chrome slides of exceptional quality is 
the collection of fine originals made by 
Elsie Cross of San Francisco. They are 
now on a production basis, organized in 
subject units, with full descriptive matter 
for teacher use accompanying the slides. 
School systems. Xfuseums, and College 
Departments are enthusiastic at first 
sight of this material 

After years of travel, in concert 
bureau management and on the lecture 
platform, Miss Cross found her para- 
mount interest in photography. Re- 
peated journeys through Canada, the 
United States and Central America 
yielded many motion picture films of 
notable quality, but gradually Miss 
Cross came to concentrate on the 2x2 
Kodachronic slide. Her choice collec- 
tion, after elimination of all but the 
finest negatives, offers some 600 slides 
on Mexico, 100 on Guatemala, and 
some 75 (after omission of Com- 
munist propaganda) on the famous 
Diego Rivera murals, including a 
portrait of the artist himself. 

Having seen Miss Cross' motion pic- 
tures on Mexico, the Mexican Govern- 
ment extended her special permission to 
photograph, for the first time, such sub- 
jects as the treasure of the Cathedral of 
Mexico, rare Museum pieces of pot- 
tery, jewelry and sctilpture, and the 
recent findings in the Tula excavations. 
A complete Archaeology set of 275 
Kodachromes on Mexico and Yucatan 
—including- Uxmal, Old Chichen, Chic- 
hen-Itza, Teotihuacan, The Citadel, 
Tenayuca, Xochimillco, Monte ."Mban, 
the Aztec peoples, etc. — will be found 
invaluable to Museums and College 
Departments especially. For full in- 
formation write direct to Miss Elsie 
Cross, 1305 Lombard St., San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

Ampro Plant Expanded 

The .Anijiro plant with its completed 
'addition is shown below. New equip- 
ment is already in operation and addi- 
tional workers arc doing their bit on 
the production front. 

After the war, this new addition will 
house the office staff and will be one 
of the most modern attractive offices 
in the Middle West 

Coronet Picture Story 
Service Extended 

The slidefilms and reprints of the 
Cnrovet Picture Stories which were 
made available last September through 
the Society for Visual Education, Inc., 
will be extended into a total series of 
sixteen subjects — eight for the current 
school year and eight more for the next 
school year. This service, which is 
sponsored by Coronet as a contribution 
to the visual training programs of 
schools, is now used by thousands of 
projector owners among schools, 
churches and other organizations. It is 
also used regularly in many units of 
the Armed Forces. 

Under the terms of this service, the 
principal Picture Story in each issue 
of Coronet is reproduced on slidefilms. 
In addition, the same Picture Stories 
are available in the form of reprints 
for those who do not have projectors 
or who may wish to have copies for 
individual students. The entire scries 
of eight slidefilms during one school 
year costs only $2.00 including one sub- 
ject in full natural color. The reprints, 
in lots of twenty-five or more each 
month, are furnished at Ic each — $2.00 
for twenty-five of each for a period of 
eight months. 

The releases to date have included 
"Through the Periscope" — a story of 
submarine warfare; "China Fights 
Back" by Madame Chiang Kai-Shek; 
"Queens Never Die" — the story of the 
S. S. Normandie; ".'\nchors .'\weigh" — • 
' a' picture of the V . S. Navy, in Techni- 
color; and "A World and Two Wars" 
— which compares 1917 with 1944. The 
next two subjects will be "Dedication" 
and "Panic." 

The subjects for this school year 
extend through April. The series for 
1944-45 will start in early Octo1)er, 
1944, and extend through May, 1945. 
Those who may wish to subscribe to 
the service for both years may do so 
at any time by paying $4.00. All back 
slidefilm releases will be mailed upon 
receipt of the order and the others 
will be delivered according to schedule. 

Subscriptions to the service or re- 
nuests for additional information should 
be sent to the Society for Visual Edu- 
cation. Inc.. 100 East Ohio Street, 
Chicago 11, Illinois. 

The Educational Screen 

Encyclopaedia Britannica 
Films Elects Directors 

I'ifteon of the nation's prominent 
educators, editors and business leaders 
were elected members of the Board of 
Directors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 
Films Inc., formerly known as Erpi 
Classroom Films which recently was 
purchased by Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica. Flight of the directors already 
serve in a similar capacity with En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica. The new chair- 
man of the board of Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Films Inc. is William R. 
Benton. Vice-president University of 
Chicago, who also occupies that post on 
the Britannica board. 

Also elected to the hoard is Chester 
Bowles. OV.\ .\dministrator. Marshall 
Field, publisher. Wallace K. Harrison, 
architect, Paul G. Hofifman, President 
of Studebaker Corp., Ernest Hopkins. 
President of Dartmouth College. Rob- 
bert M. Hutchins, President Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Henry R. Luce, Editor 
of Time and Life, E. H. Powell, Presi- 
dent of Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Ecardsley Ruml, Treasurer of R. H. 
Macy Co., E. E. Shumaker. President 
of Encyclopaedia Britannica Films Inc. 
M. Lincoln Schuster. Simon & Schuster. 
Harry Scherman. President of Book 
of the Month Club, John Stuart. Chair- 
man of Quaker Co. and Wayne C. 
Taylor. Under-Secretary of Commerce. 

Motion Pictures 
Not for Theatres 

(Continued from pogc 117) 
gram, which Fox had launched, arose for 
his decision, he declared that the depart- 
ment would be continued only if it could 
be demonstrated that school pictures so 
made would be of as much benefit as the 
advocates of the idea claimed, and if it 
might be proved, also, that they would 
be welcomed by boards of education. 
However, he was not just waiting to be 
shown. He would provide facilities for 
making the test. 

In beginning any educational film pro- 
gram it has manifestly been wise to use 
the existing or aroused interest of per- 
sons whose influence may help to achieve 
the purpose. It reduces possible general 
resistance to the idea and niakes accom- 
plishment correspondinglv easier. In all 
events, that is the apnroved executive 
method. The rare exceptions have been 
provided bv creative artists such as F. 
Percy Smith and George E. Stone, who 
felt inner compulsions to express them- 
selves along particular lines regardless 
of popular acceptance. Of course. Harley 
Clarke's genius was of the executive or- 
der. In the case of his S.V.E- he had 
started with a plan which, in one move- 
ment, had drawn the attention and en- 
gaged the participation of educational 
leaders throughout the nation. He now 
made the same .sort of approach in differ- 
ent circumstances but to the same sen- 
sational effect. .And the announcement 
of it came not from the offices of F'o.v 
Films, but from the office of the President 
of the United States. 

(To be Continued) 



March, 1944 

Page 143 

What happens when 
vour hat comes down ? 

SOMEDAY, a group of grim-faced 
men will walk stiffly into a room, 
sit down at a table, sign a piece of 
paper— and the War will be over. 

That'll be quite a day. It doesn't 
take much imagination to picture the 
way the hats will be tossed into the 
air all over America on that day. 

But what about the day after? 

What happens when the tumult 
and the shouting have died, and all of 
us turn back to the job of actually 
making this country the wonderful 
place we've dreamed it would be? 

What happens to you "after the War?" 

No man knows just what's going to 
happen then. But we know one thing 
that must not happen: 

We must not have a postwar Amer- 
ica fumbling to restore an out-of-gear 
economy, staggering under a burden 
of idle factories and idle men, wracked 
with internal dissension and stricken 
with poverty and want. 

We must not have breadlines and 

vacant farms and jobless, tired men 
in Army overcoats tramping city 

That is why we must buy War 
Bonds — now. 

For every time you buy a Bond, 
you not only help finance the War. 
You help to build up a vast reserve of 
postwar buying power. Buying power 
that can mean millions of postwar 
jobs making billions of dollars' worth 
of postwar goods and a healthy, pros- 
perous, strong America in which 
there'll be a richer, happier living for 
every one of us. 

To protect your Country, your fam- 
ily, and your job after the War— buy 
War Bonds now! 


The Treasury Department acknowledges with appreciation 
the publication of this message by 


Page 144 

The Educational Screen 

TJTP'JOT^ nfXJt^^W H T3C^ ^ Trade Directory 

XXUXXU X Xllli X X\£xJ-J for the Visual Field 

Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

1425 Williams St., Denver. Colo. 
Bailey Film Service (3) 

1651 Cosmo St.. Hollywood, Calif. 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

( Soe advertisement on page 97 ) 

Brandon Films (3) 

1600 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 131) 

Bray Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave.. New YcrV N. Y. 
British Information Services (3, 5) 

,iO Rockefeller Plaza, New York City 
i See advertisement on page ' 36 ) 

Castle Films 

RCA Bldg.. New York. !> ^ 

( See advertisi ment on page 

Central Education At 'iatic 

123 S. Washington 
Green Bay. Wis. 
College Film Center A 

84 E. Randolph Si .- i 
(See advertisement on r-., .^ J 

Community Movies 

1426 W. Washington i i. 
Charleston 2. W. \'-'.. 

Creative Educational So > 
4th PL. Coughlan Bid 
Mankato. Minn. 

(See advertisement on 

DeVry School Films 

1111 Armitage Ave 
( See advertisemen 

Eastman Kodak Stoi 

Eastman Classrooi 

356 Madison Av< 

Encyclopaedia Brita 

1841 Broadway. N 
(See advertisemen 

Films, Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St.. N .... 

64 E. Lake St.. Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth Ave.. Portland. Ore 
Fryan Film Service (3) 

2nd Floor, Film Building 

Cleveland, Ohio 
General Films, Ltd. (3 6) 

1924 Rose St.. Regina. Sask. 

156 King St. W. Toronto 
Walter O. Gutlohn. Inc. (3) 

25 W. 45th St.. New York. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 133) 

Hoffberg Productions, Inc. (2. 5) 

61S-20 Ninth Ave.. New York, N. Y. 
Ideal Pictures Corp. (3 6) 

28 E. Eighih St.. Chicago. 111. 

(S*^ advertisement on page 104 > 

Institutional Cinema Service (3) 

1560 Broadway. New York 19, N. Y. 
Knowledge Builders Classroom Films 

625 Madi'.on, New York, N. Y. (2. 5) 
MogulVs Inc. (3) 

68 W. 48th St.. New York 19 

(See advertisement on page 1361 

National Film Service (2) 

14 Glenwood Ave. Raleigh. N. C. 

.^09 E. Main St., Richmond. Va. 
Nu-Art Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

145 W. 45th St.. New York 19 
Pictorial F ms Inc. (2) 

RKO B1(.K.. New York City. 

(S«e advertisement on page 132) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3> 

723 Seventh .Ave.. New York. N. ^'. 

'Seo adverti'iement on page 134) 

The Princeton Film Center (2"> 

55 Mountain Ave.. Princeton. N. J. 
(See advertisement on page 134) 

Swank's Motion Pictures (3) 

620 N. Skinker Blvd.. St. Louis, Mo. 

(See advertisement on page 132) 

Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 

Trlv ■■* iscn '?n1 on pagf 141) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12tli at Lamar. .Austin. Tex. 
Vocational Guidance Films, Inc. (2) 

2718 Beaver Ave.. Des Moines. la. 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 

'>1>< Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3) 

.347 Madison Ave.. New York, N.Y. 

19 S. LaSalle St.. Chicago 

351 Turk St., San Francisco. Cal. 

1700 Patterson Ave.. Dallas. Tex. 


he Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave.. Chicago. HI. 

I (See advertisement on pa^e 101) 

tU & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 97) 

[ntral Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St.. 
/Green Bay, Wis. 

community Movies (3) 

/ 1426 W. Washington St. 
/ Charleston 2, W. Va. 
/ DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

/ 1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago. 111. 
/ (See advertisement on page 98) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave.. New York. N. Y. 
General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 King St.. W. Toronto 
Holmes Projector Co. (3. 6) 

1813 Orchard St.. Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 128) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 104) 

Mogull's Inc. (3) 

6S W. 48th St.. New York 19 
(See advertisement on page 136) 

Radio Corporation of America (2) 

Educational Dept., Camden, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 123) 

Ralk'> Company (2) 

829 S. Flower St.. Los .Angeles 14. Cal. 

S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corp. (3. 6) 

449 W. 42nd St.. New York. N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport Iowa 

I See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Lamar. Austin. Tex. 
Williams Brown and Earle, Inc. (3 6) 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co.. Inc. 

2723 N. Crawford Ave., 
Chicago 39, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 129) 

McguU's, Inc. 

6S W. 48th St.. New York 19 

( See advertisement on page 136) 

National Film Service 

14 Glenwood Ave.. Raleigh, N. C. 

309 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. 
Radiant Mfg. Company 

1144 W. Superior St.. 
Chicago 22. 111. 

'Sr'' fiH-- ■■ ise'^^ep* on pH^e 139) 

Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25. N. Y. 
Williams, Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. III. 
(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Jam Handy Organization 

2900 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit. Mich. 

(See advertisement on page 103) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway. New York 25, N. Y. 
Visual Sciences 

Suffcrn, New York 

( Se';' advertisement on page 136) 

Williams, Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 


Elsie Cross 

1.^1)5 Lonibard. San Francisco. Cal. 
(See advei tistment on page 136) 

C. Edward Graves 

V. O. Box 37, Areata, Calif. 
Klein & Goodman 

18 S. 10th St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. III. 

I See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25, N. Y. 


Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, 111. 

(.See advertisement on page 104) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 125) 

Radio-Ma» Slide Co.. Inc. 

222 Oakridge Blvd. 
Davtona Beach. Fla. 

(See advertisement on page 132) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N .Y. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on page 98) 

General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 
156 King St., W. Toronto 
Golde Manufacturing Co. 

1220 W. Madison St., Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 135) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 125) 

Society for Visual Education. Inc. 

100 E, Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Ralke Company 

829 S. Flower St.. Los .Angeles 14. Cal. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 102) 

Williams Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. PhilaHcFMiia. Pa. 


























35 mm 



Continuous inserfionf under one heading, $2.00 per issue; additional listings under other headinas, $1.00 each. 

April, 1944 

Page If) 

for Perfect Projection . . . 





use this remarkable JVew 

RADIANT Screen Finder 

Here's a practical new SLIDE RULE 
that every user of motion pictures, slide 
films, slides or opaque projectors urgently 
needs. Enables user to combine proper 
equipment and obtain maximum effective- 
ness from all types of projected visual aids. 
Shows at a glance: 

1. The proper screen size f<vr pacli distance be- 
tween screen and projector with a given lens. 

2. The proper screen model to select. 

3. The proper distance between screen and pro- 
jector to obtain any desired size of picture. 

4. The proper lens to use to obtain perfect 
results for each distance. 

Visual authorities who have seen this 
Radiant Screen Finder are enthusiastic 
about its ability. Easy to read — simple to 
operate. Answers all "movie" questions 
on one side — all "still" questions on the 
other side. Durable and compact — fits into 
the vest pocket. Available froin your visual 
equipment supplier. If he cannot supply 
you — send us his name and only 50c to 
cover actual cost, including handling and 
mailing — and a Screen Finder will be 
mailed to you direct. 

on Radiant Mefof 

Here's Rood news ! 
Schools may now 
agrain obtain RADI- 
ANT Metal Screens — 
without red tape. You 
can jrct immediate- 
delivery inder youi- 
M.R.O, ratintr. 

Forms No. 1319 are 
no longer necessary. 
Order today! 




Mail coupon for latest Radiant Screen Catalog. Gives full 
details, prices and specifications of screens for every pur- 
pose: tripod, ceiling, wall, wall and ceiling, and table 
models from 30" x 40" to 20' x 20'. 



ms V'%"' **'^- Corp. 
Gentlemen?"'""""- ^'"*'- Chicago 22. III. 
D I enclose 
D ptui^"^^ '50c' ea;) ''"" Screen 

Ar° ••' "^ """' «"'«'"" Catalo, 

'. ' State'!' 


Table and Box Type 

3-Way Tripod Type 

Wall Type 

Deluxe Tripod Type 

Wall and Ceilinj; Type 

Page 146 

The Edttcational Screen 



112 -Page 
Teacher's Manual 

if FILMSETS value and utility are increased 
many-fold by the 112'page Teachers Manual 
with its 67 i carefully selected illustrations from 
the films. Each 2-page spread in this manual 
is a lesson outline — a quick, convenient supple- 
ment to introduction and review of Textbook 
or lesson subjects. Manual does not dictate 
how lessons are to be taught as that is the task 
of the teacher. To FILMSETS purchasers is 
available an attractive metal self-humidifying 
film cabinet, each drawer built to house and 
preserve \2 films. 

• FILMSETS 22 economic subjects follow: 
Old Fashioned Farm . . A City Home . . Wheat 
and Brtrad . . Milk . . Fish . Meat Animals 
. . Fruit . . Truck and Poultry Farm . . Coffee 
and Sugar . . Tea — Rice — Coconuts . . Rubber 
. . Growing Fibers . . Textiles . . Leather . . 
Lumber . . Clay and Stone . . Peat and Coal 
. . Iron and Steel . . Petroleum . . Watersheds 
and Power . . Transportation and Cities . . 
Mass Production. 

* FILMSETS 26 regional subjects follow: 
Zones . . Canada . : Alaska and Eskimos . . 
Atlantic Coast . . Mississippi Basin . . Rocky 
Mountains . . Pacific Coast . . Mexico and 
Central America . . West Indies and Panama 
. . Andes and Pampas . . Amazon . . British 
Isles . . Lowlands of Europe . . Mountains of 
Europe . . Plains of Europe . . Russia . . Medi- 
terranean Basin . . North Africa . . Central 
Africa . . Desert . . South of the Himalayas 
. . North of the Himalayas . . China . . Japan 
. . Pacitic Islands . . Australia. 

if In building FILMSETS three requirements 
were made of every scene accepted; (1) accu- 
racy and authority, (2) photographic quality, 
(3) correlation with lesson theme. 





Watch for DeVRY'S new 1944 FILM 
BOOK! Write for data on latest addi- 
tions to this splendid collection of 
Classroom Teaching and Hollywood 
Entertainment films, and details con- 
cerning special quantity discounts. 

deVry corporation, nil Ar- 

mitage Avenue, Chicago 14, Illinois. 

Enjoy a rich experience in projected (visual) classroom teaching with FILM- 
SETS — 200-ft., 16mm silent films that help teachers enhance classroom interest, 
develop thinking analysis on the part of the students and promote constructive 
classroom discussion. FILMSETS are the only direct classroom teaching films 
available to intermediate elementary grades that thoroughly cover the entire 
course of study in one major field. FILMSETS give you the Teaching Aid 
of Tomorrow interestingly and accurately — currently revised — adequately to 
present one of today's most important lesson subjects. Write today for details 
about FILMSETS that took more than five years to produce at a cost of 
$100,000.00 — and that are available to you at the surprisingly low price of 
$12.00 per reel. Buy as many reels as you wish. 

on your school letterhead brings you two 
FILMSETS and lesson manual. Use these for 10 days. No obligation to buy. 

FILMSETS were planned, produced and captioned by educators who knew 
the teacher's problem and the student's need. They have the endorsement of 
outstanding men in the educational field. They are particularly applicable to 
today's global teaching problems — important both to introduction and review 
of lesson subjects. FILMSETS are immediately available. The time to use 
them is now. Write today for 10-day preview of films and teachers manual. 
Address FILMSETS, INC., 1956 North Seminary Avenue, Chicago 14, Illinois. 

FILMSETS is affiliated with DeVRY Corporation 

for 31 Years an Outstanding Name 

in the Field of Visual Education 


For Kxci'IUTirc in the I'ln- 
(luction (if .Mcitioii Pirtiin' 
Sound Kiiuipnient D t: Vll V 
Aione Files the Armv-N»vv 
"K" FlaK with Two Stiiis. 


DeVRY 16 mm Sound- 
on-Film Projector 




Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
)SEPHiNE Hoffman - - Office Manager 

Department Editors 

Shn E. Dugan - Haddon Heights, X. J. 

LRDY R. Finch - - Greenwich, Conn. 

[N Gale -.----. Chicago, III. 

LVD) Goodman - - New York, N. Y. 

iEPHiNE Hoffman - - - Chicago, 111. 

C Larson - - - Bloomington, Ind. 

Dean McClusky - Scarborough, X. Y. 

Etta Schneider Ress - Xew York, X. Y. 

IvviD Schneider - - - Xew York, X. Y. 
Editorial Advisory Board 
ard C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 
\RIAN Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

James S. Kinder, Director PCW Film 
Service, Pennsylvania College for 
Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

IAUL C. Reed, U. S. Office of Education, 
I Washington, D. C. 
[aj. W. Gayle Starnes, Chief, Training 
Division, Signal Corps Depot, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 
Elia Trounger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 
t. W. Whittinghill, Director of Trans- 
i pnrtation. Board of Education, Detroit, 
■ Mich. 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada _ $2.50 

Foreign „ $3.00 

Single Copies „ .25 




Cover Picture — Cultivating Crops in the Shenandoah Valley, Va. 
Courtesy of Farm Security Administration (Photo by Marion Post Woleott) 

Post War Implications for Education In the Audio-Visual 

Programs of Our Armed Services Paul Wend* 153 

The School-Made Film for Purposes of Supervision 

of Instruction Mendel Sherman 157 

Storage Problems in Audio- Visual Aids Gordon C. Godbey 160 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Knows 161 

The Film and international 

Understanding John E. Dugan, Editor 164 

Summer Courses In Visual and Audio-Visual Education 166 

Miscellany of the Month 167 

The New England Page John H. Lyons, Editor 168 

The Literature in Visual Instruction 

A Monthly Digest Etta Schneider Ress, Editor 170 

School-Made Motion Pictures Hardy R. Finch, Editor 174 

The First Fifty Years |77 

New Films of the Month L. C. Larson, Editor 178 

News and Notes Josephine Hoffman, Editor 182 

Current Film News 184 

Among the Producers 185 

Here They Arel A Trade Directory for the Visual Field ., 188 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontlac, Illinois; Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, ML 

Page 148 

The Educational Screen 

Make PHYSICS classes 
More Interesting— More Effective 

By using the 



Four Manuals in One 

*The Fundamentals of MACHINES 
*The Fundamentals of SOUND 
*The Fundamentals of LIGHT 
*The Fundamentals of ELECTRICITY 

To assist in the more effective illustration of 
problems and theory of Physics, Keystone View 
Company offers a visual presentation method 
employing carefully prepared slides and a com- 
pletely revised and enlarged manual — really four 
manuals in one. 

Through the use of this well-planned instruc- 
tion system, student attention is focused on the 
material presented in the slides; therefore a more 
complete understanding of the subject is acquired . 

Developed by war needs for faster, more effec- 
tive training of students in basic Physics, this 
improved method will prove invaluable for 
better teaching in peacetime. It should be in 
YOUR school. 

Write today for complete information. 



April, 1944 


Page 149 



The big guns SP®"'' 



Yanks move in 

.■^-* \, M 

Smash the enemy 

Here is one of the most amazing battle movies ever filmed . . . 
the living, lasting record of the storming of Kwajalein and 
Roi. You see peak moments in the complete course of the bat- 
tie. The greatest naval bombardment in history . . . the storm- 
ing ashore . . . the demolition of dugouts . . . the mopping up 
of snipers . . . the taking of prisoners . . . the raising of the 
American flag on soil the Japs had been fortifying for 20 years. 
History books of the future may try to describe these scenes. 
Here they are, for study now and in the future, just as they 
happened. Add this film of a great historic action to your school 
library. Show it now— and in years to come! 

-••-31 - 

And tdke possession'. 

jOf(/f(^ 16 MM. SOUND VERSION FOR $17.50 
/Of(/f^ 16 MM. SILENT VERSION FOR $8.75 
fil/Of^ 8 MM. FULL LENGTH FOR $5.50 




MfW YORK 20 



your Photo or Visual 
Aids Dealer for this 
Latest Castle Film 


Page 150 

The Educational Screen 

April, 1944 

Page 151 

Scene is one of the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Diiision c/assrooms /or tratmny. ( \ Army f^rouna crews. 

^isual Training dons olive drab 

How to take a fighting plane apart 
and put it together again— how to 
"keep 'em flying" — how to combat 
enemy tactics — how to win this war 
quickly — is the problem! 

Speed in imparting a clear under- 
standing to millions of fighting men — 
millions of civilian defense workers — 
is attained best by projection methods. 
Dramatically, they magnify and pro- 
ject charts, drawings, photographs and 
detailed close-ups. The student can re- 
tain the graphic picture better than the 

words of the instructor. Seeing becomes 
knowing how. Knowing how is the 




Page 152 

The Educational Screen 




16 MM. 


• In many branches of the armed services, the 
RCA 16mm. projector is proving liighly satisfactory 
both overseas and in tlie United States. 

• The remarkable new features that make it sucii 
an outstanding performer under the trying condi- 
tions and unusual strains of wartime service are 
the features that will make it the "ideal" projector 
for use in schools after Victory. 

• That's why we urge you, now, to be sure to see 
the new RCA projector before you choose any 
16mm. sound projector for post-war service in 
your school. 


blew features of /fi/s RCA J 6mm. projector mean 
better projection, easier operation, extra ruggedness 

FOR example, the new Constant-Ten- 
sion Take-Up (illustration at left 
shows its compactness and simplicity) 
is <me of the many reasons why you'll 
want the RCA projector when it be- 
comes available after Victory. 

This new take-up is so smooth in acti<m 
— so dependable — so trouble-free — that 
it stands far ahead of the field. Its smooth 
performance means: 

No jerks or tugs 
No pulled splices 

No broken belts 
No film damage 
No film piled up on the floor 

Other important advances in RCA pro- 
jector design include: a new remov- 
able gate which makes for easy cleaning; 
single-point lubrication; built-in ampli- 
fier; single-side operation; low mechani- 
cal noise; improved rotary-stabilizer for 
high-stability sound; efficient ventila- 
tion, which eliminates hot-spots at the 
top of the projector. 


April, 1944 

Post War Implications for Education in the 
Audio- Visual Programs 
of Our Armed Services 

A notable article, finely emphasizing the tremendous values ol 
war-time procedures for visual teaching in the post-war period. 

Director of Visual Education 
University of Minnesota 

Page 153 

DURING the past three years there lias heen an 
unprecedented growth in the production and use 
of audio-visual aids by the armed services. This 
development is great no matter by what dimensions it 
is measured ; whether we consider the thousands of 
training films produced, the millions of feet of raw 
film consumed, the thousands of men engaged in the 
production of visual aids of all types and the high 
qualitv of these visual aids, or the thousands of show- 
ings of training films every day by the training officers 
using visual aids. Just the quantitative expanse of this 
development is hard to grasp from the mere figures. 

Rut audio-visual aids have been u.sed intensively 
before although on a smaller scale. Is there anything 
really new in these programs of the armed services? 
.\s the result of a recent tour of Army and Navy cen- 
ters for the University of Minnesota. I am convinced 
that there is. In the planning and utilization of audio- 
visual aids, as well as in the invention of new devices 
the armed services have made a unique contribution 
to audio-visual education in this country. 


A typical 




lecture in 
mess hall. 

a'. S. Navy 

Planning the Production of Visual Aids 

In the production of visual aids the basic person 
involved is the technician who has experience in work- 
ing in the medium. In motion pictures for example, 
this is the motion picture producer ; in charts, the artist. 
It is axiomatic that someone with this type of experi- 
ence is necessary in all ]5ro<luctions. Next most im- 
IJortant is the subject matter specialist. Those of us 
who have had experience in jiroducing teaching films 
know the great contribution that can be made by the 
subject matter specialist. \\'henever a motion picture 
producer has had to outline the content of a teaching 
film by himself he has usually got into hot water. As a 
result all intelligent ])r()dnction of visual aids today is 

(Right) Training in tracer control 
of anti-aircraft gunnery with the 
new Mark I Trainer. 

Page 154 

The Educational Screen 


(Left) A Seamanship Laboratory. (Right) Dummy flag hoist 

clone with the help of a subject matter specialist. In 
production of visual aids in the armed services this is 
the unbroken rule. Production always orginates from 
some branch of the service where instructors in their 
teaching have felt the definite need of a visual aid. 
Sometimes, as in the Navy, the branch requesting the 
visual aid supplies the subject matter specialist. Some- 
times he is selected from another source. But visual 
aids in the armed services are never made without him. 

In some production a still more enlightened step has 
been taken. An educator is assigned to the project to 
guide the producer's presentation of the content along 
effective educational lines. This is a real innovation, 
especially in the making of educational films. The pre- 
vious rare occasions when educational principles have 
been used in making teaching films usually occurred 
when a teacher made a film himself. Then the obvious 
difficulty arose that while he knew more than com- 
mercial producers about teaching, the producer of 
school-made movies usually had to learn film production 
methods the hard way. By giving the producer-subject 
matter specialist-educator trio real recognition the 
armed services have made a valuable contribution to 
the effective planning of audio-visual aids. 

There are other interesting developments in the plan- 
ning of visvial aids. For years there has been a school 
of thought opposed to the use of humor in teaching aids. 
In answer to this criticism some of the visual aids 
produced by the armed services make use of humor in 
a subtle and most effective way. Walt Disney's or- 
ganization, after buckling down and learning how to 
make teaching films, has used its talent and experience 
to allow the natural humor in a teaching subject to 
appear in the teaching film. They have refuted the 
belief that sound pedagogical principles and motivating 
humor cannot be combined. However, this use of 
humor in both film and non-photographic visual aids 
has again aroused a controversy which is likely to re- 
main the inheritance of the post-war educator. 

The use of color, especially in the non-photographic 
training aids, has made a distinct contribution to the 
effectiveness of teaching. No one who has seen Army 
and Navy training charts has failed to be impressed 
with their use of color contrast as a teaching device. 

(U. .b. Navy Ofticml rhotos) 

and mechanical code sender used in Communication class. 

Color has also been used on models, mock-ups, and 
cutaways. The subtle and brilliant color designs used 
show that the armed services are employing here first 
rate artists with imagination and originality enough 
to design visual aids that will do the best teaching job 
in the shortest possible time. 

Utilization of Training Aids 

Every visual educator has known for years that the 
most effective use of a visual aid requires intelligent 
preparation of the class before the aid is used and that 
an immediate follow up after the showing is essential. 
Yet there was a wide gap between our theory and our 
practice. It remained for the armed services to put 
into practice on a nation-wide scale what we have always 
known to be the best methods of utilization. Besides 
the many officers who take care of the mechanics of 
ordering and providing audio-visual aids there have 
been hundreds of officers whose sole concern is the 
proper utilization of the training aids provided. Their 
duty is to put into practice those simple rules about the 
use of visual aids which comparatively few civilian 
teachers have observed. They have been assisted by 
specific visual aids made for the improvement of utili- 
zation, such as the Army film, Military Training, and 
the Navy film, Tips For Teachers. In these films mili- 
tary instructors are specifically directed to make the 
utmost use of training aids and how to use them in- 

A worthwhile contribution to better utilization is 
the integration of training films and training film strips 
on the same subject. Occasionally these have been 
used together before, but never to any degree approach- 
ing the present extent. The armed services and the Office 
of Education have produced whole sets of films and 
film strips to be used together. In some cases the train- 
ing film can be used at the beginning of a unit to present 
an overview of the subject. The frames of the film 
strip are then projected and discussed in detail. These 
frames usually cover the important step of the process 
or operation and the bulk of the teaching is accom- 
plished during this showing. Finally the training film 
is shown again to tie the separate steps into a unified 

April, 1944 

Page 155 







(M-ii-(> \v of iViinnesota photos) 

(Left) Teaching language with electrical voice reflectors. (Right) Taking a "shot" of an army instruction group. 

New Devices 

As in industry, the war has brought extra pressure 
to bear on the invention of new devices in the audio- 
visual field in order to shorten the war by accelerating 
learning. W'e may list under this category the final 
development of voice reflectors (for training language 
groups), three dimensional projected slides, and a great 
variety of ingenious mechanical training aids such as 
gunnery trainers. Mention should also be made of the 
extensive and elaborate models devLsed by Norman 
Bel Geddes. 

Implications for Post- War Education 
Too many administrators are trying to dismiss the 
achievements in audio-visual education by the armed 
forces with the answer. "Yes. but of course the Army 
and Navy have had the use of unlimited funds, and 
so their achievements do not apply to us poor edu- 
cators." I cannot agree with this point of view. I am 
sure the armed services have made distinct contributions 
to audio-visual education which will have a real and 
dynamic eflFect upon post-war education. 

In the first place we have had a demonstration that 
when generous funds are supplied for visual aids their 
use increases almost by geometric progression. Some- 
times in the past it has been impossible to prove that 
the use of visual aids would increase beyond direct 
proportion to the increase in the budget. Now we have 
had a demonstration on a grand scale that this is true. 
Only a war could have provided the funds for such a 
complete demonstration. Certainly we won't have to 
argue that side of the case any more with budget 

The -Army and Navy programs have trained hun- 
dreds of officers and civilians in the production of 
teaching films, projected photograpic aids, and non- 
photographic aids. The Service men so trained are not 
all likely to step out of this profession after the war. 
Certainly many commercial companies have definite 
plans now for the production of visual aids in peace- 
times. It would be very surprising, for example, if 
the educational organization that Disney has built up 
should be completely disbanded after the armistice. As 

a result of all these rival companies, competition will be 
keener, more teaching aids will be produced, and the 
quality will probably be better than before the war. 

After the war we will know much more about the 
educational planning of visual aids than we did before. 
In the early days of making training films when edu- 
cational supervisors were assigned to production, many 
were amazed to find that there had been few applica- 
tions of principles of teaching methods or of educational 
psychology to the making of teaching films. They 
proceeded to make these applications. For instance, 
film producers, of course, have long known that a film 
usually starts with "an establishing" shot. But now 
we have a reason for this practice from the educator 
and recognize that it follows the educational principle 
of first presenting a subject as a whole before breaking 
it down into its parts. 

A better example of the application of educational 
psychology to the field is the use together of film strips 
and motion pictures on the same subject, each making 
its unique contributiftn to the teaching. The of a 
film strip to teach detailed parts of a subject which has 
already been presented by a training film is nothing 
more or less than an example of the application to 
training aids of the principle of a differentiation in 
educational psychology. Thus the presentation of the 
whole is followed by differentiation of the parts of the 
problem. Then the following of this use of the film 
strip with a second showing of the training film illus- 
trates a clear case of integrating the parts into a unified 
whole again. From such widely-followed experiments 
we will have learned more about the planning of teach- 
ing aids after the war than ever before We will not 
have to cover this ground again. 

Nor should there be any question after the war but 
that there is a place in teaching aids for the skillful, 
imaginative, and the restrained use of hi'nior. In the 
past we have had commercial teaching film producers 
who had vast experience in the use of humor but did 
not understand teaching. On the other hand we have 
had producers of teaching films who knew education 
and who understood the importance of motivation in 
teaching films but whose lack of experience in the use 

Page 156 

The Educational Screen 

of liunior frightened tlieni away from it. In the war 
program these two groiq^s have been forced to work 
together even though they may have lieen at odds with 
each other. The progress they have made in discover- 
ing the proper subtle use of humor in teaching fihns 
will be an example to post-war ])roducers. Similarly the 
use of color has become almost an essential to charts, 
graphs, and posters. Black and white materials are 
going to seem more and more out of date. Color has 
a true ])lace as a motivating factor, and its ability to 
help in differentiation is unquestioned. 

The vast utilization program of the armed services 
will have many results. American colleges are now 
preparing to receive millions of soldiers returning to 
school. But these men have been traijied intensivelv 
with audio-visual aids. They know tiieir value in teach- 
ing. They are not likely to take kindly to the straight 
unmitigated lecture methods. Incidentally their mood 
is not going to be a submissive one; they are certain 
to be critical of poor teaching methods. Furthermore 
these same young men belong to a generation which 
before it went to war was taught in public schools to 
.some extent by these same visual aids. Tiie implica- 
tions of these facts to American colleges are important. 
After all. colleges are the last stronghold of verbalism. 
Granting that the lecture method will always have an 
important, unique place in instruction at the college 
level, American colleges and universities may be due 
for a rude shock if they do not learn now the lesson 
that the armed forces have taught us in the value of 
visual aids in accelerating and improving instruction. 

Other observers have already noticed that thousands 
of instructors in the armed services have been taught 
how to teach with visual aids. When these teachers 
return to civilian life they are liound to agitate em- 
phatically and constantly for larger budgets for visual 
aids in schools. They are likely to insist that visual 
aids are as much a part of instruction as text books 
which are now traditionally considered to be essential 
and entitled to a definite percentage of every school 
budget. The demands for fluids for visual aids after 
the war in schools are going to be insistent and certain 
to result in more liberal aiijiropriations. The Army and 
Navy have shown us how the use of visual aids can 
expand when money is provided for them. There will 
be a demand for administrators of audio-visual aids to 
handle the enlarged program. 

Even the new devices created by the war will change 
teaching methods. The Army has discovered the value 
of voice reflectors in teaching pronunciation of foreign 
languages. This was a natural concomitant of the Army 
emphasis on teaching a sjieaking and not a reading 
language. This is far removed from the traditional 
teaching of the grammar of a language first, a reading 
knowledge second, and finally, if ever, a speaking 

In the teaching of language the armed services have 
also made liberal use of disc recordings and foreign 
feature films. At the University of Minnesota we have 
continual showings of feature films in German, Swedish. 
Finnish, and Ja])anese. These films together with the 
use of vf)ice reflectors as practicing instruments has put 

the teaching of languages on a d\iianiic l)asis. The war 
has .seen the development of cellojihane tape recordings 
which can record speech acceptably for eight hours con- 
tinuously at a very low cost. During the war these 
are used to record communications between planes and 
ground stations. .After the war they may prove \ery 
valuable wherever the exact content of a long interview 
is important. Psychiatrists and school counselors may 
find the cellophane tape recording the answer to their 
problem of recording an hour long interview at little 

Three dimensional slides using standard lanterns have 
been ]5erfected during the war and have been seized by 
the .\\r Corps among others to teacli map reading and 
aerial reconnaissance. The fact that these slides can be 
used in any standard projector eliminates once and for 
all one of the great handicaps for three dimensional pro- 
jected pictures. No longer do we need to buy expensive 
dual projection equipment especially for this purpose 
.\]>parently no handicap will prevent the using of color 
in three dimensional slides to add still more to the re 
alistic elTect. Of course, special viewing glasses must 
still be used and it is likely that they will always need 
to be u.sed to reproduce the efl^ect of binocular vision. 
In other words three dimensional projection has reached 
a new high plateau of perfection. The next most ini- 
])ortant step is for teachers to realize that they must 
acce]it the students' use of viewing glasses as naturallv 
as the traditional pen and pencil. Once we do this 
the field of three dimensional projection will expand 
enormously. The perception of three dimensions is 
tremendously important to realism and accuracv in 
visual aids; — far more important than the trivial handi- 
caj) of viewing glasses. 

The audio- visual programs oi the armed services are 
therefore going to have a number of important eiTects 
on ])ost-war civilian education. They are going to re- 
turn thousands of teachers to public schools thoroughly 
trained in the use of visual aids. They have provided 
a demonstration of what visual aids can do when they 
are not hampered at every turn b)' lack of mone}-, anrl 
this, together with the attitude of returning service men. 
is bound to bring pressure to bear for increased appro- 
priations for visual aids. They should greatly hasten 
the day of the integrated use of moving and still pic- 
tures on the same subject-matter. After the war there 
will he many new conijwnies making visual aids, and 
competing for the school's business. These aids will be 
planned according to the new methods discovered by the 
armed forces, based on good teaching methods and sound 
educational p.sychology. Even new devices will revo- 
lutionize certain parts of our teaching methods. We can 
expect the use of visual aids to penetrate our institutions 
of higher learning more and more. To handle these 
increased programs we can expect administrators or 
coordinators of audio-visual programs to be accepted 
more naturally as part of our school administration. 
Following the war we can expect a great and intelli- 
gent ex])ansion of the use of audio-visual aids in educa- 
tion. The adolescent days of audio-visual education 
are over and we can expect them to play a vital and 
mature role in .American education in the future. 

\ April, 1944 

Page 157 

The School Made Film for Purposes 
of Supervision of Instruction 

Potentialities of the 

1 16mm motion picture 

camera for in-service 

training of teachers and 



i Cincinnati, Ohio, Schools* 

Making primitive forms of pottery by the coil method (from a film on Primitive Man.) 

A BASIC concern of tlie able school administrator 
is to develoj) ways of improving instruction 
within the school system. Various methods are 
pn use already. Teachers take work during the summer, 
rhey subscribe to and study educational journals. They 
attend professional meetings. Yet all of these methods 
do lack one essential factor, namely, they are removed 
from the actual teaching situation. A basic need is 
some method closely connected to the teaching pro- 
cesses. A technique that partially solves this problem 
is that of intervisitation. In Cincinnati, for example, 
teachers may have two days each year, with pay. 
for visiting other classrooms to observe a unit of work. 
This procedure is certainly one of the most valuable, 

land yet it has some important short-comings that can 

Pbe remedied bj- use of the 16mm camera. 

Teaching has changed in recent years from day to 

iday assignments to long range assignments, plannmg 

Land directed study procedures. Formerly a teacher 
could visit a class and in a relatively short time observe 
unit of work which, on the whole, was of brief dura- 
ion. Although there are still short units today, the 
trend is toward those which may last from six weeks 
to several months, even an entire half year. Intervisita- 

Ition, valuable as it is, does not lend itself ciuite as 

|])r<ifitably to this new type of planning which covers 

|a much larger area than the old. 

The area is often so large that intervisitation is 

I usually done at the conclusion of the imit when a resume 
of the entire work is given by the children. At this 

I time committees describe the previous activities they 


*Mr. Sherman i,s now with the Training Film Library, 
Camp BarUelcy. Texas. 

have experienced. Their description is augmented by 
playlets and an exhibit of their handiwork as part of 
the resume. Actually, however, only the finished prod- 
uct is seen and the description of past processes must 
be in the form of a verbal rather than a visual presenta- 
tion. The shortcomings of this procedure may be 
summarized as follows : 

1. Not all the teachers can visit the resume oj a unit 
of work at the appointed time. Other pressing mat- 
ters may interfere. Many teachers who desire to 
see and are in greatest need of seeing the resume, 
find it impossible to be present. Usually a small per- 
centage of teachers can attend . 

2. A resume shoivs a unit in its entirety only. While 
it is certainly desirable to see the "whole" the teacher 
often wishes to concentrate upon certain parts. This 
cannot be done however. She must take the whole 
scene enacted by the children. 

If visiting is done during the development of the 
unit one gets the opposite result. The part only is 
observed and not the whole. Very often t'lc ob- 
server might not appraise accurately the place of the 
part in the whole picture. Botii the whole and the 
parts should be seen in order to achieve interrela- 
tion of the two. 

3. Intervisitation presents a unit at a time xvhen 
teachers have finished their own on the same topic. 
This situation exists because all schools study the 
same unit at approximately the .same time. 

Thus a visiting teacher may become highly en- 
thusiastic about the resume of a unit but can do 
little about it until the following year. A more 
desirable time for the presentation of such a resume 
would lie immediately before, or a few weeks before 

Page 158 

The Educational Screen 

starting her own. Then the follow-up could be im- 
mediate instead of a year hence. 
4. An intervisitation presents the situation only once. 
The new teacher, especially, may desire several repe- 
titions. Even experienced teachers, when starting 
a new unit or observing one worked out by another 
teacher, may wish to have the situation or parts of 
it repeated. Intervisitation will not permit this. One 
cannot request the children to repeat the unit or parts 
of it. In this respect the situation is similar to 
listening to a radio broadcast in that there is no 
repetition, no turning back for a review. A learn- 
ing situation, even for the expert teacher, contains 
numerous aspects. To expect mastery of these as- 
pects in one presentation is contrary to what we 
believe about the nature of learning. Very little 
of our knowledge is the result of one presentation. 
An application of the principles mentioned up to this 
point is illustrated in the unit, "Play Through the Ages." 
This project, developed by a teacher in an elementarv 
school, was presented in resume at the conclusion of 
the unit to a group of teachers visiting the class on 
invitation by the director of upper elementary grades. 
This final presentation was followed by much discussion. 
The teachers present were treated to an interesting 
teaching procedure. Many teachers of the school system, 
however, could not attend at the scheduled time and 
to those the opportunity was lost. 

It is in such a situation that the 16mm camera can 
make its great contribution. It can record the unit for 
those teachers who were not present. Furthermore the 
film can be filed at the visual exchange of the school 
system and can be distributetl to the teachers upon re- 
quest. Thus every teacher, not just a few, can see the 
complete presentation of the unit. Many teachers re- 
turning to their schools, after seeing "Play Through the 
Ages," described it to their colleagues with the remark 
"you should have been there so you could have seen it 
yourself." A 16mm movie would enable the speaker to 
put such a statement in the present or future tense in- 
stead of the past. 

This unit contained many interesting processes during 
its development. That the teachers were keenly inter- 
ested in these activities was evidenced by the following 
discussion. The teacher in charge was called upon to 
describe the making of the stained-glass window, the 
costumes, the castle scene, the puppet show, the musical 
instruments, the obtaining and using of materials, and 
numerous other processes culminating in the finished 
product displayed before the teachers. 

Undoubtedly every teacher present would have liked 
to see these activities during their development even 
though the verbal descriptions were as complete as 
possible. By means of the 16mm camera every process 
described by the teacher in charge could be made visual. 
The film brings out, for example, the steps in making 
a stained glass window. These procedures would in- 
clude (a) the committee searching through reference 
books, (b) seeing several stained glass windows in the 
vicinity, (c) gathering the neces.sary materials, (d) out- 
lining the work, (e) drawing, painting and other salient 
steps in the rest of the preparation leading to thqjfinished 
product. » 

The movie would also include the approach to the 

Some primitive musical instruments. 

unit, as well as the various processes in all other activi- 
ties of the children. Besides the processes, there could 
be included a resume of the complete unit such as was 
presented to the teachers. Thus a teacher could isolate 
and concentrate upon certain parts and could also see 
the relation of the parts to the whole. "Play Through 
the Ages" could be .seen as a complete unit. At its con- 
clusion we could repeat the film and concentrate upon 
the pup]5et show. There is little danger that the im- 
portance or purposes of the puppet show, for example, 
will be underestimated or overemphasized if the teacher 
has available the film of the entire unit, including the 
part played by the puppet show. 

A teacher desiring a repetition of a unit will find a 
ready tool in such a movie. The teacher who re- 
marked that she would like to see the unit again 
would appreciate the willingness of the movie film 
to accommodate such a request. The forming of 
committees and their activities in making reports, 
using references, making models, building castles 
and making stained glass windows can all be seen 
as many times as desired. And when the memory 
of any part of the unit grows dim it can (juickly be 
recalled by a repetition of the film or any part thereof. 

Judging from the discussion and the interest dis- 
played at the resume, it was evident that there was 
much enthusiasm about the presentation. Many 
teachers looked back at their own units on the same 
topic and saw numerous ways in which they could 
have improved them. Some made written notes or 
tried to commit to memory ways for improvement 
next year when their class would again study "Play 
Through the Ages." By next year, however, much 
will be forgotten since the situation has been pre- 
sented only once. The enthusiasm will undergo 
considerable change. Perhaps some aspects of the 
unit will take on more importance in the minds of 
the teacher than these aspects warrant. Unquestion- 
ably, a greater benefit could be derived from the 
presentation of the unit if it could be seen just before 
the teacher started her own work on the same topic. 
Here again the movie would be a valuable asset. No 
memory or written note could compare with an 
actual re-presentation of the unit. In fifteen minutes 
the teacher could review the entire project. If she 
was present at the resume, all the situation would be 

April, 1944 

vividly recalled and with it all the processes that 
occurred. Undoubtedly the enthusiasm she dis- 
played ten or so months ago would also return. If 
she had not been present, she could still see what 
had been done ten months previously and could use 
this knowledge in planning her own work. 

Not only could the teacher view the film before 
starting her own unit but the flexibility of the me- 
dium would enable her to use it during the progress 
of the unit. Thus it could serve as preparation, 
guidance, correcting procedures or rechecking at the 
conclusion of the teacher's own work along the 
same plan presented in the film. 

An added value of the film is its use in meeting 
individual needs among teachers. The supervisor 
can group teachers who might discuss problems 
peculiar to a small group. Teachers new to the 
school system, teachers in communities with special 
needs, beginning teachers and teachers with no 
training in the unit to be taught, are possibilities 
for various groups. In some cases it might be de- 
sirable to show the film to a single teacher in order 
to meet her individual needs. 

Another feature of the film is its possibility for 
being kept up-to-date. The film can be revised. 
Obsolete material can be deleted and replaced by 
newer activities or better approaches. Although the 
film would not be permanent, its value could be 
prolonged by revision, a process easily carried out 
by refilming and splicing. 

Because of the apparent possibilities of the movie 
film in supervision of instruction the writer made a 
movie of a classrom unit with this purpose foremost 
in mind. It is true that such a film has its use for 
public relations and in value for the pupils as a 
result of the planning and writing of the scenario. 
But the primary purpose was to prepare a film for 
use by teachers and teachers-in-training for im- 
provement of instruction. The pretentious title of 
the film is "The Sixth Grade of Central Fairmount 
School Presents Its Unit on Primitive Man." Every- 
one in the class presented written suggestions 
to the scenario committee who combined the sug- 
gestions and presented them to the class. Much 
writing, rewriting and planning resulted in the 

Page 159 


Studying skin scraper, found in hills near Cincinnati. 

Drawings were made by pupils to illustrate reports. 

following captions which tell the story. Each cap- 
tion is followed by appropriate scenes. 

We Listened to the Story of the Cave Twins 

We Became Interested and Decided to Study about 

Primitive Man 
We Divided into Committees and Got to Work Making 

And Hunting through Books jor Materials for Our 

The Reports Were First Written in Pencil Then Read 

to a Committee Member to See if the Meaning 

Was Clear. 
The Final Write-up in Ink and a Picture to Illustrate 

the Report. 
Committees Reporting to the Class — Homes, Food, 

Are There Any Questions or Suggestions? 
How We Built Our Cave 
The Pottery Committee Reports 
How We Went to the Brickyard for Clay and Then 

Made Our Pottery 
The Painting Committee Reports 
Each Committee Tells about the Books They Used ' 
The Weaving Committee 
The Inventions Committee Presents Its Idea of How 

Primitive Man Might Have Discovered Fire : 

Many years ago before history was written there 
were two boys, OG and UMPA. They lived in a 
cave. One night there was a storm and lightning 
struck a log in front of their cave. In the morn- 
ing OG stuck his head out of the cave and looked 
with amazement at the burning log. He was so 
frightened that he quickly ducked back into the 
cave. OG got back his courage and again looked 
out. calling UMPA. 

OG and UMPA carefully walked around the log 
until OG touched it and burned his fingers. Both 
boys ran back into the cave. When they came out 
the fire had gone down and both boys were angry. 
They began to beat the log and rub it with sticks. 
They noticed that the rubbing made the log warmer 
so they continued until the dry log was again 
burning. They could feel tiie heat. OG suggested 
that UMPA get some meat on a stick and see 

(Concluded on page 165) 

Page 160 

The Educational Screen 

Storage Problems in 
Audio-Visual Aids 


Lexington Signal Depot 
Lexington, Kentucky 

IN THE gigantic work of training tliousands of 
men for the all important job of winning this war. 
many situations have come up that were not covered 
by Army Regulations ; that is, often the job called for 
something that had not been used or even thought of 
before. When such a situation arises, there is only 
one thing to df) — overcome it. Results, not excuses, 
count in the world conflict. 

Frequently small things affect the outcome of larger 
ones, not only in military life, but in the whole course 
of human afifairs. "For want of a nail the shoe was 

lost, for want of a shoe the horse was lost " 

In such a situation, some blacksmith who made nails 
that did not lose out of horseshoes might have changed 

In getting the job done at the Lexington Signal 
Depot, the Training Division's Training Services 
Branch faced two small problems that have doubtless 
faced instructors in other institutions. Col. Laurence 
Watts. Commanding Officer of the Depot, and Major 
W. Gayle Starnes, Chief of Training, have given every 
encouragement to instructors and training officers to 
use audio-visual aids to the utmost. Providing those 
aids is tiie task of the Audio-Visual Aids Section 
within the Training Services Branch ; accompanying 
that responsibility are the usual problems of mainte- 
nance, storage, etc. 

The seemingly simple problem of storage caused one 
of the first problems. As ever increasing numbers of 
film strips accumulated at the film library, space had to 

A device, 
designed by 
the author, 
for holding 
40 X 60-inch 
charts used 
in Signal 

Home-made rack for the storage of film strips. 

be ])rovided for them — space in which they could be 
easily picked out from the numbers on top of the cans. 
At first, racks in drawers were used, but the round 
cans did not fit well in the partitioned space, and be- 
came misplaced easily. The next storage space con- 
sisted of horizontal racks one-half inch wider than the 
cans. This was not satisfactory since cans rolled out 
unless the rack was full ; in addition the lower racks 
were not visible unless one stooped to look into them. 

After a futile search through catalogs of commercial 
supply houses, it was decided to design racks to suit the 
need of the Section. Mr. J. B. Conley. draftsman-de- 
signer of the Audio- Visual Aids Section, worked with 
the author until the holder shown was evolved. There 
are several advantages to this type rack ; each film is 
visible, any film can be easily located since the filing 
system is flexible (numerical only) ; the rack is light 
enough to be easily moved from ])lace to place. This 
particular rack is thirty-six by thirty inches on the face 
with a fourteen by thirty-six inch base, holding 204 
lilms. The size could be altered to accommodate any 
luiniber of films. 

Again, in the Depot schools where the operation, in- 
stallation, and maintenance of Signal Corps equipment 
is taught, need was found for enlarged schematic dia- 
grams. This language of .symbols used by radio men is 
difficult to verbalize — difficult if not impossible. When 
a diagram must be memorized the student and instruc- 
tor at once fall back on the fundamental language — 

Blow-ups of schematic diagrams were made on card- 
board flats forty by sixty inches. These were just the 
lecture aids needed before classes of from fifteen to 
forty men. After some weeks, howe^'cr, the charts 
became dirty, bent, and generally abused. This was a 
result of the fact that ten to twenty charts forty inches 
by sixty inches take up a good deal of space when laid 

(^Concluded on page 172) 

April, 1944 

Page 161 



Part 56 — Schools, churches and industries 
were chief bones of contention in the first 
sldrniishes of the talkie revolution. However, 
spoils did not necessarily go to the victor. 

HERBERT Clarke Hoover, who then 
sat in the White House, was by 
nature and experience in favor of 
any development which would ultimately 
help to raise the level of popular educa- 
tion. He was satisfied of the sincerity and 
iipetence in this respect of Harley 
larke. So, June 15, 1931, President 
!oover authorized the issuance of a letter 
Walter H. Newton, his personal secre- 
ry. to the Governor of each State, in- 
ing cooperation in furthering the Clarke 
n. The letter was skillfully prepared, 
issibly by Clarke himself. 
According to the context it was "at the 
ercession of the representative public 
Inx)l authorities" that "Mr. Clarke of 
he Fox Film Company has agreed to 
prepare" a number of educational films 
-for the purpose. But the "representa- 
e public school authorities" who might 
(jcct to the implication, could read also 
incerning the plan that, "It is not pro- 
sed that it shall lead to exclusive pri- 
cges for any particular film company 
her in the tests or in the subsequent 
^reparation of films, if it should be found 
that a definite educational value can be 
introduced into the schools through the 
use of such films." 

The plan itself was simply to hold, at 
Washington, D. C-, from July 6 to 10. 
1931, less than a month from the date of 
the letter to the Governors, a test of the 
effectiveness of educational films upon a 
class of representative grammar school 
boys and girls. The youngsters were to 
lie one boy and one girl from each State, 
to be selected by the given State superin- 
tendent of schools, the pair to be accom- 
panied to and from the Capital by an 
iucational official and all expenses paid. 
While arrangements to respond to this 
er were being made, the Fox Film 
representatives in Washington requested 
and obtained the cooperation of the U. S. 
Bureau of Education in organizing a 
group from the National Education As- 
sociation, George Washington University 
and the Washington city schools to fofm- 
ulate the detailed plan and conduct the 
proposed experiment. Members of the 
committee thus chosen were : Bess Goody- 
koontz, assistant commissioner of educa- 
tion, U. S. Department of the Interior ; 
Jessie La Salle, assistant superintendent 
of schools, Washington, D. C. ; Elsie S. 
King, of the research division of the 
N.E.A. ; Mina M. Langvick, senior special- 
ist in elementary school curriculum, office 
of education, U. S- Department of the 
Interior, and Dr. J. Orin Powers, asso- 
ciate professor of education at George 
Iashington University. 
All of the States save the State of 


guardians. The films selected for the 
test, out of a number made available for 
consideration, was five, although a few 
other subjects, patriotic in nature, were 
siiovvn during the event. The five princi- 
pal talking pictures were : "Toads" and 
"Monarch Butterflies," with accompany- 
ing lectures by Dr. Clyde Fisher of the 
.\merican Museum of Natural History ; 
"\'olcanoes," "Glaciers" and "River Val- 
leys," with recorded talks and demon- 
strations, including the celebrated "chalk 
talks" by Dr. Wallace .\twood of Clark 
University. The general conclusions were 
that sound pictures are twice as effective 
as silent ones, and that, after seeing the 
pictures, the boys and girls knew twice 

President Herbert Hoover felt that 
Harley Clarke's plan to test Fox 
educational talkies merited author- 
ity and support of his high office. 

as much about the given subjects as they 
did before. The full report of the com- 
mittee was published and distributed 
gratis to educators generally, as legiti- 
mate, further, wholesoine publicity for the 
Fo.x non-theatrical program. 

The "Movietone School Series," replac- 
ing the "Fox Hour" designation, now 
began in earnest, with the hand of Harley 
Clarke much in evidence. The depart- 
ment was conducted from the address of 
the Fox Studios, at Tenth Avenue and 
54th Street, New York City. Old friends 
became active. Wallace At wood made a 
tvvo-reeler for teacher-training institu- 
tions, entitled, "The Educational Value 
of Modern Films," in which he discussed 
varying techniques and summarized the 
series. For the series seventeen reels of 
his physical geography pictures were 
scored with lectures- He also began a 

set on "Occupational Geography, or How 
People Live." Dr. Forest Ray Moulton 
reappeared, this time with pictures and 
lectures on "The Story of the Stars" and 
"The Moon and Its Phases." 

Influential newcomers to the Clarke 
fold were Dr. Clyde Fisher, who had been 
re-scoring British natural science reels 
for Erpi, and who now^ did some of riiucli 
the same sort for Fox Films, and Dr. 
Henry Johnson, profes.sor of history at 
Columbia University, whose patriotic 
films were the ones shown incidentally to 
the youngsters during the Washington 
experiment. To make the "Movietone 
School Series" catalogue really impres- 
sive, there were available also prints of 
the new theatrical magazine reel, "The 
Magic Carpet of Movietone," and the old 
non-theatrical Fox releases. 

General selection of subjects to be pro- 
duced by the Clarke department was a 
duty assigned to Dr. Ellis U. Graff, former 
Indianapolis superintendent of schools, 
president of the department of superin- 
tendence of the N.E.A. from 1919-1920, 
and president of the National Textbook 
Company. An innovation of importance, 
showing that Clarke was not heedless of 
current trends, was the establishment of 
a Woman's Bureau of the educational de- 
partment, with Mrs. Grace Allen Bangs, 
in conunand. The regional addresses, for 
obtaining additional information about the 
work, were those of the oflSces of Clarke's 
General Theatres l-'quipment Corporation. 
There inquiring educators could have, too, 
demonstrations of the new .'\cme sound- 
on-film projector. 

But further consequences of the talkie 
revolution, which had so coincidentally 
tossed this opportunity into the lap of 
Harley Clarke, gave him too little to im- 
prove it. The General Theatres Equip- 
ment Corporation was used as collateral 
in bank borrowings, and presently Clarke 
was superseded as president of Fox Films 
by a banker, and G.T.E. went into re- 
ceivership. His vast utility company 
holdings l)ecame unmanageable also, in 
circumstances involving the collapse of 
the financial empire of Samuel Insull, of 
Chicago, with whom he had been asso- 
ciated. It was said that Clarke was defi- 
nitely and completely ruined, that he had 
lost in all of this experience approxi- 
mately a hundred million dollars. No- 
body knows. But while Harley Clarke 
is Harley Clarke there is no telling 
whether he is finally stopped or not. 
See what a fire-bird he made from the 
ashes of an earlier film disaster. 

It seemed like an effort of Clarke to 
provide, in the midst of his overwhelming 
difliculties, for the security of a pet enter- 

Page 162 

"^he Edvcutional Screen 

prise, that, when the Movietone educa- 
tional project went under, there began a 
plan to salvage it. What was called the 
International Film Foundation was form- 
ed in New York City as "an independent 
non-profit organization for producing ar.U 
distributing educational films." It was 
asserted that it had no affiliation whatso- 
ever with any motion picture producer, 
save that it was an outgrowth, "in some 
measure," of the Fox educational film 
department. Its first operations were to 
be financed by expected returns from a 
picture showing the aftermath of the 
Great War, assembled from Fox news- 
reel material. The picture was to be en- 
titled, "The Cry of the World." Dr. 
Atwood was the elected president of the 
new Foundation. Clyde Fisher was repre- 
sented in it. Mrs. Bangs was its execu- 
tive head. But, then, like Little Eva, the 
venture just faded away. Mrs. Bangs 
became later the director of the Women's 
Club Bureau of the Neiv York Herald- 

The New Machine 

However cooperative the producing 
companies which leased the Western 
Electric recording equipment might be, 
it was not politic to permit them to 
have too much of the educational pro- 
duction responsibility. So Howard 
Stokes concluded to find a producer to 
serve on Erpi's own staff. The oppor- 
tunity was offered to me, and, as the 
ruinous competition of talking pictures 
was now beginning to tell on Eastern 
Film Corporation, where I was then 
employed, as it was on the other makers 
of silents, I accepted as quickly as I 
could arrange to do so. That Vk-as about 
March, 1930. 

The flourishing Electrical Research 
Products, Inc., of this period was an 
enterprise the magnitude of which in- 
spired awe. There were about seven 
hundred Erpi employees in the Fisk 
P.uilding alone, and many departments, 
each bustling with actual and potential 
business and with its own ideas of now 
developments. Tlie lines dividing these 
departments, however, were becoming 
more sharply defined. First of all. the 
entire enterprise was becoming function- 
ally distinct from Western Electric, the 
parent company. The engineering divi- 
sion was losing its force in production 
and narrowing more to aspects of serv- 
icing studio and theatre installations al- 
ready made under lease; the sales con- 
tingent, having supplied most of the lead- 
ing studios and theatres, also under lease, 
was concentrating on those places which 
had taken over competitive equipment, 
to persuade them to replace with West- 
ern ; an experimental testing section was 
growing rapidly, with strong ties to the 
Bell Laboratories; the so-called edu- 
cational division, under Devereux. was 
steadily qualifying to speak, within the 
Bell System, for the entire non-theatri- 
cal field. And, so far as the educational 
division was separately concerned, that 
was steadily subdividing into educational 
research, production and sales. 

Educational research was at first most 
restricted. The other subdivisions had 
thet- ' ' -tions scattered over the entire 
noi ical field, embracing churches 

as IS schools, factories, hospitals 

and the rest. The non-theatrical sales- 
men in the several branch offices were 
probably most conscious of this generali- 
zation, but they were regarded mainly 
as "contact men," the specialist salesmen 
operating from the home office. In Wash- 
ington, the national capital, was Hanson 
E. Ely, Jr., son of the celebrated war 
hero. General Ely, then commander of 
the Second Corps Area of New York. 
"Hanse" was supremely useful for his 
diplomatic contacts among Government 
officials. In Los Angeles was Pat Camp- 
bell, whom I had known in the long 
ago when he was Paul Campbell, a cub 
press agent at the old Thomas H. Ince 
Studios in Culver City, but now an 
adult, aggressive "go-getter," wise in 
the ways of celluloid. At Pittsburgh 
was Arthur J. Wilson, son of one of 
the smaller coal operators, but with 
powerful and intimate friends variously 
in United States Steel Corporation, 
among members of the railroad dynasty, 
and at the H. J. Heinz food-packing 
plant. In Detroit was the hustling, con- 
scientious W. G. Nichols — known to us 
as "Nick" — accurately informed on the 
automobile industry in all of its phases, 
and especially valuable for his intimacy 
with the prosperous non-theatrical pro- 
ducers of the area. Handy, Wilding and 
Caplan. In and around Philadelphia 
and Trenton moved a friend of Nichols, 
Robert Spears. 

Members of the New York sales group 
were assigned to what seemed to be 
the obvious markets. Like their brethren 
in the field they were concerned pri- 
marily with talking picture projection 
equipment ; picture production was then 
a possibility only dimly, wishfully seen. 
Edgar M. Stover, as an educator, was 
assigned to schools, although not too in- 
tensively because it was believed that 
schools would pretty much care for 
themselves in proper time. Churches 
were shared by Robert M. Donnelly, 
a trained advertising man, concentrating 
on Catholics, and Wendell Shields, son 
of the Rev. James K. Shields, who had 
sold his services to Erpi very early as. 
an expert on motion pictures among Pro- 
testants. Paul J. Strickler had hotels, 
Henry F. Gremmel had department stores. 
And upon Frank H. Arlinghaus devolved 
attention to the medical groups, embrac- 
ing chiefly hospitals and professional 
schools. John A. Thayer, son of a for- 
mer president of the \. T. & T., was 
somewhat of a free lance. Head of the 
sales division, over all of these men, 
at headquarters and in the field, was 
the brilliant Edward .'\. Eschmann, for- 
mer sales chief of First National Pic- 
tures. Assisting in coordination of the 
work of the representatives, with nu- 
merous charts and other collected statis- 
tics, was Jack Hanford. The office man- 
ager was Ray Zimmer, one of the most 
even-tempered men I have ever known. 

were, of course, various other 
lesser representatives. 

It was supposed that picture produc- 
tion, apart from the making of school 
subjects which were going to require 
ari unprecedented attention, would be 
cared for by non-theatrical licensees. 
Licensees, however, were not signing up 
as readily as had been expected. Non- 
theatrical producers generally were in- 
terested in talking picture equipment, 
of course, and many came to inquire 
about terms, usually to bow themselves 
out again promptly when they heard the 
originally stiff .stipulations. Beside, 
the Erpi management was very particu- 
lar. It did not wish to do business 
with firms which could not or would 
not produce evidence of their capacity 
to develop the field and pay royalties. 
The rub was that, in Erpi's opinion, 
only two or three could so qualify. 

The Sponsored Talkie Boom 

Erpi was in no hurry to modify this 
opinion because of a new development 
which looked like a solution. The de- 
mand in the theatres for sound films 
was so overwhelming that even adver- 
tising subjects which talked were wel- 
comed there. National advertisers quick- 
ly saw their opportunity to reach much 
greater audiences, and had talkie in- 
dustrials produced for them by the major 
theatrical companies. One automobile ac- 
count sponsored an advertising subject 
called "Studebaker Champions," in 
which appeared the Roxy orchestra, 
Florenz Ziegfeld and flash numbers from 
his "Follies." The theatrical companies, 
in turn, saw unexpected opportunities for 
larger revenues, and again considered the 
possibilities of conducting departments of 
industrial production. 

Warner Brothers reaped a harvest by 
circulating advertising talkies through 
its newly acquired Stanley Chain. Para- 
mount made a few such subjects experi- 
mentally and opened a tentative depart- 
ment in connection with the Paramount 
News division, where Emanuel Cohen 
presided. Paramount was a theatrical 
licensee of Western Electric, and, of 
course, this newer development without 
a non-theatrical license was somewhat 
irregular. But Paramount contended that 
it wanted first to prove the possibilities, 
and this seeming reasonable to Erpi m 
view of the large sums mounting from 
the theatrical talkies multiplying from 
this source. Paramount made its in- 
■ dustrials on a pending arrangement 
which, as it hapiicned, never materialized 
in license form. Erpi had ambitious ideas 
about licenses in those days. There were 
to have been separate producing licenses 
for making school films, for churches, 
for industry, for department stores and 
so on. 

Francis Lawton, trained in high pres- 
sure advertising and sales, and a for- 
mer vice-president of the Jam Handy 
organization, felt that here was the liig 
opportunity for industrial films, and be- 
came sales manager for the Paramount 
experiment. His chief immediate quali- 
fication was that he had negotiated 

April, 1944 

Page 163 

through Fox-Case a four-reel 
picture on safety for the American liUo 
Association. Unfortunately that pic- 
ture had been poorly received in its 
debut before a trade convention. All the 
same, it was a talking picture, the mixed 
result was not Lawton's fault and he 
had obtained the contract. As that con- 
tract represented an impressive sum of 
money actually paid, it surely was some- 
what of an achievement. Lawton. with 
usual energy and determination, armed 
with his exhaustive statistics and this 
backing of a really celebrated Holly- 
wood name, went to work lustily on the 
new opportunity. But, despite the gather- 
ing momentum of the situation, his pros- 
pects were slow to move. It was de- 
cided, then, that Paramount must have 
an industrial subject at any price to open 
the field for itself. It was deemed so 
necessary that Lawton was eventually 
ordered to find a beginner, even if Para- 
mount only "broke even" on the costs. 

It happened, at this time, that Alison 
J. Van Brunt, director of safety educa- 
tion at the Public Service Corporation 
of New Jersey, was about ready to 
make his annual or biennial picture. 
As an old hand at supervising film pro- 
duction in his field, he could see no 
reason why this time he should not 
have something better than anything 
he had previously attempted, and, of 
course, it certainly should be a talkie, 
especially after the "unsatisfactory" 
safety picture made for the A.G.A. To 
discuss the situation he had tried to 
phone me at Eastern Film Corporation, 
and, discovering that Eastern Film Cor- 
poratiop- had ceased, he finally reached 
me one evening at home. Learning of 
my new connection at Erpi, nothing 
would do but that I should write and 
direct the new subject for him. I tried 
to explain that all I could do then for 
him through Erpi was in the educa- 
tional division, and that for production 
he would have to negotiate with one of 
cur industrial licensees ; but dogged old 
Van Brunt would not be put off with 
such excuses as that. 

When the Erpi officials heard about 
the situation, they suggested that, as 
[ the insistence was on the part of the 
[client, and he was asking for me per- 
J sonally, merely as writer and director 
land not as Erpi representative, I might 
Bet the matter develop, and, no doubt, 
Iways and means, naturally appearing 
|thereafter, would satisfy all persons con- 
cerned. There were no precedents, of 
course, and apparently the responsibility 
had become mine. So I proceeded with 
|t:aution. Van Brunt was willing to co- 
operate so long as it was understood 
hat I would direct. The scenario was 
fwritten and several production concerns 
fwhich had solicited the business were 
■notified of their respective opportunities 
[to bid. Among the representatives who 
(appeared in answer at Van Brunt's of- 
[fice in Newark, was Francis Lawton, Jr. 

Hearing the stipulation that I was to 
[.direct, Lawton concluded that Erpi was 

trying to compete for the business against 
its own licensees. He called me indig- 
nantly, after the meeting, and f • "v said, 
"I'm going to have Mr. .'\dc ikor 

telephone Mr. John E. Otters iro- 

test that Erpi is using you, one of its 
own employees, to discriminate against 
Paramount." Not blaming Lawton for 
his stand, but unable at the moment to 
discuss the policy situation with him, I 
laughingly urged him by all means to 
proceed along his proposed line, because, 
I told him, if the president of Para- 
mount would take the trouble to com- 
municate with the president of Erpi con- 
cerning me, it would definitely prove 
that at last I had become important in 
the industry. 

What transpired, to Lawton's great 
relief, was that the account was awarded 
to Paramount as the lowest bidder — I 
already have mentioned the reasons for 

Urged of Erpi's ability to spread 
the work of his Yale psycho-clinic. 
Dr. Gesell once more consented to 
demonstrate for a commercial film. 

the Paramount desire to have the bi'si- 
ness on even a low-cost basis. With Par- 
amount as producer, therefore, and Law- 
ton as sales go-between, I wrote and 
directed the reel in question at an amaz- 
ingly modest and probably unprecedented 
sales price at that time, of $4,000. 

It is difficult to believe, looking back- 
ward, that the established .film men could 
have so deluded themselves as to the 
supposed permanence of this public ac- 
ceptance of screen advertising. Rut 
nearly all the major distributors took 
a hand at it. One of the most notable 
cases was that of "Kinograms." Cap- 
tain Baynes and Thomas Evans, a labor- 
atory man closely associated with him, 
decided to turn their once well known 
ncwsrecl into a vehicle for advertising. 
In January, 1934, they reincorporated 
under the laws of Delaware with a stated 
capitalization of $100,000. They offered 
"space," or "screen time," to national 
advertisers on a basis of $20,000 for a 

guaranteed audience attention of quarter 
of a million persons, and, this not being 
taken promptly enough, $3,000 "just to 
get them in." They induced four large 
advertising agencies to cooperate, among 
them McCann-Erickson and J. Walter 
Thompson. They even signed Henry 
Ford, the contract to begin as soon as 
his radically changed new car model, the 
celebrated "Model A," appeared. 

Then, all at once, the bottom dropped 
out of the "sponsored films" market. 
Kinograms burst like a bubble, and about 
one month later appeared the Ford car 
which might have saved it. The makers 
of the disinfectant "Lysol" had succeeded 
beyond expectations with a Max Flei- 
scher animated cartoon showing a comic 
warfare between mankind and germs ; 
the manufacturers of "Chesterfield Ciga- 
rettes" had delighted many audiences 
with several items in a Paramount 
series of revived newsreel shots of 
long past events called "Movie Memo- 
ries." — so successful, indeed, that, when 
the advertiser was obliged to drop out. 
Paramount continued it without the 
sponsor's name as a novelty short. 

But audiences here and there, becom- 
ing quickly used to talking pictures and 
therefore critical of the product, had de- 
cided that they were being imposed upon 
with advertising matter when they paid 
for their tickets, and one day they had 
hissed. Eugene Castle wrote indignant 
letters to the press demanding that 
theatres be made to specify ad films as 
such, and even threatened court action 
to compel it. .'\n acknowledged hisser 
was George F. Delacortc, Jr., publisher 
of the magazine Ballyhoo. He attended 
an uptown New York theatre, it was 
reported in January, 1932, and saw there 
a film advertising a railroad. He pro- 
tested this so loudly that the exasperated 
manager had him arrested. When he 
waj reprimanded by the police lieutenant 
who told him that he might have started 
a riot, he replied, "That's just what I 
wanted to do." 

And finally the exhibitors' associations, 
seeing the danger of their position, ruled 
definitely against sponsored films of any 
sort. Thus, for that period, at least, 
there could be no more money to be 
made there. Warner Brothers, probably 
the most active in the field through the 
former Stanley Chain, abruptly closed 
its department which had been running 
in high prosperity under Ben K. Blake. 
Paramount did the same, and then na- 
turally informed Erpi that it had de- 
cided not to take out an industrial license. 

By that time, however, Erpi had set 
a precedent for its own production of 
industrial talking pictures when I made 
the subject for Van Brunt, and there- 
after the salesman went more strongly 
after production accounts, the procedure 
being, when one came in, to execute 
it through the facilities of some licensee, 
under Erpi supervision. 

(To be Continued) 

Page 164 

The Educational Screen 

The Film and International Understanding 

The Film Distributor and 
International Understanding 

DR. JOHN E. D U G A N, Editor 
Haddon Heights, New Jersey, Schools 

THE phenonienally rapid expansion of the use of 
the tihii in the field of international understanding 
has caused actual practice to follow hard upon the 
heels of theory and discussion. This rapidity of prac- 
tical results has to a great extent been made possible 
by the functioning of a key factor in any extensive 
film program — the distributor. The distributor may 
be an individual, a firm, or an organization ; but his 
central position of service and importance remains the 
same. He is the coordinator who makes practical re- 
sults possible. 

Educators may enunciate the desirability of certain 
types of films ; producers may even produce them ; 
but little of a comprehensive nature in the use of such 
films can be accomplished until the distributor steps 
into the picture. He 
is the coordinator 
■who brings supply 
.and demand to- 
gether. Sometimes 
he may create one 
to satisfy the other. 
Thus he becomes a 
creative factor in 
visual education, 
rather than just a 
"filler of orders" for 
"listed films". 

Sensing the desir- 
ability for certain 
types of films, the 
distributor may can- 
vass the field for 
available material or 
may induce a pro- 
ducer to make films 
of that particular 
type. On the other 
hand, realizing that 

certain available material could be appreciated and used 
more extensively for current needs, he may organize 
and present information regarding it in such a way that 
its use is stimulated to the advantage of all concerned. 
All of these phases have been evident in the contribu- 
tion of the distributor to the expansion of the use of 
the film in promoting international understanding. 

Educators, governmental agencies, and others became 
interested in the use of such films. Special films for 
international understanding were produced. Notable 
among these were the films of the Co-ordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs. There was discussion and ex- 
perimentation. The possibility of using films or parts 
of films which already were available was discussed. 
Expansion took place in all directiirs. But ? central 

A scene from "Rigoletto" 

problem in the promotion of all this development was 
that of getting actual films to actual users, and here the 
distributor had a ke\- part to play. 

An important fundamental preliminary to getting 
films to users was the organization and presentation of 
information regarding films which were available. The 
distributor could not content himself with merely Hst- 
ing what was available. He had to make his advertise- 
ments attractive and appealing so that readers would 
want to use what they saw listed. 

\'arious agencies of our own and other governments 
were notably active and successful in opening up the 
field ; but even they depended upon the distributors for 
the real footwork. Because of this situation, distribu- 
tors at first tended to list films in the field of interna- 
tional understanding 
according to the 
agencies which spon- 
sored them. A step 
away from this was 
the offering of unit 
programs which 
might include films 
from several sources. 
Then there were 
various types of 
"film festivals" 
w h i c h presented 
films in this field 
from a variety of 
sources. The latest 
development, and 
apparently the most 
desirable, is the or- 
ganization of a body 
of film resources 
about a particular 

topic, region, or na- 
as performed in "Leningrad Music Hall.' ^.^^^ ^^^.^ tendency 

is evident in the new catalogues which are being 
issued. Various producers and distributors are con- 
tributing to this new development in a number of 

The most comprehensive presentation of this sort 
which has come to the attention of this department 
is the recent Brandon Films catalogue of "Films of 
the U.S.S.R." Its form and organization is such 
that it deserves special attention and consideration. 
The material is presented in a six-page folder. H'/^ 
by 11 inches in size, which is most convenient for fil- 
ing and easy reference. It presents 100 films about 
Russia "for better understanding — for lasting friend- 
ship". Short films and feature length films are 

April, 1944 

Page 165 

From "Chapayev", film on the early days of the Soviet 
regime, when it had to fight off intervention. 

included. The material ranges all the way from Eisen- 
stein's Alexander Nevsky to Leningrad Music Hall. 
Some were jirodiiced he fore the war ; some are most 
recent. The 100 films are classified under four main 
divisions: "Our Russian Allies", "The U.S.S.R. 
at War". "Modern U.S.S.R.", "The History of the 
Russian People and the Growth of the U.S.S.R." 

The division on "The History of the Russian People 
and the Growth of the U.S.S.R." is composed of 
thirty feature length films. These films originally were 
not made as classroom instructional films, but as enter- 
tainment pictures of important historic story material. 
These features may serve as auxiliary teaching aids 
to the study of the language, area, history, background, 
etc. The films are arranged in the historical order of 
the subject matter, and are listed under six sub-head- 
ings: "Pre-1900". "1905-14". "The Russian Revolu- 
tion", "Civil War and Defense of the Republic", "Re- 
construction and Building the New Way of Life", 
"Pre-War .\nti-Nazi Films." 

The fifty films which make up the division on "Our 
Russian Allies" are classified under the following sub- 
headings : "The People and the Republics", "Educa- 

tion and Child Welfare", ".Sports and Physical Edu- 
cati(jn". ".\griculture". "Song, Music. Dance", "The 
People at W'ar". "War Newsreels". "The Russian 
Front", "USSR and Ea.stern Europe". "Comedies". 

The comprehensive nature of this list of films on 
Russia is further indicated by the fact that each film 
is briefly described, is slanted toward international 
iinder.standing. its running time given, etc. In pre- 
senting this ty])e of list. Brandon Films has rendered 
a distinct service to the promotion of the use of films 
in ])romoting international understanding. It is to be 
li(>l)ed that similar lists of film resources for other 
topics, nations, etc. will be forthcoming in the future. 

Illustrations accompanying this article were furnished 
through the courtesy of Brandon Films.) 

Stalin, Maxim Gorky and transpolar aviation ace, 
Chakalov seen in "Wings of Victory," reflecting 
Russia's interest in aviation in pre-World War II. 

The School Made Fibn lor Purposes 
of Supervision of Instruction 

(Concluded from page l.i9) 

what the fire would do to it. They liked the 
result and thereafter roasted their meat. 

It is not supposed that such a movie will do the job 
alone. Other means of describing a unit of work and 
inducting the teacher into a similar task will be neces- 
sary. There exist certain shortcomings to the movie 
that make a combination of media desirable. The movie 
film calls for rehearsed scenes as only the important 
aspects of the work can be taken. These must be care- 
fully planned. In planning these the film may pass 
hurriedly over or completely ignore an aspect of the 
work that another teacher may wish to know more 

To give a more complete description of a unit with 
all static details, it is essential to accompany the super- 
visory film with a series of photographs or a film strip 
and a written description. The movie can cover the 
chief items and supply the neces.sary action. A series 
of photographs or a film strij) can supply important 
settings that do not require action. These .scenes can 
be used for detailed study. A written description can 
give a detailed account of the entire unit. This would 
take care of the strictly verbal or abstract phases of 
learning that do not lend themselves readily to filming. 
Included in the written description would be the bibliog- 
raphy, the materials used, provisions for individual 
diflferences, a discus.sion of the objectives, apprai.sal, 
and correlation with other subjects. 

This combination of a movie, a film strip and a writ- 
ten description of a unit of work can make a definite 
contribution toward helping a teacher in her classroom 
()rocedure. Possibly .such films are best made by 
teachers in the school system. Careful planning with 
supervisors, principals, and teachers and pupils will 
result in films that will be practical and acceptable from 
the teacher's point of view. School people producing 
such films will find that the process will help clarify 
their own objectives and the finished product will prove 
an excellent .stimulus for improving their own super- 
visory and teaching procedures. 

Page 166 

The Educational Screen 

Summer Courses in Visual and Audio-Visual Education, 1944 

The following courses have been reported to date, figures in parenthesis 
show semester or quarter credits. An additional list will appear in May. 


University of Arizona, Tucson June S-July 8 

Visual and Auditory Aids in Teaching (2) E. L. Larson 


University of Colorado, Boulder July 1-Aug. 24 

Visual Aids (2) Lelia Trolinger 


University of Connecticut, Storrs June 26-Aug. 4 

Audio-Visual Aids in Education (3) David E. Strom 


University of Gcorqia, Athens June 7-July 14 

Audio-Visual Aids (5 qr.) H. B. Ritchie 


Northivestern University, Evanston June 26- Aug. S 

Visual Teaching Aids in the Classroom (3 qr.) Charles Crakes 

University of Chicago, Chicago June 19-July 29 

Auditory and Visual Instruction (3^) I. K. Tyler 


Ball State Teachers College, Muiicie June 12-July 14 

Audio- Visual Education (4 qr.) Evelyn Hoke 

Butler University, Indianapolis June 19-Aug. 12 

Visual Education (3) H. A. Henderson 

Indiana University, Bloomington June 24-Aug. 21 

Utilization of Audio-Visual Aids ; Administration 
of Audio- Visual Aids ; Production of Audio- 
Visual Aids ; Research in Audio-Visual Education 
(Hours to be arranged) Carolyn Guss ; L. C. Larson 


State Teachers College, Emporia May 31 -July 28 

Visual Education (2) S. W. Cram 


Boston Uniivrsity, Boston July 5-Aug. 12 

Use and Management of Visual Aids in Education (2) 

John G. Read 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis June 12-JuIy 22 

Visual Aids in Teaching (3 qr.) Paul Wendt 

Washington University, St. Louis June 19-July 28 

Audio- Visual Instruction (3) Alma B. Rogers 

State Teachers College, Wayne ' June 5-Aug. 4 

Audio- Visual Education (2) George Seeck 
New Jersey 

State Teachers College, Trenton May 8-Aug. 18 

Visual Education (3) Lycia O. Martin 
New York 

Columbia University, New York City July 3-.'\ug. 11 

Audio- Visual Aids to Instruction (2) M. R. Brunstetter 

Laboratory Course in Audio-Visual Instruction (2) 

Etta Schneider Ress 

Cornell University. Ithaca July 3-Aug. 12 

Visual and Auditory Aids in Teaching 

(2 or 3 qr.) P. G. Johnson 
North Carolina 

East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville June 8-Aug. 30 

Visual .^ids in Education (3 qr.) C. L. Adams 


Ohio University. .A.thens June S-July 28; July 31-Sept. 22 

Audio-Visual Education (2 each term) 

Margaret Hampel ; Margaret Flanagan 
State University, Bowling Green July 3-Aug. 25 

Audio- Visual Aids in Education (3) Herschel Litherland 

June 20-July 25 
Victor Coles 

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati 

Audio-Visual Aids in the Classroom (2) 
Eastern Oregon College of Educ., LaGrande June S-July 12 

Audio-Visual Aids (3 qr.) Ralph E. Badgley 

Albright College, Reading June 12-July 22 

Visual and Other Sensory Aids in Teaching (3) V. C. Zener 
Bucknell University, Lewisburg July 3-Aug. 10 

Visual Education (2 or 3 qr.) John W. Rice 

College Misericordia, Dallas June 22-Aug. 3 

Visual Aids and Sensory Techniques (3) Sr. M. Immaculata 
Drexet Institute of Technology, Philadelphia June 26-Aug. 4 

Visual and Audio-Education in Home Economics 

(3 qr. or 2 sem.) Amanda Ebersole 

Duquesne University, Pittsburgh July 3-Aug. 11 

Sensory Aids (2) Michael Ferenis 

Geneva College, Beaver Falls June 12-July 12 

Visual Education (3) John S. Mclsaac 

Grove City College, Grove City May 31-July 22 

Visual-Sensory Education (3) R. G. Walters 

Ijebayion Valley College, Annville June S-July 14 

Visual and Sensory Techniques (2 or 3) Cyde S. Stine 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem June 20-July 31 

Visual Instruction (3) W. G. Hayward 

State Teachers College, Clarion June 26-Aug. S 

Visual Education (1) D.D. Peirce 

State Teachers College, liast Stroudsburg June 2S-Aug. 5 

Visual Education (1) F. B. McGarry 

State Teachers College, Edinboro June 26-Aug. S 

Visual Education (1 or 2) F. S. Heinaman 

State Teachers College, Indiana June S-23 ; June 26-Aug. 4 

Visual Education (1 first term; 2 second) Wilber Emmert 
State Teachers College, Mansfield June 5-Aug. 23 

Visual Education (1) Cyril Stout; Isaac Doughton 

State Teachers College, West Chester June 26-Aug. 4 

Visual Education (1) Thomas S. Heim 

Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove June 20-July 29 

Visual Education (3) George E. Fisher 

Thiel College, Greenville June 5-July 21 

Visual Education (2) H. G. Gebert 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia July 6-Aug. 30 

Visual Techniques (2) John H. Minnick 

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh June 26-Aug. 4 

Visual Education (2) Herbert T. Olander 

University of Scranton, Scranton July 10-Aug. 18 

Visual Aids and Sensory Techniques (3) L. Paul Miller 

JVestminsl^er College, New Wilmington 

June S-July 14; July 17-Aug. 25 

Visual Education (3) (Tentative) Harold L. Brennan 


May 30-JuIy 22 
J. H. Aydelotte 

Sam Houston Teachers College, Huntsville 

Administration in Audio-Visual ."Mds (3) 
Roanoke College, Salem June 14-July 28 

Preparation and Use of Classroom Materials in 

Visual Education (2) Miles S. Masters 

Stout Institute, Menomonie June 19-July 28 

Visual Education I and II (2 each) Paul C. Nelson 

State College of Washington, Pullman June S-July 30 

.'\udio- Visual Education (3 or 4 qr. ; 2 or 3 sem.) 

Claude Simpson 

An additional list of courses zvill appear in May. Readers who 
knotv of visual courses to be given this summer are earnestly 
asked to send us nam^es of the institutfions offering them, with 
as complete data as possible. 

April, 1944 

Page 167 

Miscellany of the Month 

Events and Achievements 

MARSHALL College (Huntington, 
I W. Va.) has promoted study of 

I Inter-American relations by opening a 
("Campus-Center" for programs with 
' films, speakers, discussions. Primary aim 
to train teachers for classroom emphasis 
on the subject. 

• The month-long Red Cross Drive 
($200,000,000.00) is getting nation-wide 

[support from movie exhibitors. In the first 
I week some 15,000 theatres had pledged 
"collection at every performance," and 
1 record collections were already being re- 
I ported toward their $10,000,000 quota. 

• A choice bit of visual education from 
j Portugal. The old university town of 
I Coimbra has just finished its "children's 
[city" within a city park — houses, streets, 
I squares, townhall, stores, marketplace, 

church, harbor, lighthouse, etc., all in 
miniature, proportionate to the under- 
seven-year-olds for whose educational 
I experience it was designed. 
j • Nelson Rockefeller has finished a two- 
I weeks tour, his first official inspection of 
] South American agencies of the Office of 
[Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs. 
[• Re-release of Siiozc' White (1938) is 
[reported breaking records as it deserves 
!.g. 10,000 saw the February premiere 
[in Cincinnati. And the London premiere 
(February 28) of Madame Curie yielded 
I over $20,000, the proceeds turned over to 
[the Marie Curie Cancer Hospital. 
I • The Department of Visual Instruction 
[of the Chicago Schools (Joseph Dick- 
Iman, Director) has placed 20 prints of 
120 Erpi Sound Films in each of Chi- 
Jcago's forty High Schools for their per- 
nanent possession — a little item of 800 
ffilms ! The 20 titles were determined by 
[majority vote of the forty High Schools 

Another war development — 1 6mni reduc- 
I'duction-printing from 35mm sound films 
lis now near perfection. By processing 
ipicture and sound track separately, there 
fhave been achieved higher fidelity sound, 
harper pictorial contrast, capacity for 
greater enlargement on screen, and 
Ispeedier processing. 

!• Paramount's location department main- 
[tains a permanent reference file of 2 x 2 
Codachrome slides made on scouting trips. 
[Projected at studio, these are invaluable 
for selecting sites and backgrounds for 
forthcoming pictures. Some 500 slides 
nade recently for a single production 
[sufficed also to determine locations for 
La following feature. 

f* The new tax (.'\pril 1st) on movie 
admissions, about double previous rate, 
Iresults apparently in raising all admission 
Iprices about one dime each. This will 
Iput some $300,000,000 into the national 
Iwar chest. It is estimated tliat 90% of 
amusement tax collections are from mo- 
tion picture theatres. 

Surveys and Statistics 

THE .•\dult Education Council faces 
heavy post-war problems, as reported 
by its Survey Staff, (Jeorge D. Strayer, 
Chairman. The Council, now handling a 
40,000 audience, should take on another 
360,000 men and women over 25 who 
never went to any school, plus 3,000,000 
adults who never went beyond 8th Grade. 
A perfect job, this, for the sound motion 

• During 1943, the .\rmy Overseas Film 
Service, tlirough 19 Exchanges, gave over 
1400 shows nightly — 369 features, 556 
shorts, 520 newsreels. Of the features. 
10% were war films, 18% had war back- 
ground, 72% made no reference to war. 
(At home, newsreels were 89% war). 

• Will Hays' annual report emphasizes 
the Industry's tremendous part in main- 
taining military and civilian morale by 
its regular production. In addition, it 
supplied free over 9500 prints of over 200 
current releases for use in combat areas 
around the world — to the Army's pro- 
duction of 708 training films, it has con- 
tributed 108 at actual cost — and over l.SOO 
actors have made over 12000 free per- 
sonal appearances on some 2200 programs 
abroad — not including countless shows 
and appearances for millions of the armed 
forces in 930 military screening centers 
at home. 

• Hollywood evident'.y "does its bit" not 
only by pictures. .'Kbout one-third (6500) 
of the motion picture industry (19,600) is 
in the armed forces. Nearly one third of 
that third (1950) were actors and staff- 
members of the studios. 

• First survey by the Morale Division 
shows that 7% of our armed forces think 
they will go back to full time school or 
college after the war, 17% are thinking 
of part-time. Much will depend on eco- 
nomic conditions and government aid. 
Incidentally, the 7% represent about 40% 
of the total 1940 enrollment of all colleges 
and universities in the country. 

• February saw weekly Hollywood pro- 
duction at new low for 12 years — 30 pic- 
tures shooting. By mid-March 37, and 
46 by end of month. (Last year saw a 
February low of 33 climb to 51 by July 
and hold to near-December). 

• CBS report for 1943 shows: 9329 
hours, with 90 sponsor.s, comprised Music 
J&fc, Drama 26%, News 16%, Variety 
and Comedy 10%j, Talks and Discussions 
9%, Religion 1%. Of all these, 58% de- 
voted part or full time to war effort 
themes. In addition 800 expressly educa- 
tional program periods were withheld 
from sale — Invitation to Learning, Peo- 
ple's Platform, .American School of the 
-■Vir — the last with Teacher's Manual sent 
on request to 160,000 teachers conducting 
classroom listening periods. Likewise for 
220 religious program periods, divided 
equally among all denominations. 

Plans and Predictions 

FEBRU.^RY saw the formation of two 
impressive commissions — (1) A "Com- 
mission to Study Freedom of the Press, 
Screen and Radio," with Robert Hutchins, 
President of the University of Chicago, 
as Chairnian. Results expected in two 
years. And (2) A "Commission on Mo- 
tion Pictures in Education," with a mem- 
bership of eminent educators and financed 
generously by eight leading firms of the 
motion picture industry! 

• The O W I plans no expansion of its 
domestic film activity, is content with its 
present $50,000 appropriation, and will 
leave production to more expert Holly- 
wood. Robert Riskin, head of O W I's 
Overseas F^ilm Division, announces half 
production completed and second half to 
comprise educational, industrial, health, 
films, to show American life in relation 
to war and United Nations. 

• Stettinius urges world-wide good- 
neighbor policy, built on C I A A pattern, 
using motion pictures and radio under 
sole direction of the State Department. 
Looks like an "Office of World Informa- 
tion" after all (Educational Screen, Sep- 
tember, 1943). 

• Warner will allow broadcast of its 
pictures only after four months of theatre 
circulation, because "radio doesn't do 
anything for a story property nor for 
the film's star." 

• The Division of Visual Education 
(Philadelphia) has organized a group of 
over 100 students, from every city High 
School, for film review, criticism, dis- 
cussion, with Director Paul E. Long in 
charge. Newspaper film critics, as leaders 
and advisers, will conduct the weekly 
sessions. Aim, to learn all about movies 
as Art. 

• "Youth in Crisis." recent March of 
Time study of juvenile delinquency, is to 
be on sale to non-theatrical and educa- 
tional field in 16mm sound prints. 

• By next fall there is expectation of 
the end of raw stock allocations and of 
the two-year government control over 
the motion picture industry through the 
WPB Film Section. It would be the 
first major industry to be freed. 

• There is reported a plan, now in work 
for the Massachusetts State Department 
of Education, to make about 20 very 
short reels for class use, to test out the 
field for more extended production — also 
a similar project of the Scottish Film 
Council in Edinburgh, backed by the 
Carnegie United Kingdom Trustees — all 
of which is pretty interesting news in 

• Within ten years after the war, RCA's 
Ralph R. Beal told San Francisco En- 
gineering Council, there will be several 
hundred television theatres open, showing 
events as they occur, on screens up to 
15 X 20 feet, all connected into national 
television networks. 

Page 168 

The Educational Screen 


Conducted by 

The New England Section (Zone 1) of the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the 
National Education Association of the U.S. 

Editor, JOHN H. LYONS 

In-Service Training in Visual Instruction 
In the Reading, Mass. Public Schools 

DOROTHY A. ALLARD, Director of Visual Education 

THE fact that many teachers in service have never 
been trained in the use of visual instruction tools 
convinced the director of visual education of the Read- 
ing schools that a program of teacher-training would 
be helpful in securing a wider use of visual aids in 
the elementary schools. Accordingly, with the complete 
cooperation of Dr. E. C. Grover, superintendent of 
schools, a two-year teacher-training program was orga- 

Because the superintendent is such a firm believer 
in the value of visual aids in education, the teachers 
in the Reading schools are more than fortunate iif 
the amount and variety of visual aids provided for 
their use. Each of the two large elementary schools 
possess a 16mm. sound motion picture projector, a 
stereopticon, an opaque projector, a filmslide projec- 
tor, stereoscopes, stereographs, lantern slides, film- 
strips, beaded screens for both auditorium and class- 
room use, and other miscellaneous equipment. Of the 
three primary schools, housing grades one to four, 
two of them have practically identical equipment 
which is used between the two schools ; while the 
third school has the use of the equipment in one of 
the near-by larger schools. The Junior and Senior 
High Schools, too, {xjssess similar equipment. In ad- 
dition to these aids ])crmanently located in the varic>us 
schools, the school department owns, for use in any 
school, the following materials: a 16 mm. silent motion 
picture camera, flood lamps, a "copy" camera for mak- 
ing film strips, and photographic lantern slides, and a 
"play-back" instrument for the reproduction of 16" 
records. Likewise, the Senior High School, and one 
of the larger elementary schools, each have a public 
address system over which records can be played. 

In spite of the fact that there was so much equip- 
ment at hand it was felt that the teachers were hot 
making the fullest use of the materials available. A 
few teachers had taken courses at Boston University 
and were doing excellent work in their own particu- 
lar classrooms. However, these few teachers were not 
enough. Our ideal was to have all the teachers aware 
of, and trained in, the use of various visual aids. An 
analysis of the situation brought out the fact that the 
primary reason for the non-use of visual aids was 
the lack of knowledge, on the part of the teachers, as 
to the operation of the projectors, and a lack of train- 
ing in efficient methods of in.struction with visual 

Therefore, feeling that a knowledge of how to 

operate the various projectors would give the teaclurs 
an incentive for more immediate of the equipment, 
it was planned to offer to all elementary teachers a 
practical course in the operation of the e((uipnient. 
This course was given free one afternoon a week 
for a ten to twelve week period, by the director of 
visual instruction. Instruction was given at the various 
schools where the equipment was located, thus, giving 
teachers practical experience with the .specific appar- 
atus which they would use. Instruction was on both 
a group and individual basis and no teacher success- 
fully completetl the course until she demonstrated her 
ability to use properly each type of projection equip- 
ment. The teachers were most cooperative and willing 
to learn and expressed satisfaction in the practicality 
of the course. 

As a result of the course in several of the elemen- 
tary schools in Reading all teachers are proficient in 
the use of their visual equipment, and in other schools 
over seventy-five per cent know how to use the various 
projectors. Furthermore, we find a definite increase 
in the number of instances when visual aids are 
being used. Also, we now have requests from teachers 
for the latest information and material in the field. 

Having made the elementary teachers aware of the 
possibilities in visual instruction through an acquaint- 
ance with the various tools, the next step was to dem- 
onstrate some of the specific techniques to be employed 
in the most efficient use of these tools. Accordingly, 
in October 1943 a course in methods in visual edu- 
cation was offered, free, to the elementary teachers 
by the director of the department. This course has 
been held at one of the larger elementary schools 
one afternoon every two weeks over a period of twenty 
weeks. Enrollment in the course was on a voluntary 
basis and the average attendance at each meeting was 
about thirty teachers out oj a possible thirty-five! In 
the opinion of the writer this testified to the fact 
that teachers sincerely wish to learn the newer tech- 
niques if suitable and practical opportunities are pre- 
sented for them to do so. 

The course consisted of discourse, demonstration, 
and discussion of the following topics: the school jour- 
ney, the school museum, the flat picture, graphic ma- 
terials, opaque projection, the stereograph and the 
stereoscope, the glass slide and stereopticon, film- 
strips and their projection, and the motion ])icti*re. 

This program has been interesting and worth-while 
to teachers and director alike. The only disadvantage 
has been the insufficient time, the amount that could 
be allotted for the courses, to cover in as thorough 
detail as we would like all the phases of vi.sual in- 
struction. However, a good start has been made, and 
the hope is that the teachers will now have the cour- 
age, and the desire, to make a wider use of the pos- 
sible visual techniques. It is also hoped that from the 
experiences of these teachers will come material for 
a practical handbook on the use of visual aids, or 
teachers' manual, that can be used in the Reading 


April, 1944 

Page 169 

IiiQ Lighted Pictures Help Mechanical 
mllL Drawing Teachers Carry the Overload 

Lighted Pictures Can Make Your Work Easier 
and Accelerate the Learning Process for the Class 

In these days of heavier teaching schedules and 
crowded classes, the Jam Handy Kit-set of slidefilms on 
Supplementary Aids to the Teaching of Mechanical 
Drawing and Drafting can help make your job easier. 

Integrate the slidefilms with whatever classwork you 
desire. Watch the films speed up the learning process 
and increase the students' memory span. 

Each of the 1,112 pictures in this Kit-set, when pro- 
jected, is the equivalent of a full sized blackboard draw- 
Here are the subjects covered in the slideSIm Kit-set: 

Measurements & Measuring (Parts 1 and 2} 

Scales and Models 

Addition and Subtraction in Geometry 

Multiplication and Division in Geometry 

Angular Measurement Constructions 

"T" Squares and Triangles (Parts 1 and 2) 

Geometric Construction (Parts 1 and 2) 

Drawing an Anchor Plate 

Layout Work (Parts 1 and 2) Slotted Anchor Plate 

Layout Tools and Measuring Instruments 

Plotting Graphs Analytic Geometry 

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Use the coupon below to get full details on how you 
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Page 170 

The Educational Screen 

Ukz J^iUxatuxE in QJi^uat Un±t%uaiion 

A Monthly Digest 



California Journal of Sccoiidarv Education 19: 14-29 January 
1944. SO cents. 

Featured in this issue is a symposium of five articles 
reporting on the use of visual aids in the Army and Navy. 
In an editorial introducing this symposium, Dr. Frank W. 
Thomas, president, California Society of Secondary Edu- 
cation and president of Fresno State College, calls atten- 
tion to the impetus the war has given to visual instruction. 
Out of the pressure of wartime instructional needs came 
the realization that words alone would not suffice to bring 
about the clarity in learning upon which so much depends. 
The result was the development of a variety of visual aids 
by various divisions of the military services which have not 
only made instruction more speedy and accurate, but which 
also have made obsolete some of our teaching practices 
and assumptions. Dr. Thomas points out the necessity of 
modifying instructional practices in postwar teaching so as 
to capitalize more fully on the first-hand experiences and 
perceptions which the pupils can derive from visual aids. 
"The institutions engaged in teacher education will have 
obligations imposed by such developments, but it will be 
upon the teachers now in service that the responsibility 
will rest for making those readjustments essential to the 
successful utilization of resources which promise a chal- 
lenging adventure in the improvement of teaching." 

Walt Disney, in a statement written especially, fpr^^the 
symposium, foresees that "films will be a great means,: of 
education . . . but their real worth will be established only 
when the men who teach join with the producers in pre- 
senting their thoughts in a way which will hold their 
classes — in other words, educate through entertainment." 

Digests of the five symposium articles follow : — 

Animated Cartoons Join the Teaching Staff, by Franklin 
R. Thomas, a member of the Disney staff before entering 
the Armed Forces, is a significant interpretation of the 
eflfectiveness of cartoon characters in terms of the psy- 
chology of learning, based on the experiences of the Motion 
Picture Unit of the Air Forces, to which the author was 
assigned to plan and supervise the animation in training 

The article describes the planning, construction, growth, 
and instructional presentation of the animated film. In the 
first productions, animation was used only to clarify charts 
and diagrams and all picture technique was eliminated. But 
it was soon discovered that this method of presentation 
was too dull to be effective, so some picture technique had 
to be put back into the product. The ideas had to be 
made dramatic and exciting enough that the men would 
want to learn about them. It was found that repetition of 
the main points in the training film from a cartoon stand- 
point made those points more forceful, and occasional in- 
jections of cartoon sequences, whether for humor or mere 
relaxation, eliminated mental fatigue and its accompanying 
blind spots for the retention of facts. Within a year, the 
diagrammatic film had "grown up." It was being used in 
a variety of dififerent ways, each use calling for a diflterent 
technique in its presentation, but the basis for all later re- 
finement had been achieved. 

While the units in the service had been working on the 
problem of the diagrammatic film, the larger studios had 
been filling Goverimient orders, many of which specified 
character animation. The value of this type of production 


New York University Film Library 

was recognized quickly and character animation made its 
entrance into the straight training film. Because of re- 
strictions on time, money and personnel, the possibilities 
of the cartoon could not be fully experimented but the 
production unit of the Air Forces felt it could be used 
to great advantage: (1) in diagrams; (2) to provide humor 
as "lessons learned with a laugh are seldom forgotten," 
(3) to give interest and freshness to ideas so old and well- 
known they are virtually forgotten, (4) to achieve a point 
more directly through caricature and satire, (5) to stimu- 
late imagination, through fantasy, to a fuller grasp of new- 

"It is still too early either to give a complete appraisal 
or to establish rules for the use of the animated cartoon 
in training films," declares the writer. "We are convinced 
that its potential powers have not yet been realized . . . 
In spite of the growth that has been brought about by the 
war and its vast training program, it will be the postwar 
era that will bring fullest realization of these potential- 
ities." He predicts a small-scale production of educational 
films using animation after the war, but these necessarily 
will be low-budget pictures, limited in scope, until a market 
for them has been established. The larger studios, he re- 
ports, believe that enough educators already have become 
interested in this type of teaching film that a program of 
major proportions will be started very soon but they ad- 
mit that it would have to be done through endowment 
funds or with some kind of federal educational grant. Be- 
fore there can be any large scale production in the post- 
war world, he also points out. there will have to be a cer- 
tain amount of standardization in at least the basic sub- 
jects of the curriculum. "Perhaps the most effective de- 
velopments will require some cooperative planning agency 
in which educator and animator will collaborate." 

Mr. Thomas urges the production of motion pictures 
which will develop desirable attitudes and ideals. "In such 
an undertaking, the use of animation has some distinctive 
values. It can touch an abstract quality or idea with its 
creative magic and give it a warm personality. . . . The 
appeal of the characters of animation is international and 
universal. . . . Such films could bring a new era of en- 
lightenment and common understanding." 

Visual Aids Expedite Navy Training Program, by Lieu- 
tenant Francis W. Noel, in charge of the Bureau of Naval 
Personnel training aids utilization program, is concerned 
chiefly with the duties and responsibilities of the Navy's 
training personnel. A Joint Board of Review, comprised 
of officers from both the curriculum and the Training Aids 
Sections, appraises and selects suitable aids to implement 
training, after the curriculum has been planned. If suit- 
able aids are not available, the Board recommends their 
production and counsels on the educational aspects involved. 
To provide the personnel designated as audio-visual utili- 
zation officers, the Navy has chosen leaders in the audio- 
visual field who meet the qualifications. Before being as- 
signed to permanent duty, each officer is brought to the 
Bureau of Naval Personnel for orientation. When they 
leave the Bureau, tiicy are free to develop a program meet- 
ing the particular training needs of the activity to which 
they are assigned. Their primary job is to work with 
training officers and instructors for the best utilization of 
the aids. This involves (1) familiarizing them with equip- 
ment and materials, (2) helping them to select and procure 
appropriate aids specific to their needs, (3) helping them 
to 1 Ian their use of the aids, (4) demonstrating good utili- 

(Conchidcd on pai/c 172) 

April, 1944 



Page 171 

These Eminent Men Direct 
the Destiny of 


E. H. Powell 

Pres., Encyclopaedia 
Brit., Inc., Director 

M. Lincoln Schuster 

Pies, Simon & Scliuster 


Wayne C. Taylor 

Under-Sec of Commerce 


Henry R. Luce 

E"tor-in-Chief,Tirae Inc. 


John MtGllvray 

Encyc. Brit. Films Inc. 

YOU Can he Assured that 

Erpi Classroom Films 

will continue to maintain their present 
position in the field of education 

WITH the acquisition of Erpi Classroom Films by the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, itself affiliated with the 
University of Chicago, it was decided to leave all estab- 
lished Erpi policies unchanged — because Erpi Classroom 
Films had already earned, among educators, a reputation 
for factual dependability and instructional excellence. 

We believe that the eminent and distinguished men 
who comprise the Board of Directors of Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Films Inc. will be sufficient assurance to our 
many friends that Erpi Classroom Films will not only 
continue to maintain established standards, but also will 
open new- horizons in the field of education. 

John Stuart 
Ch. Bd, Qiuiker Oats 

Chester Bowles 

Admini.<;trntor. 0. P. A. 


Harry Scherman 

Pres, Book-of-the- 

Month Club, Director 

John Grierson 


Nat. Kilm Bd. of Canada 

Wallac' '',. Harrison 


Formerly Efpt Classroottf FUms Inc. 


NEW YORK 23, N. Y. 

Page 172 

The Educational Screen 

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zatioii procedures, and (5) as.sistiiig in appraising tech- 
niques and results. 

The pattern of use recommended to all naval activities 
is outlined in the article. .\ staff of approximately one hun- 
dred utilization officers is helping instructors to put these 
techniques into practice. An evaluation study is now in 
progress in the Navy Department to discover the most 
successful methods of utilization and how audio-visual aids 
can be made even more effective. The results of this study 
should be important to the schools of America in the fu- 

Planning for the Navy's Training Films, by Reginald 
Bell, on leave from Stanford Iniversity to serve as educa- 
tional specialist in the Training Film Branch of the Bureau 
of Aeronautics, emphasizes the extensive and intelligent 
planning that is involved in the production of aviation 
training aids. After making certain films which did not 
prove entirely satisfactory as the program developed, the 
Aviation Training Division recognized that the place to 
outline the needs of the field was not at staff headquarters 
in Washington, but at the school where instructors were 
being trained. "It was logical to assume that what tools 
were needed could be decided best by those who would 
use them." The locale of further planning, therefore, was 
shifted to the Flight Instructors School. 

The commanding officer of the school reported the list 
of films needed to implement the flight training syllabus 
to the Training Command who requested that Aviation 
Training arrange for the films' production. The superin- 
tendent of the Flight Instruction School and the staff 
flight training officer of the Training Command were ap- 
pointed technical advisers of the films and consulted with 
production officers from the Training Film Branch of the 
Bureau of Aeronautics for the purpose of writing produc- 
tion outlines on the films. The films were then ready to 
go into production. 

Slide Films in the Navy Training Program, by Jay D. 
Dresser, project officer in the Training Film Branch of 
the Photographic Division of the Bureau of Aeronautics, 
which supervises the production of all Navy training films, 
outlines steps followed in the production of each film. A 
project supervisor, who has had a background of film pro- 
duction work, an education officer, and a technical adviser, 
assigned by the organization requesting the film, plan the 
initial outline of each picture, these three officers deter- 
mining the specific purpose of the film, its contents, and 
the best method of presentation. 

In making a slidefilm, still photographs are made of the 
subject and mounted on cardboard frame cards. Printed 
titles and other art work are added to the photographs, 
which are then photographed in sequence on 35mm film. 

Slidefilms have become an integral part of many Navy 
training courses, covering such subjects as office proce- 
dures, seamanship, elements of electricity, semaphore sig- 
naling, shipbuilding and maintenance and repair of air- 
craft, gunfire control equipment and other highly compli- 
cated machinery. Besides shortening the training periods 
and standardizing operations, use of the slidefilm makes 
continuous training possible. They can be forwarded to 
units in the field to keep men informed of new develop- 
ments in equipment and tactics. The search for more ef- 
fective means of visualizing subjects has led into the 
production of third-dimensional films, the psychological use 
of color and other advanced developments. 

The Use of Nonphotographic Aids by the Navy, by 
William Kxton, Jr., in charge of planning and production 
in the Training Aids Section, Bureau of Naval Personnel, 
reviews the extensive list of nonphotographic aids — two- 
dimensional and three-dimensional — which have contributed 
substantially to the Navy's training program. .An out- 
standing example of graphic media is the set of 560 charts 
illustrating the Diesel engineering training curriculum, 
which have been hailed by educators and manufacturers 
as a notable contribution to the progress of technical illus- 
tration. This elaborate project involved exhaustive planning 
and an extensive pioduction program. Posters are made to 
illustrate procedures. One of these, dealing with the bow- 
line, has enabled persons who had never before seen a bow- 
line, to tie it correctly in less than one minute. .As with 
the films, these training aids are the product of careful, 
collaborative thought by a number of qualified individuals. 

Three-dimensional aids are employed to simulate an 
actual object or item of material. One of the devices in 
this category is a small cardboard blinker for the training 
of signalmen, manufactured at a cost of 3c apiece. .Another 
aid is the "mock-up," which is an enlarged reproduction, 
contrastingly colored, of equipment parts. 

In developing training aids the Navy has pioneered be- 
yond civilian precedent, and the writer expresses the hope 
that valuable lessons will be learned by the educational 
world from the Navy's experience which will result in 
substantial benefits to the standards and effectiveness of 
civilian training in the years to come. 

Learning Through the Senses — Leland S. March, Principal 
Westwood High School — New Jersey Educational Re- 
viezi' 17: 162 March, 1944. 

A short but pointed article to remind teachers that facts 
taught in a dynamic manner are better learned and de- 
velop better attitudes in the learner. Audio-visual aids, 
when properly used, provide a very effective learning 
situation. By comparison traditional classroom techniques 
with tepid stimuli and monotonous responses seem out- 

Storage Problems in Audio- Visual Aids 

(Concluded jroin page 160) 

flat or stood in a corner ; their unwieldiness increases 
if they are to be used frequently. Then too, if an in- 
structor gave a quiz the charts had to be turned over 
so that wandering eyes could not see the answers. The 
very aids which helped at one time were sources of dis- 
traction at other times. 

The author, having visited the Armored Force School 
at Fort Knox, Kentucky, had the answer. That excel- 
lent school had overcome the same problem by use of 
holders similar to those illustrated. These siinple dis- ■ 
play racks have counter weights which pull any desired 
chart from the well in an instant. When the instructor 
has finished with the chart, it can be slid back with 
little effort. The frames can, of course, be used anew 
when the charts are changed. Since plywood was used 
in construction with inch pine braces, their weight is 
not a burden. Ca.sters can be used with these racks and 
they can be moved from room to room with ease. Over- 
all dimensions of the holder are sixty-eight inches by 
eighty-four inches by eighteen inches. 

These problems of storage are small but unless solved 
satisfactorily they prevent a visual aids program from 
doing its part effectively. If the ideas are adaptable to 
your situation, don't hesitate to use them. They are 
merely improved instruments in hands working for vic- 

\ April, 1944 

Page 173 

Stent from TOM SAWYEK 


for the FIRST Time 

in 16mm 

David O. Selznick's Great Productions! 

Ten Subjects Now Ready 

Four in Beautiful Natural Color 




The Stor 

BeCKLj S! 


Miriam Hopkins, Alan Mowbray 



Frank Morgan, Chas. Collins 


Janet Gaynor, Fredric March 



Fredric March, Carole Lombard 



Tommy Kelly, Jackie Moran 



D. Fairbanks, Jr., M. Carroll 



Carole Lombard, Jas. Stewart 


Janet Gaynor, Fairbanks, Jr. 



Marlene Dietrich, Charles Boyer 



Dolores Costello 

Available from 

Film version of Thackeray's "Vanity Fair" 
in beautiful natural color. 

Sfors include: 

Mickey Rooney 
C. Aubrey Smith 
Miriam Hopkins 
Billie Burke 
Alan Mowbray 
Freddie Bartholomew 
Frank Morgan 
Steffi Duna 
Dolores Costello 
Janet Gaynor 
Fredric March 
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. 
Paulette Goddard 
Roland Young 
Carole Lombard 
James Stewart 
Tommy Kelly 
May Robson 
Walter Brennan 
Ronald Colman 
Madeleine Carroll 
Charles Boyer 
Marlene Dietrich 



Bertram Willoughby Pictures. Inc. 

Suite 600 — 1600 Broadway 

New York 19, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

18 South Third Street 

Memphis 3, Tennessee 

Ideal Pictures Corporation 

2408 West 7th Street 
Los Angeles S, CalUornio 

and the following branches and affiliates: 
Stevens-Ideal Pictures Ideal Pictures 

89 Cone Street N.W. 1739 Oneida St 

Atlanta 3. Georgia Denver 7, Colo. 

Ideal Pictures 
2024 Main Street 
Dallas 1. Texas 

Ideal Pictures 
219 East Main SU 
Richmond 19. Va. 

Ideal Kctures Corp. 
915 S.W. 10th Ave. 
Portland 5. Oregon 

Ideal-Southern Pictures 
336 Barrone St. 
New Orleans, La. 


Ideal Pictures 

Room 1— Lobby Floor 

Reliance BIdg. 

926 McGee Street 

Kansas City 6. Mo. 


16mm Pictures Co. 

9536 N.E. 2nd Street 

Miami 38. Florida 

Page 174 

The Educational Screen 



Head of the English Department 
Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

"Fit to Live and Fit to Fight" 

TO sliow what some schools are doing to prepare 
students for the strenuous life of today, a motion 
picture of four reels, Fit to Live and Fit to Fight, 
has been produced by the Bureau of Visual Instruction 
of the University of Iowa Extension Division, under 
sponsorship of the Iowa State Department of Public 
Instruction. It was filmed by John Hedges, Acting 
Director of the Bureau. A report of the film written 
by Eric C. Wilson, Editor, University of Iowa News 
Service, follows : 

"This 16mm. film, now being distributed, was 
made in May, 1943, in thirteen representative Iowa 
high schools, and is designed as an honest sampling 
of the physical education program in such schools. 

"It is pointed out that this sampling of a program 
does not necessarily represent the best program that 
might be done in high schools but is what is actually 
being carried on. The program is a good one and 
one which is suggestive as to what can be done in 
many schools. .^ 

"All scenes are unrehearsed and only physical edu- 
cation activities are depicted. No pictures were made 
of the competitive sports program, on the theory that 
there is much more familiarity with this interscholastic 
program than with the new type of physical education 
work. It is expected, however, that sports sequences 
will later be included andihat a sound track will be 

"Thirteen Iowa schools cooperated in the project. 
These were Fairfield, Keokuk, New London, Bur- 
lington, Ottumwa, Centerville, Mt. Ayr, Creston, 
East and West Waterloo, Boone and North and East- 
Des Moines. 

With a question box on the making oj 
school film productions, conducted by 

Evander Childs High School, New York City 

"In the narrative script for the film, written by 
Prof. Charles H. McCloy, Research Professor of 
Anthropometry and Physical Education at the Uni- 
versity of Iowa, he says, the program needs to be 
regular and the time allotment should be adequate 
so that the effects will be cumulative. The exercise 
must be progressively more strenuous in order to in- 
sure that the pupils develop sufficient strength 
and endurance and speed to do better the 
tasks of tech day, to carry through the work of the 
day and evening without fatigue, and to develop a 
reserve of strength and energy for emergency tasks 
of our time.' " 

"Let us not, however, as we look at this picture, 
think only of the activities of a physical education pro- 
gram. The activities simply are a means of insuring 
that the boys and girls will be healthy and intellec- 
tually and emotionally well-adjusted." 

The picture includes scenes of work for boys and 
girls such as guerrilla forms of combat, calisthenics, 
lioxing, obstacle racing, rope-skipping, tumbling, danc- 
ing, swimming, track and field events, and games |ln 
the gymnasium. '. 

Consultants for the film, in addition to Prof. McCloy. 
were: Dr. Paul W. Brechler, Instructor in Physical 
Education for Men and Head of Physical Education 
for boys at University of Iowa and University High 
School ; Dr. Elizabeth Halsey. Head of the Depart- 
ment of Physical Education for Women ; Miss Ella 
Small, Assistant Professor in the Department of Phy- 
sical Education for Women, both of the University 
of Iowa ; and H. J. StefFey, Supervisor in the Iowa 
State Department of Public Instruction. 

(Concluded on page \7t>) 

(Left) Scaling the wall of an obstacle course. 
(Below) An obstacle course hazard. 

(.Vaf.v f^hotos) 

April, J 944 

Page 175 

1 want 




Ameche, Lorerto Young, Henry Fonda. Our of the 
itirring past of this greol nation emerges the story 
of Alexonder Betl ond the telephone — which in his 
youth he invented — a story as real as the telephone 
itself — a_$?ory that symbolizes the mission of America, 

ami t/tt5. . . 

THESE three magnificent Twentieth-Century Fox 
feature films are distributed exclusively in 16mm bv 
FILMS INCORPORATED. Like Other titles in our famous 
School List, they will be in great demand this fall—a 
demand accentuated by the present scarcity of raw 
Btock and the inadequacy of printing facilities. 

By making your plans, now, to screen these and other 
outstanding feature-length programs in your auditorium 
as a regular part of your curriculum, you will be better 
able to get the films you want when you want them. 
Reservations are not binding on your school — they 
simply aid us in arriving at a schedule best suited to your 
needs. Study Guides, for each feature picture, which 
integrate classroom discussion following auditorium 
showings, will also be reserved for you without obliga- 

Feature-length programs are a new dimension in edu- 
cation! Has your school the best that major studios can 




Nancy Kelly, Sir Cedric Hardwicte, Richard Greene. 
A greot picture (three yearj in the making n the 
actual African locale) of the greatest advonfure of 
the foremost newspaper mon of oil times. 

an^ this, , , 

YOUNG MR. IINCOLN. Henry Fonda, Moriorie 
Weaver, Alice Brady, Arleen Whelan. This is the story 
of Lincoln that has never been told — of a young man 
known to everybody in the backwoods town of 
Springfield, Illinois ... a student and lawyer whose 
strength ond wit were famous. 


330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, N. Y. 

I I Send me a copy of the School LiHt aud a handy 

reservation form. 

I — I Send me a sample Study Guide. 



Page 176 

The Educational Screen 


Now avaUable fo Schoo/s.' 

Delivery 60 fo 90 days 

Swank Motion Pictures 


614 North Skinker St. Louis 5, Mo. 

(Send for our big, new 16mm sound film catalog') 


Question: I would like to organize a motion pic- 
ture production clui) in our junior high school. (1) 
What is the best way to start? (2) What could be 
considered the niininuini essential equipment? (3) 
How can such project be financed? (4) Comi\ien- 
surate with the abilities and interests of junior 
high school students, what film subjects shall we 
produce ? 

Answer: Since there is no one set way to start a mo- 
tion picture production project, it is suggested that the 
mere announcement of the planned organization of such 
a club during an assembly program, in the school paper, 
or through formal notices sent to each class, would bring 
more than the maxinmm number of students needed for 
the efificient rumiing of your activity. .^Iso you can take 
advantage of the psychological principle, "strike while the 
iron is hot", by timing the start of the project so as to 
make immediate application of the lessons on light and 
pliotography just when your general science classes have 
reached the highest pitch of enthusiasm for those topics. 
I haven't found a class, ye*, that didn't bubble over with 
excitement and activity whenever pinhole and other 
cameras and their accessories were put to practical use 
in the classroom. The important thing here is to keep 
these flames of enthusiasm fanned. Soon enough every 
charter member will become a torchbearer for future addi- 
tions to your club. 

Once the club is organized, committees can be formed 
to study and become expert in the use of the camera, 
lighting-, properties, script, art, and editing. Each group, 
in turn, can teach the others all the tricks, old and new, 
of its specialty. A collection of books, pamphlets, prepared 
lectures and slides should be available at all times for 
reference and research. A great deal of this material may 
be obtained on loan basis or free from the manufacturers 
or distributors of photographic equipment. Many students 
will want to contribute some of their own materials to 
build up such a library of information. 

As far as equipment is concerned, the following may 
constitute the list of minimum essentials: 1 motion picture 
camera, preferably 16 millimeter, having a dismountable 
lens at least F 3.5 opening: 1 tripod; 3 reflectors, preferably 
clamp-on type: 3 or more photoflood lamps, number 2; 
1 yellow filter: 4 or 5 rolls of black and white film, 100 
foot lengths: 1 reel to hold 400 feet of film; 1 can to hold 
400 foot reel; 1 splicing set; 2 or 3 extension cords, rubber 
insulated; 2 triple sockets. 

A few words about the e(|uipmc]it: Notice that the 
camera recommended is the 16 mm. variety. The reason 
for that is that your school probably possesses one or more 
16mm. projector.*; on which you will most likely run your 
films. The removable type of lens is suggested because 


^ (Series of Six) 

Important as visual education . . . stimulating as 
an Insight into a vital world areal A scientifically 
accurate, artistically direct study of Pacific ethnol- 
ogy, economy, art, botany, native housing and 
transportation. In brilliant color. 



some day you may want to add wide angle, telephoto or 
faster lenses. 

No matter how confident one may feel about his ability 
to hold the camera steady, the fact that more than one 
person will be using that instrument demands that the 
camera rest on a firm tripod to insure sharp, level pic- 

. Clamp-on reflectors are easier to handle, take less time 
to set up, and can be tilted at the proper angle just as 
well as the more expensive, cumbersome types. When- 
ever you have to use more than three number 2 lamps 
be sure to check the amperage of your fuse. The ordinary 
number 2 photoflood draws 4.4 amperes. The average 
house or schoolroom fuse carries 15 amperes — just enough 
for three of those lamps. Of course it's wiser to use as 
many different outlets as possible. 

The yellow filter is an important accessory for outdoor 
filming, especially for distant shots with sky and clouds ' 
for background. 

Black and white film is best for beginners, since errors 
in exposures are compensated to some degree by most 
processing laboratories. No doubt an exposure meter is 
a good investment, if obtainable these days. However one 
can get pretty accurate results by following carefully the 
printed instructions on exposure which come with every 
roll of film. 

As for financing such project your best bet is to throw 
this problem right into the laps of your enthusiastic club- 
members. I am sure that, among the suggestions you will 
get, will be any or all of the following: 

1. Appropriation of funds by the school General Orga- 

2. Put on school plays, dances or movies, charging ad- 

3. Seek assistance from parents association. 

4. Gifts from graduating classes. 

5. (later on) Charge few cents admission fee to see club 
produced films. 

Film subjects that will have the most appeal to the 
junior high school students are films in which they them- 
selves play the leading parts. Your first film will prob- 
ably be a kind of public relations film— a subject in which 
students are displayed at their best, the daily school rou- 
tine. If you want to show action, not merely posing, be 
sure to photograph them in subject classes where activities 
are in- full swing— the gymnasium, the swimming pool, the 
athletic field, shops, laboratories and domestic science 
rooms. .'Kfter that usually comes a "March of Time" or 
School Newsreel. From then on your students may want 
to put on playlets, but again make sure that there is plenty 
of action, not mere lip motion. Finally you will reach 
the stage when you will beconte surfeited with routine 
subjects. You will then enter the phase of producing 
instructional films— films that show the how and why of 
things, proper ways of swimming, life saving, carving a 
piece of wood in the shop. yes. even carving a turkey 
(if you can get one). D- ^- 

April, 1944 

The First Fiity Years 

AS THIS issue appears the theatrical motion picture 
industry embarks upon a semi-centennial year of 
celebration to commemorate the opening. April 14, 
1894, at the Holland Brothers Kinematoscope Parlor 
in New York, of the first film show in the world. 
Residents of the non-theatrical field of motion pictures 
may well join heartily in the hosannas. The 1894 
demon.stration. while involving some simple vaudeville 
turns in subject matter, derived no im])ortance from 
them ; the entire significance lay in an educational 
proof that photographic living pictures were possible 
rid practicable. 
But (juite a])art from any non-theatrical distinction, 
(lose who are disposed to draw that discriminating 
ne may still celebrate the anniversary in fine fraternal 
pirit for. without a sizeable, matured theatrical film 
ndustry. the non-theatrical side could not possibly 
ive attained in the same period its present stature, 
nd it would quite certainly now be without its effi- 
bient existing technical equipment. Moreover, the 
non-theatrical and theatrical growths have identi- 
fies in the sap, as in the roots, bark and branches 
jf the same tree. 
The pseudo-scientific analyses of animal movements, 
ade by the singular Edward Muybridge in the late 
70s and '80s, were educational items produced with 
photographic cameras before Edison invented his 
'^Kinetoscope, and were, indeed, his acknowledged in- 
spiration ; but their development to a useful application 
was carried through wholly by the commercial interest 
of Edison and his associates in amusement aspects. 
The first great supply of school films was organized 
by Charles Urban out of his theatrical productions in 
England and France about 1903 : the first notable 
attempt to introduce motion pictures into American " 
schools as classroom apparatus, in 1910, came with 
George Kleine's offer, of more than a thousand selected 
theatrical reels ; the long familiar Pathe productions 
were originally theatrical ; the Bray subjects were 
nearly all theatrical first ; the Pathescope Library, the 
Victor -Aniniatograph Library and many more well 
known collections have stemmed from theatrical fea- 
tures, newsreels and screen "magazines." The best 
training films of present global war are being produced 
by men and women experienced in theatrical techniques 
and expecting at the end of the duration to return to 
studio positions, said techniques including arrested 
and accelerated screen motions and the general magic 
of .screen animation, with the theatrical Walt Disney 
as chief practitioner. 

As the "golden wedding" year goes on there will 
inevitably be many theatrical observances, and there 
will he point (within the modest limits of wartime 
economies) in having the non-theatrical field organize 
its own particular celebrations, loo. if only to remind who hold the large brass keys to visual instruc- 
tion that tliere has accumulated for their endeavors a 
re.spectable and even impressive tradition. Upon the 
forgotten pioneer eflForts which they would thus un- 
cover, they might jiroceed into the latter half of the 

(Concluded on paiic 180) 

Page 177 

Is Necessary . . . 






Ktg. U. S. Pat. Off. 

No Compromise on QUALITY 

Because of Da-Lite"s policy of refusing to 
use substitute materials, you can always be 
sure that any Da-Lite model you select will 
be carefully made and durably constructed. 
The quantity may be limited because of the 
War Production Board's need to conserve 
metal, but the quality of Da-Lite equipment 
will never be sacrificed. 

No Compromise on SIZES 

The completeness of the Da-Lite line makes 
it easy to find the right screen for every 
projection requirement. 

No Compromise on CONVENIENCE 

Da-Lite Screens have always been distinguish- 
ed for their safety and ease of operation. The 
Challenger, with its exclusive slotted square 
tubing and patented, smooth-operating inner- 
locking device, is the only screen that can be 
adjusted in height without separate adjust- 
ments of the case or fabric. This prevents 
pulling the fabric from the roller when setting 
up the screen or raising it. 

For lasting satisfaction, specify DA -LITE 
when you buy screens. Ask your local office 
of the War Production Board for the latest 
regulations governing the sale of screens 
under W.P.B. order L-267. 


Dept. 4 E.S., 2723 No. Crawford Ave., Chicago 39, Illinois 

Page 178 

The Educational Screen 


As They Look to A Teacher Committee 

L. C. LARSON, Editor 

Instructor in School of Education 
Consultant in Audio- Visual Aids 
Indiana University, Bloomington 

Assisted by CAROLYN GUSS 

Extension Division 

Indiana University, Bloomington 

The Dutch Tradition 

(Brandon Films, Inc., 1600 Broadway, New York 19, New 
York) 27 minutes, 16mm, sound. Produced by the Netherlands 
Information Bureau and tlie National Film Board of Canada. 
Sale price $22.74. Apply to distributor or Motion Picture 
Bureau of the Office of War Information for rental sources. 

Introductory scenes show the familiar tulips, windmills, and 
wooden shoes of Holland. The film then passes from these 
familiar characteristics and portrays the fundamentals of Dutch 
moral strength and the traditional persistency in united effort 
for mutual progress through mutual endeavor. It sliows that 
the emigrants from Holland to Michigan have influenced Ameri- 
can ideals through their industry, craftsmanship, and high spirit- 
ual standards. Through their unflagging devotion to a common 
cause the Dutch drained the Zuyder Zee and thus created new 
farmlands to meet the needs of an increasing population. 

Later when the Nazis invaded Holland, whose Hague had 
been the center of international arbitration, the Dutch opened 
their canals to flood the Nazis, who circumvented this tactic by 
use of air-borne troops. In the same spirit they frustrated 
Japanese attempts at negotiating for the wealth of the Indies 
and even before Pearl Harbor declared war on Japan. Ap- 
parently their indomitable determination has not been thwarted 
by the defeat of their small Navy and Air Force which was no 
match for years of Japanese armament. 

The Dutch colonial policy of development in control of the 
Netherlands East Indies is shown as industry and education 
are introduced and the wealth of the islands is preserved rather 
than exploited. Likewise in the Dutch West Indies, the natives 
are free to develop their country and to contribute to the Allies 
oil refining and bauxite for planes. 

The unyielding prosecution of war against aggression is shown 
as the Netherlands people who have escaped from Holland are 
active all over the globe — Dutch flyers train in the United 
States to return to Pacific bases, Dutch seamen are active in 
the Allied Merchant Navy, and the Dutch Underground helps 
direct .Allied planes to their targets. 

The film concludes as the commentator states that the Dutch 
are following their Queen in a tradition of stubborn resistance 
to achieve the Netherlands Commonwealth in which they will 
work together as they are working together now for total victory. 

Committee Appraisal: A kaleidoscopic treatment of the 
people of Holland and the Indies which provides a background 
for better understanding of the Netherlands and its international 

This monthly page of reviews is conducted for the 
benefit of educational film producers and users alike. The 
comments and criticisms of both are cordially invited. 

Producers wishing to have new films reviewed on 
this page should write L. C. Larson, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana, giving details as to length, content, 
date on which the film was issued, basis of availability, 
prices, producer and distributor. They will be informed 
of the first open date when the Teacher Committee will 
review the films. The only cost to producers for the 
service is the cost of transporting the prints to and 
from Bloomington. This Cost Must Be Borne By The 

relations. Because the film covers many facets of the subject, 
some topics are not fully developed and require supplementary 
treatment by the teacher or leader. Suitable for use by classes 
in geography, commerce, and social studies, and by adult groups 
interested in the role Holland and the Indies are playing in 
the present war. 

Basic Typing Methods, Part L 

(Castle F'ilms, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New 
York) 35 minutes, 16mm. sound. Sale price $23.76. Produced 
by the Bureau of Aeronautics for the Division of Personnel, 
Supervision and Management — Navy Department. Apply to 
producer for rental sources. 

The film opens with a short historical sketch of the type- 
writer from 1868 to the present time. Various machines that 
are being used now are shown and their differences pointed out. 

Miss Lenora Fenton, expert typist, demonstrates and explains 
the principles of correct typing. The importance of good 
posture at the machine is stressed, and the position of body, 
fingers, hands, wrists, and arms is shown. Miss Fenton demon- 
strates the fundamentals of the keyboard and proper technique 
of finger stroking and shows contrast between the good and 
bad. Exercises to develop finger precision and agility are given. 
An explanation is given of the use of the tabular key, backspace, 
line space operator, paper guide, paper bail, and various other 
parts of the machine. Method of inserting, adjusting, and re- 
moving paper and carbon packs from machine is shown. 

The film closes with the admonishment that speed in typing 
comes with "intelligent and purposeful practice." 

Committee Appraisal: One of a series of eight office practice 
films produced by the Bureau of Aeronautics. Other titles are 
Maintenance nf Office Machines; Basic Typing Machine Opera- 
tions, Part II ; Advanced Typing Shortcuts, Part I ; Advanced 
Typing Duplicating and Manuscript. Part II : Machine Trans- 
cription, Machine Operation, Part I; Machine Transcription 
Trans. Tech., Part II; Take a Letter, Please; How to Dictate. 
Teachers of commerce, both on the secondary and adult level, 
should find these films valuable aids in teaching typing and 
shorthand skills. The committee felt that teachers might criti- 
cize the length of the films and the inclusion of many details. 

Fundamentals of Diet 

(Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 1841 Broadway, New York City^ 
11 minutes, 16mm. sound. Sale price $50.00 less 10% educational 
discount. Apply to producer for rental sources. Discussion 
guide available. 

The introduction divides animals into three classes in respect 
to their food habits — carnivorous, herbiverous, and omniverous. 
After man is identified with the omniverous group, the classes 
of foods which he has learned to eat are then shown. Emphasis 
is placed upon the fact that many of these foods nature has 
provided for her young, both in plants and in animals. 

Consideration is next given the special dietary factors that 
must be furnished by the diet : such as energy, protein, mineral 
nutrients, and vitamins, which are needed to build and repair 
muscle and other tissues, to build bones and teeth, to provide 
for growth, and to keep the body machine in good working 
order. Pictures showing children carrying out feeding exjxjri- 
ments as class projects indicate the results of the lack of diet 
and vitamin deficiencies such as the need for vitamin C to pre- 

(Concluded on page 180) 

April, 1944 

Page 179 

grew into modern consolidated schools 
»..and the growing hasn't stopped! 

Reliable estimates say that new school 
instruction will account for 30% of the 
postwar non-residential building. 

Changes in curriculum ... in emphasis teaching methods. . . are calling //ow 
for new school-planning thought. 

And high on the list of new educational 
demands is the extension of facilities for 
Tisual education in tomorrow's schools. 

Teaching, itself, is only one of the jobs 
Filmo Cameras and Filmosound Projec- 

School executives who are planning 
now for finer schools tomorrow, are in- 
vited to ask for information about im- 
proving facilities for visual education. 

Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; 
New York; Hollywood; Washington, 
D. C; London. Established 1907. 

nimo Aristocrat 
Smni. Camera 

Filmo-Master "400" 
8mm. Projector 


Enftlneers with a finished back- 
ground in electronics or mechan- 
ical design can tind a great future 
in helping Bell & Howell eiplore 
the peacetime horizons of OPTI- 
ONICS. Send complete details and 
phototo: Chairman, OPTI-ONICS 
Development, 7100 McCormlck 
Road. Chicago 45, Illinois. 

#TnuJe-(iurk reici^tered 

*Optl-onlc8 Is OPTICS . . . elec- 
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Scene from Colorful Yellowstone, 61med in full natural 
color. No need to travel in war-crowded trains, or burn 
precious gas to see the wonders of America. Bring them 
to your own classroom in all their natural beauty and 
color . . . with films from the Filmosound Library. 

Travel films have loog been accorded special em- 
phasis by the library stafiF, and we now offer one of the 
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Products combining fh0 sc/«nces of OPTIcs • elecfrONics • mechanics 

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Please send Filmosound Library Catalogs ( ) 
and Educational Utilization Digest ( ) 

Also new Filmosound V... — Circular ( ) 

Page ISO 

The Educational Screen 

Worth Waiting For! 


Here fhey are in 16mm. Sound! 


Fibber McGee and Molly, Edgar Bergen, Charlie 
McCarthy, Ginny Sinnms, Ray Noble and Or- 

*GET HEP TO LOVE (Universal) 

Gloria Jean, Donald O'Connor, Jane Frazee, 
Robert Paige, the Jivin' Jacks and Jills. 

Other Outstanding Features Include:- 



• BETWEEN US GIRLS (Universal) 


'^Advance Approval required 

Send tor Catalog of 3000 Entertainment and Edu- 
cational Subjects available for rental and sale. 

25 W. 45th St. Dept. E-4 New York J9, N. Y. 
19 LaSalle Street, Chicago 3. III. 
4247 Piedmont Ave., Oakland 11, Calif. 

vent scurvy wliicli is illustrated by a simple feeding experiment 
with guinea pigs. 

The major classes of foods in an ideal diet and their special 
contribution to body welfare arc portrayed. The film divides 
foods into the seven grou])s accepted by The Nutrition Office 
in Washington. The groupings are presented pictorially by 
showing many foods so classified, and then individual items 
being selected to emphasize the idea of an intelligent selection 
actually being made. 

The film ends with suggestions for substituting for foods 
which are not available — if fresh milk cannot be secured, if 
wholewheat bread is not available, if eggs or meat are too 
expensive or are not available, if fresh fruits cannot be purchased 
or if butter is not available. 

Committee Appraisal: Treats the groups of foods needed in 
the daily diet, tlie functions of the various groups, the wise 
selection of foods, and the possibility of substituting. As pointed 
out by the educational author. Dr. George R. Cowgill, Yale 
University School of Medicine, ".Authorities can differ as to 
just how many groups of food one should consider from a prac- 
tical standi)oint ; however this need not lead to rejection of the 
basic idea of such a classification as a means of facilitating 
the practical application of our knowledge of foods and food 

values." Student and adult groups interested in nutrition should 
find this film helpful in |)reseiiting an over-view of the subject. 


{ British Information Services, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York City 20) 13 minutes, 16mm. sound. Sale price $14.00. 
.Ajjply to producer for rental sources. 

Through laboratory demcjnstration, this film explains the 
method of separating the various products found in crude oil. 
Much of the explanation is done by means of animated dia- 
grams. Atoms of hydrogen and carbon are represented by 
white and dark balls. Each carbon atom has four arms ; each 
hydrogen atom has one arm, thus representing the valence of 
each. A combination of atoms is known as a molecule. Dia- 
grams of a few of the possible combinations of carbon and 
hydrogen atoms are represented by white and black balls form- 
ing chains, rings, and imions of both. 

Crude oil is composed of many different kinds of molecules. 
In order to secure the different products, it is necessary to 
separate each mixture. Since liquids have different boiling 
points, the mixtures are separated by distillation. 

To explain distillation a clear liquid is mixed with a dark 
liquid to which some crystals have been added. Heat is applied. 
.•\t one temperature, the clear liquid evaporates and is con- 
densed. .Xs the temperature rises, the dark liquid boils, evapo- 
rates, and is condensed. Only the crystals of the original mix- 
ture are left in the container. 

Distillation is used to separate the mixture of hydrocarljons 
in crude oil. .The suits in a deck of cards are used to represent 
the groups of hydrocarbons in crude oil. Each group is called 
a fraction. The object of distillation is to separate one fraction 
from the other. A diagram of the old-fashioned bench-still is 
shown ; oil flows from one still to the next as the heat under 
each still is increased. The vapors formed at the various tem- 
peratures are condensed by cold water, thus isolating each 
compound from the crude oil mixture. 

A picture of a modern fractionating tower is shown and 
a diagram explains the construction of the tower. The crude 
oil is heated ; the vapors rise in the fractionating tower and 
the residue is drawn off. .As the vapors ascend through more 
and more intense temperatures, each product is condensed at 
its particular boiling point and the product is removed. .All 
the products are shown as they are ready for the consumer. 

Committee Appraisal: .An excellent use of animated dia- 
grams to explain the prcxess of distillation of crude oil. Should 
be helpful to teachers of chemistry and vocational training in 
adding concrcteness to an abstract subject. 

The First Fifty Years 

(Concluded from piific 177) 

century with more assurance and perhaps with some 
saving in duplicating efforts. 

Charles Urban 's theatrical education department 
in 1903 was headed by Frank Percy Smith, a trained 
London school teacher ; the George Kleine offer to the 
New York schools was sponsored by the People's In- 
stitute and encouraged by to]) officials in the metro- 
politan school system ; Lincoln & Parker, of Worcester 
and Boston, who made their valiant fight to produce 
and to distribute films expressly for scliools — a project 
extending the educational film of Thomas 
A. Edison's theatrical company — were men who both 
had been trained and exj^erienced in pedagogy ; and 
Harley Clarke's foundation of the Society for Visual 
Education in the '20s fairly scintillated with interna- 
tionally known names of leading educators. 

Details concerning these and other pertinent facts 
have been given in the non-theatrical history which has 
been serialized in the pages of this inagazine since 
September, 1938. 

April, 1944 

Page 181 


35 mm. 



General Science 

Principles of Physics 

...11 rolls 
... 7 rolls 

Principles oi Chemistry 

... 8 rolls 
... 8 rolls 

Ntw York 

Fundamentals of Biology 

Ite for Folder and Free Sample Strip 

SCIENCES, ^^ Sufftrn, 

DVI (Zone II) New York Meeting 

WHEN the annual coinention of the .American 
iXs.sociation of School .\dniinistrators was re- 
arranged to provide for sectional rather than national 
meetings, in view of the exigencies of trans])()rtation 
and hotel space, the Department of Visual Instruction 
program was arranged on the same hasis. In New 
York City, on the afternoon of Fehruary 23, a timely 
six-unit program on the theme Visu.\l Education 
Today and Tomorrow was presided f)ver hy Dr. E. 
Winifred Crawford. DVI (Zone II) president. Eor 
the first time in her many years of school service, it 
was her pleasure to introduce her own superintendent 
of schools. Dr. A. L. Threlkeld, of Montclair, New 
Jersey. He made an interesting, favorahle appraisal 
of the contributions and future of vi.sual aids. 

Three of the units were excellently illustrated hy 
means of talking motion jiictitres. Lt. Lyle Stewart, 
of the Audio-Visual Training section in the United 
States Navy, laid particular emphasis on the utiliza- 
tion of vi.sual aids in the armed forces. Short sections 
from three widely different sound films were given in 
connection with his ])apcr. and the layout of his de- 
]5artment was shown hy means of projected still pic- 

Floyde E. Brooker. of the U. S. Office of Educa- 
tion, put forward a whole .series of challenging ques- 
tions that grow out of the tremendous war-home ex- 
pansion of the use of visual aids for education at all 
levels and in all subject matter areas. His talk was 
illustrated by the projection of a short section of a 
new USOE release. ''Tjik Slide Rule." 

Julien Bryan, producer for the Coordinator of Inter- 
.\merican .Affairs, discussed .some of his experiences 
in implementing the good neighbor ])oIicy with a movie 
camera, and showed two excellent new soimd films, 
"Montevideo Fa.milv" and "High Plane." 

L. C. Larson, of the University of Indiana, reported 
on current status of 16mm. di.stribution at the OWT. 
and on the activities of tiie "National 16mm. Advi- 
sory and Policy Committee". Dr. Lucile .Vllard, presi- 
dent of the Metropolitan New York Branch of the 
DVI, summarized the discussions. 

In attendance and interest, the sectional meeting 
equaled tiie i)est of the national meetings held in the 
past. An excellent informal dinner was held at the 
Town Hall Club. It was presided over by Miss Rita 
Hochheimer, and was featured by the introduction of 
prominent visual aid workers from all ])arts of the 
country. A preview of the new Warner theatrical 
feature. "Adventures of M.vkk Twain" concluded 
the program. 

The commercial exhibits, both at New York and 
C hicago. were of necessity limited in space and in dis- 
play budget. Nevertheless all of the well-known names, 
and some new ones, were well represented. 


Film Slide Projector 


For 2 > 2 Slides 

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Used By the Armed Forces 


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• Includes Monumotic 
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and other features 

This new easier-to-operate 
projeccor simplifies your pro- 
jection problem in ^var train- 
ing and industrial education. 
Provides clearer visibility for 
larger audiences. The Film- 
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300, 200 or 100 watt lamp. 
Complete with switch, cord 
and custom-built carrying 


Takes up to 1000 
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Above Hems Are 
Available Now on 
Proper Priority for: 

Educational Institutions 
— Army and Navy — 
Maritime Bases — Lend- 
lease — War Industries — 
Government Agencies — 
Medical Profession, etc. 

When writings 

• Choice of Lenses 

Pre-Foeus Socket Allqns 
Filament on Optical Ails 

All Steel-Welded Structure 

Built-in Tiltinq Device 

Fully Adjustable Bellows 

Developed to meet today's needs 
in training centers and schools. 
Cooler-operating . . . for long 
projection distances. Shows 
standard 3'/4"x'*" stereopticon 
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and polished lens furnished. 30" 
long overall. Stands firmly . . , 
yet is conveniently portable. 
please address DEPT. C 



Page 182 

The Educational Screen 

Never Fail 

in the Pinches 

In these times users of Holmes machines doubly 
appreciate the careful assembly and durable 
qualities of projectors that are always ready 
for service, requiring minimum attention and 
maintenance to keep them in excellent oper- 
ating condition. 

As soon as conditions permit. Holmes will again 
turn out for schools and civilians the same high 
type of projectors that have had such wide 
acceptance in the past. 


Manufacturers of 16min and 35mm Sound -on- Film 
Projectors for over 25 years to Dealers and Users 



/IpAll Relea^! 


!6MM Sound — 2 Reels 

lep by step, you're 
laken behind the scenes 
< f the great United 
States Naval Air Train- 
inK station at Jack- 
sonville, Florida, and 
watch the "Boots" be- 
come men with 
"Stripes." YouMl see 
how Uncle Sum trains his flyers — how they sweat and study 
to make the grade. And you'll be thrilled when they grad- 
uate for here are men specially trained in flying technique. 
You'll feel proud knowing our pilots and their crews are 
the world's best trained when they meet the enemy. 

"AIR CREW" is the 5th in the 


Series produced by R.K.O. 

I6mm prints of all issues in 
THIS IS AMERICA available for 
Rental or Lease to Schools. Social 
and Educational Institutions. Write 
for descriptive folder and prices. 

No. 1, Private Smith 
No. 2, Women at Arms 
No. 3. Army ChapUin 
No. 4. Boomtown, D.C. 

Exclusive T6MM Distributors 


R.K.O. BIdg.. Radio City, New York 20, N. Y. 


Ecvi an 

Eastman Classroom Films to University of Chicago 

President Robert M. llutchins announced on April 
12th that the University of Chicago has accepted a gift 
of the Eastman Classroom Films, with its vast library 
of silent educational movies, from the Eastman Kodak 
Company. The acquisition comprises some 300 reels of 
film for exclusive classroom use and represents an in- 
vestment of more than a million dollars. The new 
library will be combined with the 200-reel sound film 
collection of Erpi Classroom Films, recently acquired 
by the University. Like the Erpi set, the Eastman films 
will be distributed by Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, 
Inc., .subsidiary of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

In announcing the latest gift, Mr, Hutchins stated: 
"Britannica Films is now in such a commanding posi- 
tion in the field as to have a clear responsibility for the 
continued development and expansion of this important 
educational tool." Wm. B. Benton, chairman of the 
Board of EncyclopaecHa Britannica, Inc. and vice-presi- 
dent of the University of Chicago said: "With Erpi 
Classroom Films and now the Eastman films, Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica Films, Inc., is the distributor of the 
only library of films designed for classroom use. The 
University now is in an ideal position to take leadership 
in the entire area of visual education." Mr. Benton 
added that plans are being made for expanding facilities 
and that Stephen M. Corey, professor of education 
psychology at the University, is on leave for full time 
work on production plans. 
Commission Formed to Study 
Educational Film Needs 

Dr. George F. Zook, president of the American 
Council on Education, has announced the formation 
of a Commission on Motion Pictures in Education, 
consisting of six educators, whose duty it will be to 
make a survey of the uses of film in schools and col- 
leges and to plan for the production of films in fields 
of study where new educational films are needed. 
Particular attention will be given at first to a series 
of films related to post-war reconstruction. 

This project is being financed by a substantial grant 
from eight major Hollywood producers, namely, Co- 
lumbia, M-G-M, Paramount, RKO, 20th Century- 
Fox, United Artists. Universal and Warner Brothers. 
Members of the Commission are : Mark A. May, 
director of the Institute of Human Relations, Yale 
University, chairman ; George S. Counts, director of 
the division of foundations of education. Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University ; Edmund E. Day, presi- 
dent of Cornell University ; Willard E. Givens, execu- 
tive secretary of the National Education Association ; 
Monsignor George Johnson, general secretary of the 
National Catholic Education Association ; and Dr. 
George F. Zook. 

A preliminary survey on the needs for new motion 
picture material, and other studies in the evaluation 
of existing educational films, have been made by the 
American Council on Education. These studies, Dr. 
Zook declared, indicate great need for new films, jiar- 


April, 1944 

Page 183 



ticiilarly at the elementary school level and at all levels 
in English, history, guidance and vocational areas. 

The Commission plans to set up a national board 
of advisory consultants, composed of specialists in the 
various teaching and film fields. An office and staflf 
will be established for the carrying out of this study. 

New WPB Priority Regulations on 
Photographic Equipment 

The March issue of NAVED News carries a report 
on Priority Interpretations, by Richard F. O'Xeil, 
Visual Education Service. Inc., which sets forth some 
of the most important changes in the latest amendment 
to L-267. 

According to the new Regulation, restrictions are 
removed on delivery from manufacturer of any item 
of photographic equipment of $10.00 or less (including 
Federal Tax), and on delivery or repair or replace- 
ment parts. 

Manufacturers may deliver photographic equipment 
and accessories : ( 1 ) To fill a nonpref erred order bear- 
ing an AA-5 or higher rating; (2) as authorized by 
the nearest Field Office of WPB on 1319 Applica- 

Nearly all organized commercial business operates 
under CMP Reg. 5 which, within its ceiling of $500, 
authorizes ratings from AA-1 to AA-5 for Main- 
tenance, Repair and Operation (MRO). This means 
that all established business may obtain any item of 
photo equipment (except prohibited box cameras and 
8nim items) priced above $10 and below $500. on 
their MRO ratings, without filing a 1319 application. 

Nearly all Institutions — Governmental, Educational 
and Religious, Hospitals, Welfare Organizations, and 
other nonprofit associations — operate under CMP Reg. 
5A, which still has a $100 ceiling, and also authorizes 
MRO ratings from AA-1 to AA-5. Such Institutions, 
however, must still apply on the new 1319 forms for 
all items priced above $100, such form to be mailed 
to the nearest Field Office of WPB. 

Rare Pictures Telecast 

New York's estimated television audience of 40,000 
had a photographic peek at modes and manners of the 
past when some rare photographs were telecast for the 
first time February 9 at Station W2XWV, New York, 
during the Storm Agency Show, a weekly television 
performance. Dr. Otto Bettmann exhibited and com- 
mented upon the slides, which represented some of the 
choicest photos in his vast collection. Dr. Bettmann 
has achieved considerable prominence since 1936 when 
he entered this country from Germany laden with the 
world's largest collection of photographs depicting the 
progress of civilization. Me had amassed his array of 
pictures, totaling about 10,000, while head of the Rare 
Book Department of the Berlin State Art Library. The 
collection is so thoroughly indexed by Dr. Bettmann 
tliat a jjicture on any subject can be located quickly. 




.,.the Visual Way is ffie Best Way 

Whether ;+■$ world affairs or home 
affairs . . . the war front or the political front 
. . . the thrills of your favorite sport in or out 
of season . . . travel in America or the four 
corners of the earth ... or Hollywood's greatest 
stars in their greatest pictures . . . the motion 
picture is the great medium of expressioni 

Here are some of the outstanding dramatic, 
musical and comedy successes pronounced by 
leading motion picture critics as 

^'Pictures You Must Not Miss" 


. . . great tinging star in 






with Allan Jones, Phil 
Spitalny and His All- 
Girl Orchestra 


. . . the comedy team voted 
America's number one funny 
men in 





the people's own young fa- 
vorite in 






GET HEP TO LOVE with lovely little GLORIA JEAN 

And These Great Pictures Now Showing 
at Your Favorite Theatres 


the Story of Carlson's Marine Raiders on Malin Island 


Another Technicolor Fantasy of the Arabian Nights 


Adventure in the Supernatural with an All-Star Cast 


Based on the book that amazed millions; starring Franchot 
Tone. Ella Raines and Alan Curtis 


Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

Page 184 

The Educational Screen 

(Suizznt ^dm ^yVsaii 

■ Castle Films, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York City, have prepared the fol- 
lowing two companion reels picturing re- 
cent sensational action in the battle of 
the Pacific : 

Salute to the Navy — a stirring trib- 
ute to America's navy and to the men who 
are fighting the war on, under and above 
the Seven Seas. This film records the 
incredibly swift growth of the world's 
greatest navy, its traditions, training and 
gallantry, and reveals its power in thrill- 
ing battle scenes taken from the deck of 
a carrier during a raid in the Marshalls. 

Yanks Invade Marshall Islands — an 
exciting, tense combat picture filmed 
under fire by daring marine, army and 
navy cameramen from land, sea and sky. 
Heavy naval bombardment of Jap strong- 
holds and sweeping onslaughts of assault 
craft result in another mid-Pacific Ameri- 
can victory at Kwajalein and Roi. 

■ Bell & Howell Company. 1801 Larch- 
ment Ave.. Chicago, have acquired for 
their Filmosound Library tlie theatrical 
features : 

Pot o' Gold— 8 reels of light-hearted 
nonsense intermingled with hit tunes. 
Happy-go-lucky nephew of a rich manu- 
facturer of health foods finds romance 
and adventure on the air waves. In the 

cast are James Stewart, Paulette God- 
dard, Horace Heidt and Charles 'W'in- 

■Who Done It? (Universal produc- 
tion) — a travesty on murder-mystery 
dramas with Abbott and Costello as 
amateur detectives. 

Three Centuries of Massachusetts — 
a notable historical film. i)roduced by 
Harvard Ihiiversity and narrated by 
Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart, has been 
sold to the Bell & Howell Filmosound 
Library. The fihn is at present eight 
reels in length, and will be cut down 
and re-edited by the new owners. 
Meanwhile the original eight-reel ver- 
sion continues to be available through 
the same source. 

■ PicTORi.\L Films, Inc., RKO Build- 
ing, New York City, makes available this 
month 16mm sound prints of the fifth 
subject in the RKO series. This Is 
America, which they are distributing. 
Title of the April issue is : 

Air Crew — the story, step-by-step, 

of the transformation of a raw recruit 
into a flyer who proudly receives his 
wings on graduation day. The film pre- 
sents a behind-the-scenes picture of the 
stiff training and studying program at 
the U. S. Naval Air Training Station in 
Jacksonville, Florida, where our pilots 
and crews receive the best training in 
the world. 

■ Post Pictures Corporation, 723 Sev- 
enth Ave., New York City, announces 
the availability of another Hal Roach 
feature picture on 16mm sound, namely: 

Topper Returns, which follows the 
further adventures of Topper, the amateur 
detective who turns strange happenings 
into outbursts of gaiety. Featured are 
Roland Young, Joan Blondell, Carole 
Landis, Dennis O'Keefe, Billie Burke, and 
Eddie (Rochester) Anderson. 

The sixth edition of the Post Pictures 
catalogue is available on request by writ- 
ing to that company. 

■ British Information Services, 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York, report 
many new 16mm sound subjects on 
Britain at War, including: 

Letter from Ireland (22 niin.) — a film 
letter describing the training, living con- 
ditions and recreations of American 
soldiers in Northern Ireland. 

Cameramen at War (15 min.) — show- 
ing them in action and some of the famous 
scenes they have shot right in the fore- 
front of the battle, armed only with 

Up Periscope (21 min.) — a tense 
story of a British submarine on patrol 
in the North Sea. After successfully at- 
tacking an enemy ship, it dives and awaits 
the counter-attack. 

Tank Patrol (37 min) — dramatized 
incident in the desert concerning a 
stranded tank crew. How they elude 
the enemy and rejoin the British. 

Coire Again (16nim.) — changes the 

war has wrought in British ways of liv- 
ing, as seen by three returning emigrants. 
Nations Within a Nation (16 min.) — 
how the exiles of nine European nations, 
which now have recognized Governments 
in London, carry on their own national 
life and institutions. 

■ Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc., 25 West 
45th St., New York City, announce the 
release in 16mm sound of a feature pro- 
duction exposing Japanese treachery and 
contempt for western civilization. The 
film, acclaimed by many critics as "one 
of the ten best," is titled : 

Kara Kiri — starring Charles Boyer, 
Merle Oberon and John Loder. The plot 
concerns a ruthless, inhuman Japanese 
war-lord and his downfall, and portrays 
the fanatical devotion of the Japanese 
for the ancient traditions of Nippon, no 
matter how barbaric. Pictured are some 
of the most spectacular naval battles ever 
filmed. The picture is available for rental 
and long term lease. 

Two new one-reel films added to the 
Gutlohn educational library of 16mm 
sound short subjects are: 

Fundamentals of Boxing — a detailed 
demonstration of every move, offensive 
and defensive, by Carl Siebert, veteran 
boxing instructor, and his students. 

The Eight Parts of a Business Let- 
ter — showing how mail is handled, 
why letters are standardized as to form 
in business, the difference between social 
and business forms, the various parts of 
a letter from heading to signature, basic 
displays and arrangements of the parts. 
Every essential element of form is 

■ Father Hubbard Educational Films. 
188 W. Randolph St., Chicago, has just 
released in 16mm. sound, the feature film : 

Mush You Malemutes — based on 
Father Hubbard's book of the same title. 
Filled with adventure, humor and human 
interest, the subject covers the dramatic 
trek through the Alaskan wilderness en- 
route to .'Kniakchak, described as the 
greatest active volcanic crater in the 
world. The crater is filmed in its breath- 
taking destruction immediately after its 
earth-shaking explosion. Alaskan life and 
scenery in the depth of frozen arctic 
nights and blooming summer beauty is 
vividly depicted. 

April, 1944 

Page 185 

■ The Prixikton Film Center, Prince- 
ton. Xew Jersey, is booking 16mni. sound 
prints in full natural color of one of its 
latest releases titled : 

Empire on Parade — a forty-niinute 
film document of the immense resources 
of tlie Xortlnvestern area of this country 
served by the Great Northern Railway — 
a vast section of the nation which is now 
supplying many of the essentials of war. 

■ Westixciiouse Electric & Manuf.\c- 
TURIXG Co., 306 Fourth Ave.. Pittsburgh. 
Permsylvania. traces the 23-year history 
of broadcasting in its new film : 

On the Air— The Story of Radio 
Broadcasting (28 min.) — 16mni and 
35mm sound. Scenes in the swift rise of 
tlie radio industry arc re-enacted. De- 
picting the detailed operations of a typi- 
cal broadcasting day. the film covers 
writing, scripting, rehearsal, timing, pro- 
duction and presentation of a broadcast. 
N'ext the technical side of l)roadcasting 
is shown. The picture predicts a rapid 
growth in the process of radio-photo 
transmission, and in the use of television 
and shortwave broadcasting. 

The film is distributed free to schools, 
churches and associations by the West- 
inghouse School Service department. 

■ Ofucial Film.s. 625 Madison Ave.. 
Xew York, have issued their latest 
"Sportbeam." covering 

Big League Baseball — in which the 
big league players, and the specialized 
plays that have made them famous, pass 
in review in an entertaining and instruc- 
tive manner. Batting, pitching, running, 
bunting, sliding, home-run and all the 
tricks of the diamond are demonstrated. 
The film is available in 8mni silent, and 
in 16mm silent and sound. 

■ Gexeral FIlkctric Compaxv. through 
its Photolamp Division at Mela Park. 
Cleveland. Ohio, has produced an educa- 
tional movie featuring the technical as- 
pects of flash photography. The 3-reel 
film — available in 16mm and 35mm — is 
intended for inmiediate use by photo- 
graphic schools of all branches of the 
military services. It is also designed to 
educate professional and amateur photog- 
raphers on how better flash pictures may 
be taken. 

Slow motion sequences permit the 
humaji^ eye to follow the swift action of 
various camera shutters, of the perform- 
ance of popular flash bulbs, and of high- 
precision timings. This has been achieved 
through adroit use of extremely high 
sjjeed motion picture photographj-. The 
film features the oiierations and char- 
acteristics of between-the-lens and focal 
plane shutters, various midget flash bulbs, 
and the relative merits of sundry reflec- 
tors — all with relation to one another. 
Detail action is shown through animation. 

Prints of the film are handled by G.E. 
[.amp Department's district offices where 
arrangements may be made for showing 
the picture locally. 

czrf'moncj tliE i/Ao 

Paul Thornton Named Director of 
RCA Educational Department 

Appointment of Paul Thornton as di- 
rector of the Educational Department of 
the RCA Victor Division has been an- 
nounced by Robert Shannon, general 
manager of the Division. At the same 
time, Mr. Shannon announced that the 
Educational Department activities are 
now a part of the company's .Advertising 
Service Department, under the super- 
vision of the Adverttsing Director. 
Charles B. Brown. 

The department which Mr. Thornton 
directs, with headquarters in CamdeiL 
N. J., was established in 191 1 as a service 
for schools. It now assists teachers and 
school administrators in the selection and 
utilization of records, phonographs, radios, 
sound systems, movie projectors and other 
equipment which RCA makes available 
for schools. An important wartime serv- 
ice is that of providing radio and other 
technical information for pre-induction 
training programs. 

Mr. Thornton joined RC.A's Educa- 
tional Department in 1940, and has served 
as assistant director for two years. Prior 
to 1940 he taught for 12 years in ele- 
mentary schools, high schools and colleges 
in the Midwest and South. He also 
served for some time in a supervisory post 
with the State Department of Education 
in Louisiana. He received his B.S. de- 
gree from Kansas State Teachers Col- 
lege, Emporia. Kans., in 1928, and his 
master's degree from Northwestern Uni- 
versity in 1936. 

S.V.E. Slideiilm on Slide Binding 

A new 33-franie slidefilm on the 
proper techniques for using the S. V. 
E. Slide Binder has been announced 
by the Society for \'isual Education. 
Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago 



11, Illinois. It will be furnished free 
to those in charge of the visual in- 
struction departments or courses, and 
to others who are using the binders 

The slidefilm presents the few com- 
mon tools required for using this 
simple and safe binder — scissors, 
brushes, water container, blotter and 
soft cloth. Next is shown the proper 
steps in removing Kodachromes from 
their mounts for binding, followed by 
instructions for the proper cutting 
apart of double-frame prints for bind- 
ing. The next sequence follows each 
step of the process of binding, to 
achieve the desired protection of the 
film from dust and moisture. The 
same procedure is followed for either 
double or slide mounting 
in the regular binder, except for the 
addition of the single-frame mask. This 
is also the procedure used to bind 
films of bantam size in the special 
bantam binders. 

Further information concerning the 
new slidefilm and the S. V. E. bind- 
ers will be fiirtiislied upon request. 

C. C. Cooley Becomes 

Da-Lite Screen Vice-President ' 

Mr. J. C. Heck, President of Da-Lite 
Screen Company, Inc., Chicago, an- 
nounces the election of Mr. Chester C. 
Cooley as Vice President in charge of 
sales and advertising. 

Mr. Cooley has been with the Da-Lite 
Screen Company for 18 years. He has 
had broad experience in both the pro- 
duction and sales departments and is 
thoroughly familiar not only with his 
company's products, but also with the 
needs of Da-Lite customers. Mr. Cooley 
is also Vice President of The Photo- 
graphic Manufacturers and Distributors 

Recruiting Films "Get Their Man" in Canadian Wilds 

News of what's happening in the War 
and Canada's share in the fighting is be- 
ing brought to isolated sections of the 
North Woods and the Arctic regions by 
a traveling Victor 
16mm sound motion 
picture unit of the Ca- 
nadian National Film 
Board. Operated and 
transported by three 
members of the Cana- 
dian .'Vrmcd Forces, 
this mobile unit is ef- 
fectively aiding the re- 
cruiting efforts in re- 
gions which could not 
otherwise be reached 
with visual propa- 
ganda. The recruiting 
films use French or 
English sound tracks, 
depending on the lan- 
guage of their audi- 

The run consists of a Victor 16mm 
Animatophone and Speaker, its own 100 
watt generator power unit and a library 

of films. 

Mobile Victor Sound Motion Picture Unit. 

Page 186 

The Educational Screen 

Wartime Uses of 

Thirty-two Royal 
Canadian Air Force 
stations in Canada eacli 
have a band — without 
the benefit of bands- 
men and instruments ! 
Soon, by means of mo- 
tion picture film, all air 
force stations across 
Canada will have this 
same type of mechan- 
ized band music, played 
by the outstanding 
band of the RC.A.F for 
as long as forty-five 
continuous minutes. 
This is a further illus- 
tration of another wartime use of motion 
picture film — the broadcast of martial 
music on a Bell &• Howell Filmosound for 
the entire regiment. 

The Filmosound unit is demountable, 
and can be used to project motion pic- 
tures with sound accompaniment in bar- 
racks, doubles as a public address system. 
and is an over-all unit with entertainment 


with B & H 16mm sound equipment. 

and educational utilization. The current 
news is broadcast to' the entire forces; 
the officer in charge can deliver his orders 
by means of the Filmosoimd public ad- 
dress systems ; and route marches, cere - 
monial parades, drill ground training, and 
lectures now reach the boys in the RCAF 
via motion picture equipment. 

Filmosound V Available 
ior Essential Purposes 

The Filmosound V, 16mm sound-on- 
film motion picture projector, is available 
at this time on priority for essential 
purposes according to prevailing govern- 
ment directives. This compact, sturdy, 
precision-built, easy-to-operate product of 
Bell & Howell engineering achievement 
is being used to project the sound movies 
that entertain and instruct our soldiers of 
today and educate our citizens of to- 
morrow. Until priority regulations are 
lifted, the limited supply of those Filmo- 
sounds must be restricted to sale to the 
armed forces, hospitals, and schools. 

The latest edition of the Filmo- 
sound sales folder is available upon re- 
quest from Bell & Howell Company, 1801 
Larchniont Avenue, Chicago 13, and de- 
scribes the features of the new B&H 
Filmosound V. 

New Keystone Physics Units 

A completely revised and enlarged 
Physics manual has been prepared by 
Harry N. Wheaton for the Keystone 
View Company. Meadville. Pennsylvania, 
to accompany their new series of physics 
slides. This manual emphasizes two 
fundamental courses urged by the War 
Department for particular attention in 
high schools — "The Fundamentals of Ma- 
chines" and "The Fundamentals of Elec- 
tricity." Both of these courses were 
worked out by the author in accordance 
with the outline proposed by the War 
Department. The manual also covers two 
other subjects, "The Fundamentals of 
Sound," and "The Fundamentals of 

The manual and scries of slides have 
been carefully prepared and will be of 
permanent usefulness to schools, regard- 
less of war needs. The manual alone sells 
for $1.00. It is furnished without charge 
when five or more units from the slide 
series are purchased. 

Radiant Screen Plan for Post-War 
Placement of Service Men 

Unusual enthusiasm from both service 
men and industry has greeted the in- 
auguration of a soundly conceived post- 
war plan for assuring proper placement 
for men and w'omen in the visual equip- 
ment and photographic field after they 
leave the U. S. armed forces. Developed 
by the Radiant Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago manufacturer of screens, this 
program is now in full swing and is 
bringing some surprising results. The 
specific object of the Radiant plan is to 
obtain the registration of all men and 
women who are engaged in visual train- 
ing, film production and film distribution, 
or who had visual equipment experience 
liefore entering the armed forces so that 
those who wish to continue in this field 
after the war can be located. 

Special registration cards for this pur- 
pose have been prepared by the Radiant 
Manufacturing Company and distributed 
at points where all types of training and 
entertainment films are stored and pro- 
jected, and where ec|uipment is serviced. 
These cards list the previous experience 
and background of each registrant, as well 
as the specific fields in which post-war 
interest is indicated. 

These fields include the production and 
distribution of films and the sales, servic- 
ing, manufacturing, retail and wholesale 
distribution of projection equipment. Reg- 
istration cards are l^eginning to pour in 
to Radiant headquarters. When the files 
are completed, the lists of these regis- 
trants will be sent to manufacturers, dis- 
tributors and retailers in the visual train- 
ing industry. Naturally, service men and 
women have indicated their sincere appre- 
ciation of this opportunity to prepare for 
their post-war future. Numerous ex- 
pressions of approval have been received 
from commanding officers and executive 

DeVry Honored 

DeA'ry Corporation, 1111 Armitage 
Ave., pioneer manufacturers of motion 
picture sound equipment, has been 
awarded the signal honor of receiving 
a second white star for its ARMY- 
NAVY E Flag — denoting continued 
production excellence for the war ef- 
fort on the part of its personnel. 

In the letter of notification, C. C. 
Bloch. Admiral USN (Retd) Chair- 
man Navy Board for Production 
.\vvards, advised President William C. 
DeVry that the additional white star, 
which the renewal of the "E" award 
adds to their Army-Navy "E" flags, 
"is the symbol of appreciation from 
our Armed Forces for your continued 
untiring effort and support so neces- 
sary for victory." 

DeVry is the only concern in the 
I'nited States to be thus honored for 
the manufacture of motion picture 
sound equipment and secret electronic 
training devices incorporating motion 
picture projection principles developed 
by DeVry's founder, the late Dr. Her- 
man .\. DeVry. 

Bibliography Available 

A Bibliography covering the subject 
of "The Use of Motion Pictures in 
Education during the Past Twenty 
Years" has just been completed by 
Charles R. Crakes, Visual Educa- 
tional Consultant for the DeVry Cor- 

Titles of twenty-five books, articles, 
film directories, and periodicals offer 
a basic reference list for the study of 
administration and utilization prac- 
tices in the field of audio-visual aids. 
Copies can be obtained without cost 
from the DeVry Corporation, 1111 Ar- 
mitage Avenue, Chicago 14. Illinois. 

New Eastman Aerial Camera 

.\n aerial camera that will photograph 
from a height of 40,000 feet upwards, is 
now being produced by Eastman Kodak 
Company for Army use. To test the 
operation of the camera at temperatures 
to which it will be subjected — from forty- 
five to seventy degrees below zero — East- 
man workers had to wear Arctic cloth- 
ing, such as is used by the Air Force. 

Roshon Moves Headquarters 

The Russell C. Roshon Organization. 
16mm sound motion picture distributors, 
has moved its headquarters office from 
Pittsburgh, Pa., to Suite 2200, RKO 
Bldg., New York City (20). 

In line with its policy of expansion the 
company has also recently opened its six- 
teenth branch exchange in the Liberty 
Life Bldg., Charlotte, N. C. 

The Roshon Organization are exclusive 
distributors of many Walt Disney car- 
toons in 16mm sound and a large number 
of Columbia features. The library also 
includes Westerns and other Hollywood 
features, serials and short subjects in 
16nmi sound. 

April, 1944 

Page 187 

Additional Valuable Literature 

"lOOO AND ONE"— The Blue Book of Films 

•lOOO and 0\E' The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
as the standard film reference, indispensable to film users in 
the educational field. The CURRENT, NINETEENTH 
EDITION lists and describes over 5,000 films, classified into 
176 different subject groups (including large groups of enter- 
tainment subjects). A valuable feature is a complete alpha- 
betical list of every film title in the directory. Other infor- 
mation includes designation of whether a film is available in 
16mm, or 3Smni, silent or sound, number of reels and sources 
distributing the films, with range of prices charged. 

136 pp. Paper. Price 75c. (25c to E. S. Subscribers) 


"1000 and ONE" under The National Film Evaluation Project 

.\ new and unique service to the teaching field. Film Evalua- 
tions made by nation-wide Judging Committee of over SOO 
teachers after actual use of the films with classes. 

Each Supplement consists of 50 standard-size library cards 
carrying detailed evaluations of SO films, based on combined 
scores of IS or more teachers on each film. Three Supplements 
have appeared to date. Another appears as soon as SO more 
films attain their quota of IS or more scores. 

Price per Supplement — 50 cards in carton, serially numbered 
1 to SO, 51 to 100, 101 to ISO, etc., with full explanations ac- 
companying, 50 cents (postpaid if cash with order.') 

By Ellsworth C. Dent 

Presents in convenient form, practical information for 
those interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to 
instruction. The six chapters include discussions on "The 
Status of Visual Instruction." "Types of Visual Aids and 
Their Use," "Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction," 
"Types of Sound Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio- 
Visual Service," "Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. IIlus. Cloth. Price $1.75 

By Harry C McKown and Alvin B. Roberts 

.A. practical volume which shows the teacher and adminis- 
trator how to select, organize, and utilize audio-visual aids of 
all types, in all subjects, and at all levels, from kindergarten 
through the twelfth grade. Primary emphasis is on actual 
practice and every effort has been made to include specific 
information and advice which will be most helpful in the 
classroom. 384pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.00 

By Joseph J. Weber. Ph. D. 

Presents in unusually interesting form the results of the 
extended investigations on the teaching values of the lanterr. 
slide and stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 
(67c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

.\ stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 
of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 
humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 
Well's dictum that the "future is a race between education 
and catastrophe." 124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25. 


A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination of teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution. 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Eleanor Child and Hardy R. Finch 

Based on first-hand experiences of the authors and those 
of many other teachers and movie enthusiasts. Chapters are 
"Organization (of a Club); Choosing the Idea; The Scenario; 
Buying Equipment; Using the Equipment; Filming the Pic- 
ture; Advanced Techniques; Final Preparation and Showing. 
.\ welcome book to those who want movie-making explained 
in simple terms. 151 pp. Paper. Illus. Price $1.50. 

AND PROBLEMS. By William H. Hartley 

Part I gives directions for obtaining, evaluating and utiliz- 
ing films. Part II comprises a fully annotated catalog of the 
most useful films for illustrating various aspects of American 
Civilization. Title of film, length, whether sound or silent, 
production date, producer, sale and rental price and grade 
level suitability, are given. Also synopsis of film content. 
Suggestions are offered concerning most effective application 
of the film to the teaching situation. 

275 pp. Cloth. Price $2.25. 

By Ella Callista Clark, Ph. D. 

Brief, clear, concise, authoritative. .\n attractively printed 
manual of procedure for all visual aids in teaching, with 
stimulating suggestions for the inexperienced teachers as 
well as for the veteran. 

24 pp. Paper. Illus. I'rice 25c. 

By G. E. Hamilton 24 pp. Paper. Price 10c. 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price 15c. 

TO ORDER, Check Material 


"1000 and One" Film Directory t .7B Q 

Film Evaluation Supplements 

No. 1. No. 2. and No. 3 1.50 Q 

The .Audio-Visual Handbnnk 1.75 D 

Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction 3.00 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 □ 

An .Alternative for Revolution and War 1.25 □ 

Evaluation of Still Pictures SOD 

Producing School Movies 1.50 □ 

Selected Films for American History 2.25 n 

Use of Visual Aids in Teaching 25 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .15 Q 
How to Make Handmade Lantern Slides . .10 □ 

To sub- 
of E. S. 

I .26 O 

1.50 □ 

1.75 n 

3.00 n 

.67 D 
1.25 D 
.50 D 
1.60 D 
.10 D 

Desired and Fill in Blank Below 


U. S. 1 year, $2.00 D 2 years, $3.00 D 

Foreign 1 year. $3.00 D 2 years, $5.00 D 

Canada 1 year, $2.50 D 2 years, $4.00 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $. 


School or Street 

Citv State 

Page 188 

The Educational Screen 

lUt^'DT^ T'XJrr^^ A T31I* A "T^ad® Directory 

£^£jXXU X ±lU X X^XvXLl for the Visual Field 

Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. 


1425 Williams St., Denver, Colo. 

Bailey Film Service (3) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Calif. 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on pasre 179) 

Bray Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave.. New York. N. Y. 
Castle Films (2, 5) 

RCA Bldg., New York. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 149) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St., 
Green Bay, Wis. 

College Film Center (3, 5) 

84 E. Randolph St.. Chicago. 111. 
Community Movies (3) 

1426 W. Washington St. 
Charleston 2, W. Va. 

Creative Educational Society (1) 

4th Fl.. Coughlan Bldg. 
Mankato. Minn. 
DeVry School Films (3) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on page 146) 

Eastman Kodak Stores. Inc. (3) 

Eastman Classroom Films 
356 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica Films. Inc., 

1841 Broadway, New York 23 (2, 5) 
(See advertisement on page 171) 

Films. Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York, N. Y. 

64 E. Lake St.. Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth Ave.. Portland, Ore. 

(See advertisement on page 175) 

Fryan Film Service (3) 

2nd Floor, Film Building 
Cleveland, Ohio 

General Films, Ltd. (3 6) 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 
156 King St. W. Toronto 

Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. (3) 

25 W. 45th St.. New York. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 180) 

Hoffberg Productions, Inc. (2. 5) 

618-20 Ninth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3 6) 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 173) 

Institutional Cinema Service (3) 

1560 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. 

Knowledge Builders Classroom Films 

625 Madison, New York, N. Y. (2, 5) 

Mogull's Inc. (3) 

68 W. 48th St., New York 19 

National Film Service _ (2) 

14 Glenwood Ave. Raleigh, N. C. 
309 E. Main St., Richmond. Va. 

Nu-Art Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

145 W. 45th St.. New York 19 

Pictorial Films Inc. (2) 

RKO Bldg., New York City. 

(See advertisement on page 182) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3) 

723 Seventh Ave., New York. N. Y. 

The Princeton Film Center (2) 

55 Mountain Ave., Princeton, N. J. 

Swank's Motion Pictures (3) 

620 N. Skinker Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 

(See advertisement on page 176) 

Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 183) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Lamar, .'\ustin. Tex. 

Vocational Guidance Films, Inc. (2) 

2718 Beaver Ave.. Des Moines. la. 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3) 
347 Madison Ave.. New York, N.Y. 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St., San Francisco. Cal. 
1700 Patterson Ave., Dallas. Tex. 


The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 150) 

Bell & HoweU Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 179) 

Central Education Association (1) 

123 S. Washington St.. 
Green Bay, Wis. 
Community Movies (3) 

1426 W. Washington St. 
Charleston 2, W. Va. 

DeVry Corporation (3, b) 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 146) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave.. New York, N. Y. 

General Films, Ltd. (3. 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina. Sask. 
156 King St.. W. Toronto 
Holmes Projector Co. (3. 6) 

1813 Orchard St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 182) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on page 173) 

Mogull's Inc. (3) 

68 W. 48th St.. New York 19 

Radio Corporation of America (2) 

Educational Dept., Camden. N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 152) 

Ralke Company (2) 

829 S. Flower St.. Los .\ngeles 14. Cal. 

S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corp. (3. 6) 

449 W. 42nd St.. New York, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport Iowa 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Visual Education Incorporated (3) 

12th at Lamar, Austin, Tex. 
Williams Brown and Earle, Inc. (3 6) 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co.. Inc. 

2723 N. Crawford Ave., 
Chicago 39, III. 

(See advertisement on page 177) 

Mogull's, Inc. 

68 W. 48th St., New York 19 

National Film Service 

14 Glenwood Ave., Raleigh, N. C. 
309 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. 

Radiant Mfg. Company 

1144 W. Superior St., 
Chicago 22. III. 

(See advertisement on page 14.S) 

Society for Visual Education. Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25. N. Y. 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Jam Handy Organization 

2900 E. Grand Blvd.. Detroit. Mich. 

I See advertisement on page 169) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway. New York 25, N. Y. 
Visual Sciences 

Suffern. New York 
Williams, Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 


C. Edward Graves 

P. O. Box i7. Areata, Cahf. 
Klein & Goodman 

18 S. 10th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. 111. 
(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

The Stanley Bowmar Co. 

2929 Broadway, New York 25, X. Y. 


Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, 111. 

I See advertisement on page 173) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 14^) 

Radio-Ma« Slide Co.. Inc. 

222 Oakridge Blvd. 
Daytona Beach. Fla. 

(See advertisement on page 172) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N .Y. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago, III. 
(See advertisement on page 146) 

General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St.. Regina. Sask. 
156 King St., W. Toronto 
Golde Manufacturing Co. 

1220 W. Madison St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 181) 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 148) 

Society for Visual Education. Inc. 

100 E. Ohio St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Ralke Company 

829 S. Flower St., Los Angeles 14, Cal. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 151) 

Williams Brown and Earle. Inc. 

918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 




























Continuous insertions under one heading, $2.00 per issue; additional listings under other headings, $1.00 each. 

May, 1944 

Page 189 



describing all ^^ available 

U. S. Office of Education 


Here is a new and complete catalog of 
value to every industry . . . every train- 
ing school in the United States! It de- 
scribes every one of the films now 
available . . . both those released last 
year and NEW ones released this year. 
It gives data, prices . . . tells you about 
the new film strip and instructor's 
manual available with each film! 


Machine Shop . . . Aircraft Work . . . 

Shipbuilding . . . Farm Work 

When you go through the new free catalog 
you will discover that you have available 
films on precision measurement, engine lathe, 
milling machine, vertical boring mill, radial 
drill, sensitive drill, vertical drill, bench 
work, shaper, single point cutting tools, 2S 
films on shipbuilding— from surfacing foun- 
dations to installing pipe; films on aircraft 
work that range from sawing template metal 
to tube bending; films on repairing farm 
machinery, canning, sheep shearing. 

While films are arbitrarily listed under 

different classifications— all industries having 
machine shops will find machine shop films 
valuable. The aircraft industry and the ma- 
chine shop industries will find many of the 
shipbuilding films applicable to their own 
businesses. Shipbuilders will find that they 
can use many allied films. And manufacturers 
of farm machinery, wool buyers, and canners 
will find the agricultural subjects of value. 
All the films are part of an integrated pro- 
gram to help you increase efficiency and pro- 


U. S. Office of Education films were used 
last year- are being used now— by every key 
manufacturing plant . . . every major train- 
ing school . . . in the United States. Users 
have discovered that the films help to cut 
time, cut waste, and increase efficiency of 
production. They can help you speed victory 

now . . . AND . . . build towards higher effi- 
ciencies in the postwar world! 

ACT NOW! To appreciate fully what this 
pre^gram of visual education can mean to 
you, send for the free catalog without delay. 
When you receive it, study its pages care- 
fully. See how you can use the films effectively 
. . . today, and in the future! 


Distributor for 





(The "C" and "D" Scales) 

Last year, "The Micrometer" 
helped to teach thousands of 
workers how to use this all-im- 
portant precision tool. "THE 
Slide Rule" is a companion film 
of equal basic importance. It 
helps to teach through seeing . . . 
through hearing. Simply. Quick- 
ly. Clearly. Animated diagrams 
help to give the worker a quicker 
understanding. Use this visual aid now for Victory! Price: 

16 mm. Sound Motion Picture .... $30.67 

Coordinated Film Strip 1 .00 

Complete Visual Unit 31.67 




AAdrtss nearest oflfice 

Please send the FREE catalog describing all U. S. OFFICE OF Educa- 
tion Training Films. 






Page 190 

The Educational Screen 


^ DeVRY 

To the company whose founder gave the world the idea of 
portable motion picture projection —an idea that has contributed 
so much to the training and cheering of our men and women 
on the fighting fronts — is awarded another top honor — a third 
consecutive Army-Navy "£^' pennant for production excellence in the 
manufacture of motion picture sound equipment. To DeVRY work- 
ers — it is reassuring that each shipment of cameras, projectors, 
and electronic gunnery trainers built by them helps to hasten 
the dawn of a NEW and SECURE Tomorrow ! 

Out of the laboratory of wartime neces- 
sity and thic relentless proving ground of 
war — is emerging a NEW, postwar 
DeVRY — a DeVRY worth waiting for. 
On V-Day, DeVRY will be ready with 
finer, sturdier, lighter, and reasonably 
priced motion picture equipment and 
associated electronic products — de- 
signed, engineered, and built to war- 
born perfection . . . "the World's Most 
Complete Line of Atotinn Picture Equip- 
ment." DeVRY corporation, 
1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 14, 111. 



Teacher's Manual 

FILMSETS value and utility is in- 
creased many-fold by 112-page Teach- 
ers Manual with 672 carefully selected 
illustrations from the 6Ims. Each 
2-i>age spread is a lesson outline — a 
quick, convenient supplement to aid 
teacher's introduction and review of 
textbook or lesson subjects. 
To FILMSETS purchasers is available 
an attractive metal self-humidifying 
film cabinet, each drawer built to 
house and preserve 12 films. 

In building FILMSETS three re- 
quirements were made of every 
scene accepted; (/) accuracij and 
authority, (3) photographic quality, 
(3) correlation with lesson theme. 


9 FILMSETS are the only direct classroom teaching films 
planned, photographed and captioned to teach Geography 
and Social studies to a particular age group — with meticu- 
lous attention to accuracy and autlientieity of subject 
matter and without padded sequences for photographic 
effect. FILMSETS are 200-foot, 16mm silent films cover- 
ing 22 subjects in Economic (food, shelter, clothing) and 
26 subjects in Regional Geography. Write today for de- 
tails about FILMSETS that took five years to produce — 
at a cost of $100.000 — and that are immediately available 
at the surprisingly low cost of $12.00 per reel. Buy as 
many reels as you wish. 


Writ* for the new 

1944 DeVRY Film 

Book of Class- 

FREE PREVIEW -';,„, ,„„, „.,.,„„ „„„,, ,, 

FILMSETS and leiton manual. Us* these for tO days. No obligation t< 

FILMSETS were planned, produced and captioned by 
educators who know the teacher's problem and the student's 
need. They are particularly applicable to today's Global 
teaching problems — important both to introduction and 
review of lesson subjects. The time to use them is now! 
Write today for FREE PREVIEW. FILMSETS, INC.. 
1956 North Seminary .\ve., Chicago 14, Illinois. 

FILMSETS IS affiliated ivitli DeMIY Corporafi'on 



Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - - Office Manager 

Department Editors 
John E. Dugan - Haddon Heights^ N. J. 
Hardy R. Finch - - Greenwich, Conn. 
Ann Gale -.----. Chicago, 111. 
David Goodman - - New York, N. Y. 
Josephine Hoffman - - - Chicago, 111. 
L. C. Larson - - - Bloomington, Ind. 
John A. Lyons - Thompsonville, Conr.. 
F. Dean McClusky - Scarborough, N. Y. 
Etta Schneider Ress - New York, N. Y. 
David Schneider - - - New York. N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans. Director, Visual Instruction 
Center. Public Schools, San Diego, 

VV^ M. Gkegorv. Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, Cleveland. Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

James S. Kinder, Director PCW Film 
Service, Pennsylvania College for 
Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bovd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed, U. S. Office of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Maj. W. Gayle Starnes, Chief, Training 
Division, Signal Corps Depot, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Lelia Trounger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittinghill, Director of Trans- 
portation, Board of Education, Detroit, 



Domestic _ $2.00 

Canada $2.50 

Foraign $3.00 

Single Copies „ .25 




Miscellany of the Month 194 

The Coolidge Visual Aid Squad Functions David F. Chassy 197 

Teacher Education: V/hen Do We St«»rt? Edgar Dale 200 

Filmstrips for War Training Classes Joseph A. Roenigk 202 

Film Program of a Public Library R. Russell Munn 204 

The Film and International 

John E. Dugan, Editor 205 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Knows 207 

Summer Courses in Visual and Audio-Visual Education 210 

School-Made Motion Pictures. Hardy R. Finch, Editor -211 

The New England Page- 

John H. Lyons, Editor 214 

The Literature In Visual Instruction 

A Monthly DIgesf _ Etta Schneider Ress, Editor 216 

New Films of the Month L. C. Larson, Editor 222 

News and Notes. ___ Josephine Hoffman, Editor 226 

Current Film News 228 

Here They Arel A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 232 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontiac, Illinois; Eiecutive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, III. 

Page 192 

The Educational Screen 

Photo courtesy U. S. Merchant Marine Cadet Basic School, San Mateo, California, shows 
Spencer Model VA Delineascope for lantern slide and opaque projection. 

Knowledge — up to the minute 

New facts, new developments, new 
changes arise daily out of the swiftly 
moving events in a world geared to war 
and war production. 

The Spencer Model VA Delineascope 
is performing an invaluable service, be- 
cause, in addition to lantern slides, it 
can project the printed page, charts, 
photographs, diagrams and even opaque 
parts and objects. Visually, it keeps mil- 
itary, production and training groups, 
large and small, abreast of last-minute 

Write us for information about this 
double-duty projector. 

i^pencer lens company 



May, 1944 

Page 193 

When World War II is HISTORY... 

... it ^^ill be much more than a list 
of dates and unpronounceable place 
names for tomorrow's students. It 
will be movies . . . grim, factual, 
revealing motion pictures of ■what 
war really is . . . stripped of glamor. 
And it will be the most powerful 
argument for lasting peace that's 
ever entered a classroom. 

And when peace comes, the 
Filmosound Projector, now built 
only for war service and for other 
essential purposes according to 
prevailing government directives, 
will return to the important task of 
helping you teach young America. 

The Filmosound was chosen by 
the armed forces because of its 
simplicity of operation ... its ex- 
treme portability ... its ability to 
take rough treatment . . . AND be- 
cause it provides brilli- 
ant, steady screen images 
and faithful sound repro- 

The Filmosound that you will 
use after Victory will embody re- 
finements developed to enhance 
each of those necessary character- 
istics. All we've learned in meet- 
ing and surpassing rigid Army 
and Navy standards will go into 
designing and building ySwer mo- 
tion picture equipment for you. 

V/e Say This Humbly 

No group has contributed more to 
America's coining Victory . . . with 
less fanfare . . . than teachers. It's 
largely their work that built the in- 
tegrity of character which makes an 
American soldier self-reliant, sensi- 
ble, courageous and sure of his abil- 
ity. Without the principle of free 
education . . . and the right people to 
administer it we coiild be less cer- 
tain of the future. 

Scene on screen and picture above are 
Official Army Air Force photographs 


In the air, with the foot-sloA^lng soldier, behind 
the blit fiuns. In tanks, on ships . . . younft men 
like these armed with B&H Cameras are rlsklnft 
their lives hourly to make a complete fllm record 
of this war. Movies of each en^^agement, each 
bomblnii mission are stud led by men still In train- 
ing to perfect their effectiveness in combat. 



Bell & Howell Company, 
Chicago; New York; Holly- 
wood; Washington, D. C; 
London. Established 1907. 


It retfistered 

•Optl-on Ics Is OPTICS . . . electrONics . . . mcnrhanlCS. 
It is research and engineering by Bell & Howell ia 
these th.'ee rc];ited sciences to accomplish many 
things never before obtainable. Today, Optl-onlcs 
Is a WEAPON. Tomorrow, It will be a SERVANT 
... to work, protect, educate, and entertain. 

Products combining the sciences of OPTIcs • electrONics • mechanics 

Scene from The American Nile filmed by Count Byron 
de Prorok. It tells the story of the decadence of the ancient 
Mayan civilizalion. 


Among the thousands of Filmosound Library 
motion pictures are many authentic records of 
the life and customs of all parts of the world. 
The coupon will bring complete catalogs and 
your copy of The Educational Utilization Digest 
which evaluates each film for subject application 
and age group. 

1817 Larchmont Ave., Chicago li 

Please send Filmosound Library Catalog and 
Educational Utilization Digest ( ) 

Also new Filmosound V ... — Circular ( ) 



School . 



Requested by. 

Page 194 

The Educational Screen 

Miscellany of the Month 

Events and Achievements Surveys and Statistics Plans and Predictions 

VISUAL education meetings scheduled ACCORDING to the Wendt Re- tiottw ^f ti,„ „,^„., , .• r • .l 

for July are : A port : F ^1 • , ^ Questions facmg the 

T^ r -.T- , T . -T-iI A , f^ .,. ^. . television-planners are these- (I) 

Department of Visual Instruction at The Army has SO to 75 Directors of will the coaxial-cable method or the 

Pittsburgh, Pa July 4 when the 944 Visual Aids; 250 L'branes of audio- ,elay-station method prove better for 

Representative Assembly of the NEA visual materials ; and 250 copies of each nation-wide television broadcast? (2) 
opens ,ts conference^ film produced. The Signal Corps pro- will television broadcasts be more «:o- 

Conference on Audio- Visual Aids, held duced 270 films in 1943 alone— its total ,,r>r,i;^oi ^„,i „fl-„^*- f ci x 

, ^, ,,.,.., c • TT • •. „, ^ » f .u u ■ I ,,„C. iiomical and effective from film or from 

by the Visual Aids Service University P oduction for the war being nearly 1000 ^-y,., pickup" ? (3) Will television news 

of Illinois Urbana, July 11-13. films, which is five times the films made .^place newsreels-or will newsreels be 

Audio-Visual Institute, University of by Erp. >n a decade and over. But cost- ,^^a. as always and televised to reach the 

Wisconsin, Madison, July 17-22. per-tilm is higher than Erpi s. •• i j- 

Sixth Midwestern Forum on Visual • The Will Havs Report says: national audience more quickly than by 

Teaching Aids at Bellfield Hall, Univer- In 1943 theatres sold over $770,000,000, ,':'.'"''"^'°" °* P""'^ ^° theatres? (4) 

sity of Chicago campus, July 21-22. in War Bonds, and personal appearances William Fox poses another question— as 

Further data on these programs will by stars another $1.337,000,000-total over '° whether theatres will be turned into 

be given in the June issue. $2,000,000,000. Theatres collected $3,000,- ^^^^ses when real television comes. 

• The "first film piade expressly for tele- 000 for the Red Cross. $1,600,000 for the * Televised News Programs from Press 
vision presentation," says Will Bishop, United Nations Relief, and $2,000,000 for Association, Inc., radio affiliate of the 
MGM publicity director, is titled "Patrol- the March of Dimes. AP, may be inaugurated this month 
ling the Ether" and was shown on April Further data are that 417 features and through Filmedia, Inc. They will be sum- 
10th to a trade audience by Zenith Tele- 449 short subjects were released in 1943 maries from news camera films. 

vision Station W-9XZV. . . . that Teaching Films Custodians Inc., • Bell Telephone plans post-war tele- 

• The Federal Communications Commis- a branch of the Motion Picture Producers vision development with 7000 miles of 
sion has received 109 applications, so far and Distributors of .America, now has a co-axial cable linking important cities 
this year, for new broadcasting stations. library of 6000 16mm short subjects for coast to coast, north to south, complete 
Of these, 66 were for Frequency Modu- the use of schools (!) ... and that 1307 by 1950. First circuit New York to 
lation, 25 for Television, and only 18 for new reels were added in 1943 (!)... that Washington, ready in 1945. Another 
standard broadcasting. Many think this the Industry's main functions are "enter- plan, by American Telephone and Tele- 
points the trend of the future. tainment. information, inspiration," edu- graph Co., will construct micro-wave- 

• Uruguay showed the Sonja Henie pic- cation not mentioned. length relay stations 30 miles apart be- 
tures. But Uruguay has no ice. So a • The Commission on Motion Pictures in tween New York and Boston for regular 
wave of frantic roller-skating swept Uru- Education has started spending the $100,- television broadcast 

guay. "Trade follows the films," re- 000.00 given it bv the Motion Picture « n ■ < 

marked Motion Picture Herald. Industry. It will first "survey the post- ' „ . ^^P"' ^°' '"'° P"'" <^^'« ""^''C'- 

• De Mine's technicolor war saga, "The war application of films to the school- jnly withhold his name) with the wish- 
Story of Dr. Wassell," was given a bril- room." then recommend a "program of " thought, emitted as prediction, that 
liant preview in the nation's capital before specialized teaching film production," then \/ post-war period will see "a good 
top-ranking Army, Navy, Marine Corps tell how to "integrate visual education "•"'"', '°"", P''°J^'^""' ' 3^'="'able to 
Ofi^cers, Congressmen, Senators, Su- with school curricula," and then will con- schools at $25m (sic !). Such absurdity 
preme Court Justices, and social leaders sider the sources of teaching film pro- '" P"'". '* ^ '"^" d'^service to the field. 
of the District of Columbia. Receipts of duction-(l) the organized eiKertainment ^ ^^ '^'^'^^ * misprint, we hope. 
$25,000.00 went to the Navy League's film industry, (2) commercial producers, •There is much agitation in England 
Red Cross Fund. (3) specialized educational producers. As toward the idea of having war projec- 

• An elaborate and unique exhibit — ar- to which will emerge as the major source tors "given to schools after the war." 
ranged at Dartmouth College for Navy of teaching films, the field can only await Head of the Boys and Girls Cinema Clubs, 
trainees and other students — presents the the Commission's conclusions. .At present J- Arthur Rank, and the director of Gau- 
complete history of the three-dimension it appears that, after analysis of the mont-British Instructional Ltd., Javal, 
picture : From the invention of the stereo- Teaching Films Custodians achievements a""^ staunch promoters of the plan. A 
scope by Oliver Wendell Holmes and rare so far, "several of the_ Commission mem- group »f civic-minded Members of Par- 
stereoscopic photos taken before the Civil bers believe that this record points the liament, headed by the educational expert. 
War — through the hey-day of its social way toward even greater use of Holly- Kenneth Lindsay, are trying to amend the 
success when the stereoscope replaced the wood product." The ultimate findings of Government's Education Bill to require 
family album for home entertainment, the Commission should be of extraordin- every school to install a projector. Javal's 
showing a completely furnished model of ary interest to the educational field ! five-year plan, ending as the war began, 
a Victorian parlor — and down to the • The over-all record total attendance on • aimed at a projector each in 21,000 Eng- 
present-day Vectograph which, through a single picture is announced as 51,000,000 ''^^ and Welsh schools. Final achieve- 
polarized spectacles, is teaching the for "Gone with the Wind." Some five ment, 500 projectors installed in the five 
Armed Forces air photography, geometry, million saw it twice, a half million three y^^rs ! Obviously the sales effort needs 
map-making and other wartime subjects. times. help. The proposed free disposal of war 

• .An Army film— "The Negro Soldier" • Comparative motion-picture theatre fig- projectors will speed up results con- 
(4 reels), a Frank Capra production, ures for two years are interesting : siderably. 

written and supervised by a negro, Carl- Gross admissions (without tax) for • Wendell Willkie's "One World" will 

ton Moss, who also plays a leading role- 1942 $1,193,400,000 be produced by Darrvl Zanuck for 20th 

IS a social documentary of high interest 1943 $1,363,250,000 Century Fox, of whkh Mr Willkie is 

and of more than wartime potentiality. Average ticket price for Chairman of the Board. Expected to cost 

It pleases the negroes. It can make white 1942 25.5 cents about $3,000,000. Profits to be divided 

people think, even change their attitudes. 1943 27.5 cents between the Wendell L. Willkie Fund, a 

It IS now being released to theatres Weekly ticket-buyers for charitable foundation, and Simon and 

through the War Activities Committee. 1942 90,000,000 Shuster, publishers of the book. At Mr. 

and a 16mni version will be available 1943 95,000.000 Willkie's request, the picture will not be 

June 15th through the OWL (But Gallup poll says about 65,000,000) shown until after the November elections 

May, 1944 

Page 195 

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Page 196 

The Educational Screen 

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A United Artists release, the picture co-stars 
Alan Curtis as Schubert, and Ilona Massey, the 
Hungarian singing actress, who is gay and 
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Recommended by the Motion Picture Commit- 
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and the following branches and affiliates: 
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May, 1944 

Page 197 

The Coolidge Visual Aid Squad Functions 

Full details on a highly effic- 
ient organization of student- 
operators for school projection. 


Calvin Coolidge High School 
Washington, D. C. 

Above: Some members of the Coolidge Visual Aid Souad. 
Left: Trainee taking projector examination under pressure. 

AT Calvin Coolidge High School, Washing- 
ton, D. C, we have a student organization 
which has done much to encourage the use 
of visual aids in the classroom. Our Visual Aids 
Squad, organized soon after the opening of the 
school in 1940, has won over many a faculty con- 
vert to the cause of visual education by the simple 
expedient of ver\' definitely relieving the teacher 
of all responsibility for procuring and operating 
the necessary projection equipment. 

For carrying on the program, we have portable 
projection equipment as follows: two 16mm. silent 
movie, one 16 mm. sound movie, two slide projec- 
tors, one opaque projector, besides 16 mm. sta- 
tionary movie equipment in tiie auditorium booth. 
The portable equipment is used in any classroom 
where proper lighting conditions prevail. There 
is one room set aside for projection use exclu- 

The bulk of the visual instruction material comes 
from the centrally located Visual Instruction 
Library which serves the entire D. C. school sys- 
tem, on the primary, secondary, and collegiate 
levels. The material is sent by special messengers 
to each of the schools on a regular weekly schedule. 
Even during these trying times, the service is un- 
interrupted and very dependable. The task of the 
Visual Aid Squad is to integrate the al)Ove service 
with the visual instruction ])rogram at Coolidge. 

Step 1. At the beginning of the school year, 
the Coolidge Visual Aids Office receives a cata- 
logue from the D. C. Visual Instruction Library 
Hsting all materials available for the current year. 
This listing is periodically revised or supplemented. 
The Coolidge Visual Aids Office then prepares 
duplicate lists, classified by subject matter, and 
distributes these lists to the various departments 
throughout school, for permanent reference by 
every teacher in his own subject. 

Step 2. The teacher consults this list periodi- 
cally, selects items, prepares Form No. 1 and 
forwards to the Coolidge Visual Aids Office. (For 
example, see Form No. 1 as filled out by Mrs. 
Anderson on Monday, Dec. 6.) (Forms 1, 3, 5, 
6. 7, are slips of standard 3x5 card size. Only 
Form 1 is shown here.) 

Step 3. On Tuesday, Dec. 7, the Coolidge Visual 
Aids Office consolidates similar orders from other 
teachers throughout the school, and prepares Form 
No. 2 in duplicate. Both of these copies are mailed 
the same day to the D. C. Visual Aids Library, 
where they are "processed". The Visual Aids 
Library confirms the dates requested, or names 
substitute dates, and returns one copy thus pro- 
cessed to the Coolidge Visual Aids Office. 

Step 4. By Friday. Dec. 10, the Coolidge Visual 
Aids Office is able to relay confirmations and sub- 
stitutions from Form No. 2 to the teachers con- 
cerned. (On Form No. 3). When agreement is 
reached with teachers regarding substitution dates, 
the Visual Aids Office prepares Form No. 4, the 
Projection Squad Assignment Chart. Forms No. 
2 and No. 4 are posted side by side on the bulletin 
board in the Visual Aids Office, headquarters for 
the Visual Aids Squad. 

Step 5. On Monday morning, Dec. 13, the Vis- 
ual Aids Squad operators consult Forms 2 and 4 
for the operations scheduled. For example, the 
first operator assigned for Monday, Jane Miller, 
looks for the box next to her name. She will note 
the Key No. 89. She realizes, by a glance at both 
forms, that she is to operate a 3-reel silent movie, 
"From Clay to Bronze." in room 316, for Miss 

Step 6. Our operator proceeds to room 316, 
where she finds the projector assembled, threaded, 
and focused. All Jane has to do is to flip the start 

Page 198 

The Educational Screen 

Form 1 


To D.F.Chassy Room 115 V.A. OFFICE 
From .^A' Anders on. Date. D9P._6,_ 19.45 

Please order the following visual aids for me, and project same 
as indicated below. (Type desired circled) 


Title Date Periods 

1. yttamin-J) JJec.J.? ..1-3 

2. Nursing. J)ec.^7 ..2.-A 

3 - — - 

button at a signal from the teacher. No time is 
wasted. How does it happen that Jane finds all in 
readiness upon her arrival in room 316? This is 
because of the squad's co-operation. 

You will note on the Assignment Chart that 
Jim Strand and William Sealfrank are assigned 
to the AM preliminary period. The boys are mem- 
bers of my home room class. Since my room ad- 
joins the Visual Aids Office, it is a simple matter 
for them to attend to both their home room duties 
as well as their squad assignments. Next to Jim's 
name on the chart are the symbols which mean 
that Jim is responsible for the setting up of any 
silent projector scheduled for the first period, with 

its proper film, or any opaque projector. The sym- 
bols next to Bill's name similarly instruct Bill 
to set up a sound machine for the first period, 
whenever scheduled, or a stereopticon. This ex- 
plains why everything was in readiness for Jane 
when she appeared in Room 316 the first period. 
Step 7. As soon as Jane has completed showing 
reel 1 of Film No. 89 on the machine A, she will 
immediately starf reel 2 on machine B, which has 
already been threaded and focused along with 
machine A. While reel 2 is running on machine B, 
Jane will rewind reel 1 from machine A, and thread 
that same machine with reel 3, which will be all 
set to go when reel 2 on machine 8 is completed. 
Likewise, while reel 3 is running on machine A, 
Jane will rewind reel 2 from machine B. Then 
she will thread machine B with reel 1, which you 
note was rewound a little while ago. When reel 
3 is completed on machine A, the teacher takes 
over. Jane then carries on by rewinding reel 3 
and threading machine A with reel 2. Thus both 
A and B machines are again in readiness for the 
second period under another operator, Don Wit- 
ters. Of course, we assume that two silent machines 
were available for this period. When we use our 
single sound machine, we just don't synchronize. 
We have hopes. Incidentally, it is rare that Jane 
is required to project more than three reels dur- 

Form 2 public schools of the district of columbi.\ 

Visual Aids Order to VISUAL INSTRUCTION LIBRARY Date . . . Dec. 6, 1943 

Type Key Reels Title Teacher Date Periods Confirmed 

Wanted Wanted by Library 

Key# 78 (1) 

79 (1) 

80 (1) 

«1 (1) 
82 (S) 
85 (2) 

84 (1) 

85 (1) 

86 (1) 

87 (1) 

K«J# 88 (2) 

89 (3) 

90 (1) 
SI (1) 
92 (1) 
95 (2) 

94 (1) 

95 (2) 


Koy# 96 (20) 
97 (24) 

Key# 98 

Soutui Aeouatlos 
The City 
Chemioal Reaotion 
Vitamin D 
Uexioo, Arts 

The Silrarsmith 
Clay to Bronso 
The Frog 
Pond Inseots 
Correct Shorthand 
Eyes - AdTanoed 
Asia Today 

Romeo and Juliet 
Tale of 2 Cities 

IB. so niotographs 
lAsc photographs 

Hiss Wanohel 
Miss Kent 
Mr. Hlmes 
lir. Hlmes 
Idss De Atloy 
1B.SS Barklay 
llr. Warren 
Urs. Anderson 
Mrs. Anderson 
lAss Gunning 

Mr. Jaooby 
Miss Fontaninl 
Mrs. Barrett 
Mr. Chassy 
Mrs. Green 
) Crigler 
16. ss Fairbanks 
Miss Hanft 

Mrs. Sandefer 
Miss Taylor 

Hiss Trufant 
Miss ITalter 

Deo 14 
Deo 14 
Deo 15 
Deo 15 
Deo 15 
Deo 16 
Deo 16 
Dee 17 
Deo 17 
Deo 17 

Deo 13 
Deo 13 
Deo 14 
Deo 14 
Deo IS 
Deo 15 
Deo 16 
Deo 16 

Deo 13 
Deo 13 

Deo 17 
Deo 17 






















.Jan. 6 

• * • • • • 


• • • • • • 


• • • • • • 


• • • • .• • 

May, 1944 

Page 199 

ing any one period, generally less. Our teachers 
usually plan for a twenty to twenty-five minute 
program, which leaves the operator sufficient time 
to ])repare for the next period. When Jane has 
completed preparations for the second period she 
will return to the V. A. Office, if there is still 
time ; otherwise, she will proceed to her next class. 
If any emergency arises requiring my immediate 
attention Jane will report directly to me in my 

Step 8. At the beginning of the second period, 
Don Witters reports to the V. A. Office, checks 
in, and proceeds to his assignment. Upon arrival 
in 316 Don will double check on his associate's 
preparations, and await the "go" signal from the 
teacher. At the end of the period all is in readi- 
ness for Howard Brooks to take over for the third 
period. And so it goes until the fifth period when 
Westerfield takes over. Westerfield notes on the 
Assignment Chart that although he is to project 
No. 89 during the fifth period, he must prepare 
No. 88 for his sixth period successor, Henry Por- 
ten. Therefore, before proceeding to room 316, he 
picks up film Xo. 88 — "The Silversmith," sche- 
duled for Mr. Jacoby's class. At the close of the 
7th period showing of film No. 88, Norton Marshall 
will cart all the equipment back to room 115. 
Marion Boat, Inventory Clerk, will make his daily 
check (on form No. 5). 

The Training of the Operators 

Obviously, the synchronization of this student 
activity requires adequate training. Since I, myself, 
carry a full teaching program together with other 
miscellaneous extra-teaching responsibilities, I am 
in no position to take any active part in the train- 
ing program. Therefore, we have developed a sys- 
tem whereby the more experienced squad members 
instruct the younger members in the "know how" 
of projection duties. The squad members are of 
three ranks — the senior members, the junior mem- 
bers, and the trainees. The senior members must 
have served effectively for at least two semesters, 
the junior members for one semester, before ac- 
quiring rank and title. Within each assigned period 
we try to have on duty one senior member, one 
junior member, and an occasional trainee. The 
senior member is responsible for the education of 
the trainee co-assigned with him for that period. 
For example, Don Witters is responsible for the 
training of- Joe Neophyte, No. 2. Whenever Don 
and Joe are able to get together for a training 
session they take out the equipment and go over 
the details of good projection technique. The 
training is leisurely, but thorough. There is no 
urgent need of Joe's immediate service. Within 
a few weeks Joe is ready to operate the slide 
machine and the opaque machine. However, the 
training for the movie projectors is prolonged. Wit- 

Form 4 


(Continued on page 220) 



Name Job Room Job Room Job Room Job Room Job Room 


Saalfrankf W. 
Strand, Jimmy 

DEC 15 


DEC 14 

DEC 15 

DEC 16 

DEC 17 


Miller, Jane 
Wainer, Irring 
Heophyta "Joa" 

89 SL 316 
96 ST 210 

79 SD 316 
90 SL 119 

80 SD 226 

85 3D 316 
94 SL 206 

86 SD 516 
98 OP 206 


Wlttars, Don 
Booth, Mary 
Haophyta, "Joa" 

89 SL 316 
97 SI 208 

78 SD 316 
91 SL 116 

81 SD 226 

84 3D 527 
94 SL 206 

99 OP 202 


Brooka, Howard 
Gaorga, Josaph 
Haophyta, "Joa" 

89 SL 316 
96 ST 210 

78 SD 316 
90 SL 119 

80 SD 228 

83 3D 316 
94 SL 206 

86 3D 516 
98 OP 506 


Harris, Dean 
VoUaner, Eldon 
Haophyta, "Joa" 

97 ST 208 

78 SD 516 
91 SL 116 

82 SD 516 
95 SL 116 

83 SD 316 

99 OP 202 


Westarfiald, E* 
Oehm, Frad 
Haophyta, "Joe" 

89 SL 316 
96 ST 210 

79 SD 516 
90 SL 119 

81 SD 226 
93 SL 115 

84 SD 527 
94 SL 206 

87 SD 516 
98 OP 206 


Portan, Henry 
Beona, Daniel 
Neophyte, "Joe" 

88 SL 316 
97 ST 208 

78 SD 516 
91 SL lis 

81 SD 226 

84 SD 527 
96 SL 2lO 

87 SD 516 
98 OP 202 


Marshall, Hort 
Boat, Marion 
Neophyte, "Joe" 

88 SL 316 
96 ST 210 

79 SD 516 
90 SL 119 

82 SD 516 
93 SL 115 

85 SD 516 
95 SL 210 

87 SD 316 
98 OP 206 

SD, sound moTle SL, silent movie ST, stereoptioon OP, opaque aaohina | 

Page 200 

The Educational Screen 

Teacher Education: When Do We Start ? ' 

Presenting some shortcomings of teacher training 
in the audio-visual field, with suggested remedies. 


Bureau of Educational Research 

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

YES. when dd we start ? M_\- title is provocative 
rather than accuratel_v descriptive. Hut are we 
yet past first base as far as teacher education 
is concerned? Since this is a matter of judgment and 
opinion let's set up some of the standards whicii 
describe an effective teacher education program. 

1. In an adequate teacher ediicatio)t program in 
the aiidio-visual field there zvill he a statement of 
necessary competencies and oj the experiences neces- 
sary to achieve these competencies. 

I don't believe this standard is reached anywhere. 
You will find scattered literature on what constitutes 
competency in this field. A few have attempted to 
put these things down on paper. But I do not know 
of a college of education or teachers' college which 
insists upon a mastery of competencies in this field. 

Yes, I know that we offer courses. .\nd some of 
them are compulsory. But would anyone defend tnem 
on any ground other than that they make a good 
start? Are any of us telling prospective teachers that 
they aren't ready to teach yet because they haven't 
mastered some simple skills in using the blackboard? 
Must one have stated, definite competencies in the 
handling of excursions in order to get a teacher's 
certificate? Or be a skillful demonstrator of the mean- 
ing of fractions, of how to read a map. or how to 
use a rotary saw safely? 

I'm not now saying that, once agreed upon these 
competencies, we should then teach them one by one 
out of the context of real, live teaching situations. 
Indeed it is only in rich, vital teaching situations that 
we can develop these competencies. Better teacher 
education in the audio-visual field means that we 
must improve the general quality of teacher educa- 
tion. More careful attention to the general problem 
of what constitutes the competencies of the effective 
teacher will help to such improveinent. 

2. A good teacher education program in the audio- 
visual field zvill require that the entire college use 
audio-visual materials as a regular part of its teach- 
ing procedure. 

One of the common problems faced by teachers 
in schools is the previewing the recordings, films, film 
strips, or slides that they plan to use. Failure to pre- 
view is a common weakness. But if we had effective 
use of these materials on the college level, many of 
them would not only have been seen by the teacher 
but also used by her in practice teaching. Hasn't the 
time conie when we should expect every teacher to 
have heard the best recordings in her field, seen the 

^Address given at The Northern Ohio Visual Aids Con- 
ference in Clevelaiui, April 3, 1944. 

finest films, and used the best pictures before she 
has received a teacher's certificate? 

How many colleges are making instructional use 
of Hollywood films — both features and shorts? Do 
man\- college students see films like "New Prisons — 
New Men," a This Is America release? Do they see 
"The \\'orld at War" which many of you own in the 
16mm. version? Do students view the short version 
of "Magic Bullet ?" 

Are most college instructors skillful in the uses 
of the blackboard ? Can they do simple drawing well ? 
Do they turn readily to the blackboard to write down 
a technical term or to note the five or six points that 
they are making in their lecture. Some do. Many 
do not. Do most colleges use their bulletin boards 
effectively? Is the bulletin board in the library changed 
regularly? Is it attractive and inviting? If it is, stu- 
dents will imitate it when they develop their own 
bulletin boards. 

Remember — we teach as we were taught, not as 
we were taught to teach. That's why progress is 
so slow. But to have an effective teacher education 
program in audio-visvial materials, we must have an. 
educational program that is audio-visually effective. 

3. An effective teacher education program requires 
a rich supply of teaching materials in the schools. 

Let's explore this a bit. A common unit in elemen- 
tary geography is one dealing with China. Now. can 
1 go into your school tomorrow and find there a file 
of excellent photographs on China itself, e.g., rice fields, 
temples, emphasis on manual labor, crops of various 
kinds? Or better still, would there he a file carefully 
classified under Industry, Transportation, Agriculture, 
Religion, and the like? 

Will you also have easily available a large map or 
maps of China, by means of which these ideas just 
presented are clearly shown in their geographical 
context? Do you have large maps by means of which 
pupils can follow the Chinese war front? Would the 
map, for example, show the difficulty of access to 
China by land from Burma? Would it show the river 
valleys? The appropriate elevations and the like? 

VN^ould you have some recordings on China, perhaps 
Madame Chiang-Kai-Shek's speeches? Could you put 
your hands quickly on Pearl Buck's tribute to Sun Yat 
Sen in a recent Nei<.' York Times magazine section? 
In other words, do you have at your finger tips a 
rich supply of teaching tools on this commonly taught 
unit or subject? Do you have a feast or a famine? 

4. Teachers in service must he regularly informed 
ahout neiv materials of instruction, given an oppor- 
tunity to previeiv them and discuss problems of use 
zvith other teachers. 

If this situation does not obtain, we do not have an 
adequate system of teacher education. For, under no 
circumstances, can w-e assume that a four-year pro- 
gram of teacher-education, involving as it does far 
more study of subject matter than actual ])reparation 
for teaching, can give enough skills, enough informa- 
tion, enough attitude development to carry the student 

May, 1944 

Page 201 


through thf rest of her teaching career. You simply 
can't have an etifective teacher-education program in 
the audio-visual field unless you have a careful, con- 
sistent, in-service training ])rogram also. 
One Approach to the Problem 

We are developing a teaching aids laboratory at 
the Ohio State University. It isn't unique. Other 
schools have done a notable piece of work in this 
field. - It is only through some such plan as this that 
we' are ever going to make any progress in this field. 
Compulsory courses in audio-visual education won't 
do it. E.xhortation won't do it. Even rich .supplies 
and materials alone won't do it. There must be in- 
telligent practice, too, supervised skillfully. 

What should be the goals of a teaching aids labora- 
tory? First, we must be a service agency for the col- 
lege. We must understand that the failure to use 
audio-visual aids in college teaching has usually not 
been a lack of interest or any unfavorable attitude, 
^lost instructors .say that it is a good thing to use 
audio-visual materials. There is no active opposition. 
But each individual instructor cannnot carry forward 
the practice and investigation and study necessary to 
determine the available aids. He needs help. We have 
noted again and again that the average instructor who 
tries to use a film or recording catalog is baffled by 
the complexity of the offerings. Then he orders some 
of these materials and is often disappointed. He goes 
back to textbook teaching with certain misgivings. 

That isn't all. he wants a certain film. 
He then has the laborious problem, not .so complicated 
but very annoying, of arranging for his department 
to pay the dollar or two necessary for the film rental. 
He. or some one else, must write a letter. He must 
see that there is a projector available, check the film 
when it comes in, and the like. This is an impossible 
situation. Even when he has the projector and the 
film or whatever it is that has been ordered, he must 
arrange the projection and see that the room is pro- 
perly darkened. This again is another chore, especially 
in many of our old college buildings. The result is 
that a series of tiny annoyances, and some not so tiny, 
have built up in the mind of the instructor a barrier 
against the use of this material. 

The solution is simple. Instead of having every 
person do all this work, have one person do it. I 
know that you are saying, "Well, after all, that is 
what an audio-visual director does in a city school 
system." Yes, that is true, but we don't have many 
such persons in public school systems and we have 
still fewer of them in colleges and universities. 

What I want to see, then, and we won't be success- 
ful in teacher-education until we have it, is a rich 
laboratory of teaching materials and teaching sug- 
gestions available to every member of a college faculty, 
and similar opportunities for every teacher in a school 
system. The war is going to hasten this. We have 
learned that if you are going to wage war, you have 
to have soldiers who are well taught and if you 
teach aerial gunnery or first aid or "Why we are in 
the war," you can turn very quickly, simply, to a 
film such as "Battle of Russia," to a chart deahng 
with a calibre-50 machine gun. to a map put out by 
the Morale Services Division of the War Department. 

Teaching tools and teaching materials are at your 
fingertips. We must duplicate that in the college and 

We mu,st go still further. We must equip certain 
classrooms as teaching aids rooms. This is just a pre- 
liminary step, but a necessary one. These rooms which 
might well be double classroom size, should have 
equipment of all sorts available in them, playback 
equipment, filmstrip projectors, motion ])icture pro- 
jectors, and the like. Many classes should be routed 
to this room and this space can be used economically. 

We will not have a satisfactory teacher-education 
program until we have produced materials specifically 
for teacher-education. W'e shall have to show how 
to use audio-visual materials by using specially pre- 
pared audio-visual material. To illustrate a demon- 
stration we need a motion picture of that demonstra- 
tion. To illustrate oral reading levels, we should have 
a series of recordings of such oral reading. \\"e ought 
to have films which show how an alert teacher uses 
a multiplicity of teaching material on fractions, deci- 
mals, etc. We must, of course, take our prospective 
teachers on excursions, but these excursions are time- 
consuming. We must also photograph typical excur- 
sions, how they are prepared for and followed up. 

The above type materials might be described as 
the "how to do it." They have the advantage of 
specificity and the disadvantage of the fact that there 
are many ways of teaching. A further need in teacher 
education is the production of a number of teaching 
situations or problems. Through a film or recording, 
we can .sharply etch a particular problem in the teach- 
ing of reading, in guiding a high school student toward 
a vocational career, in meeting a special type of disci- 
plinary problem, and the like. But the films or re- 
cording or film strip does not give the answer. It 
merely poses the problem. It poses the problem with 
the sharpness, concreteness, and dramatic quality of 
audio-visual materials. Discussion, reading, lecturing, 
demonstrations will follow as possible solutions for 
the problem are sought. 

Is this new approach in teacher-education likely to 
come as a wave of the future? Don't depend upon 
it. If you are a superintendent of schools or a prin- 
cipal charged with the hiring of teachers, make cer- 
tain that they know their teaching materials. If that 
means putting pressure on us in the teachers' colleges. do that. Teachers, in turn, who are in school 
systems, need to put on pressure to see that they 
get adequate materials with which to work. No work- 
man likes to work with dull or inadequate tools. To 
the reply that we cannot afford these materials, let 
us answer that we cannot afford ignorance either. 

The past twenty-five years has been a period char- 
acterized by attempts to get adeciuate materials made 
and to try to purchase them. W'e haven't licked this 
problem yet, but we are on the road to doing it. The 
other problem, that of effective use of these materials, 
is still in its infancy. One of the most effective ways 
of assuring this improved use is through a revolu- 
tionary change in methods of teacher-education. Part 
of that revolution must come through increased use 
of these new-type teaching materials in the teachers' 
college itself. 

Page 202 

The Educational Screen 

Two pictures from a slidefilm series on Machine Shop Mechanics made 

by the Society for Visual Education for vocational training in industry, 

showing the use of micrometer (left) and caliper (right). 

Filmstrips for War Training Classes^ 

Visual education, even under the extraordinary 
handicaps of the wor emergency, still works. 

WOULD you like to "sit in" on a group of 
trainees for war production and see how- 
visual aids function in the rapid training of 
skilled and semi-skilled workers ? Here of course, we 
have to set up a simulated situation to show what 
teachers in this work have to cope with. It is very 
different from "orthodox" classroom procedure and at 
times is exasperating. 

Last summer, I was doing what is called "on the 
line" training in a Cleveland factory where the new 
employees were largely "imi-grants" from the South. 
There were no facilities which could be called a class- 
room. I picked out a spot in the stockroom between 
rows of bins and shelves for storing parts, because 
it was naturally dark there when the lights were 
turned out. We used empty nail kegs and packing 
boxes for seats. I hauled in my car a portable screen, 
projectors and a blackboard (3 ft. by 4 ft.) which 
could be set up when needed. 

The class was made up of production operators 
who were relieved from their work stations for the 
brief period to attend class. I recall teaching a class 
in a plant where it was desirable (not to upset pro- 
duction schedules) to have the class meet at shift 
time, 3:00 to 3:30 P. M. The only available place 
to meet was in a corner of the cafeteria. Here the 
workers gathered for a snack or a pack of cigarettes 
and the customary greetings at the "change of shift." 
In a din of conversation and the rattle of dishes, my 
class would gather and they were usually supplied 
with pop and sandwiches. The class was always aug- 
mented by a number of curious listeners who were not 

Talk given at the Visual Aids Conference, Cleveland. 

Cleveland Trade School, Cleveland, Ohio 

always considerate of the teacher. You just can't be 
disturbed by such distractions although it is discon- 
certing — besides, sometimes a kind soul would buy the 
teacher a bottle of pop. 

The experience of a co-worker doing this same 
kind of teaching illustrates the level at which some 
of this training must be conducted. He was to teach 
fractions of an inch, decimal equivalents and reading 
a micrometer, to a group of machine operators and 
line inspectors. For an average group this is not a 
big assignment but in this instance he just was not 
"putting it over." The word equivalent wasn't in their 
vocabulary and one woman said : "You can get as 
many quarters out of an apple as you want to." Illus- 
trations such as four quarters in a dollar, etc., wouldn't 
work because to them, each 25-cent piece was a separate 
object — not a part of a larger unit. He used various 
devices and probably each contributed something in 
establishing the concept, but he finally succeeded by 
using a telephone directory. Each page represented 
a thousandth of an inch : altogether the pages made 
up the unit — one inch, a thousand pages. Half a book 
was 500 Images, a quarter book, 250 pages, etc. Thus 
were taught the decimal equivalents. 

Not all war training classes are at this level nor 
the physical handicaps so extreme, nor are the mem- 
bers of any one class so unlike in backgrounds and 
abilities. If you like to work with a wide range of 
individual differences, try one of these classes. There 
are the foreman groups with high skills and abilities 
who are directing other workers. There are skilled 
mechanics who are being upgraded by learning other 
skills to broaden them. There are other groups com- 
posed of persons anxious to change from non-essential 

May, 1944 

Page 203 

Right: Frames from the Jam Handy slidefilm unit on Mathematics. 
Below: From "Using a Follower Rest," one of the USOE films on the Engine 
Lathe, distributed by Castle Films. 


l( Um common denominator if higher tK« 
n»c*tMry, it will cauM mttkrm work. 

Va + % * y«=? 

ISO ^ I3S ^, IPS _ aao _ 2*. 

125 215 125 ~ 125 " 15 

13 parts WM high anough io MprMi that* Fracttoni 

W« l*arn*d that tha quickatt way to fMrform a *mri*t 
of multiplicatioM and divisions is . . . 

Tin.Y THE >«tH.T1PUEIiS. (2 « 6)- 10 





(3 » 8)- 24 

to war work — clerks, housewives, professionals — intel- 
ligent and schooled but to whom shop work is en- 
tirely strange. They are not only eager to learn but 
are quick to catch on — cjualities which make teaching a 

The enormous amount of visual material now avail- 
able for war production training has been a genuine 
help. There is also an abundance of printed material, 
such as diagrams, pictorial charts and instruction 
manuals, which is available for distribution to trainees. 
We look at this array of material and say "it's a god- 
send," but actually it has limitations. It is excellent 
in its utility if we know those limitations. The plan- 
ning, production and use of visual aids are much like 
the same operations in the development of an automo- 
bile. It was carefully designed by engineers, tested in 
laboratories and on the proving ground, and then 
turned over to the public to drive. What the auto- 
mobile manufacturer calls "bugs" did not show up 
when the car was tested by experts, hut when handled 
by the average driver under conditions which were 
not simulated in the laboratory, deficiencies showed up. 

With all this material, printed as well as that pre- 
pared for projection, there are two important requi- 
sites for its effective use — timing and integration. 
If we do not ob.serve these guide posts, much of the 
efficiency and value of visual aids are lost. Timing is 
important in that the visual material must be used 
at the precise time in the learning process, when the 
trainee needs it. Too early, the material is "over his 
head;" too late is just too bad. After he has learned 
the manipulation of a tool or a machine or has per- 
formed an operation by whatever method was expe- 
dient, he has established habits which are difficult to 
change. There is little need for a visual aid after the 
learning process is completed and to correct an error 
in his technique requires other teaching methods. 

Proper timing also includes the breaking down 
of a skill or operation into its elements and using a 

visual aid for only as many elements as can be re- 
tained and applied through practice. That is why 
teaching films and slides should be short — many of 
them are too long and cover too much territory at 
"one sitting." Sometimes well planned visual aids are 
used improperly and miss their mark entirely. I have 
seen teachers take trainees, regardless of their indi- 
vidual progress or stage of training, to the projec- 
tion room and show them three or four subjects of 
moving pictures — sort of a double feature night, but 
without the "free dishes." 

Integration is a close ally of timing and consists 
of using various teaching devices in continuity, 
so that the learning of one phase, process or operation 
is completed before engaging in another. It means 
that the shop work or skill practice must be carried 
on at the time the visual aid is used ; that the sup- 
plementary reading, testing and follow-up or remedial 
teaching must follow in close sequence. This is not 
always easy to do and many difficulties arise because 
of new enrollees, absence, various learning rates, and 
range of background. One is often tempted to give 
up to easier ways of teaching, but it is results in a 
time of crisis that we are after. Educators have been 
accused of teaching much subject matter superficially, 
but here is a situation where a little subject matter 
is taught intensively. Briefly, integration, as here used, 
implies bringing together the many elements in the 
learning process, properly timed and executed to ac- 
complish the doing of an operation or skill as near per- 
fectly as possible, as quickly as possible. 

The vital part that visual aids play in this process 
is obvious and the relative value of each kind of aid 
may be argued, but whatever kind is used, integra- 
tion and follow-up are indispen.sable. I prefer to use 
filmslides in presenting essential and detail instruction. 
However, I use all types, film strips with recordings, 
16mm. sound film, charts and manuals — each has a 
worth in its place, if fitting and properly used. In 

(Concluded on page 206) 

Page 204 

The Educational Screen 

Film Program of a Public Library* 

The significant role that awaits public 
libraries in the field of adult and com- 
munity education through visual materials. 


Director, Adult Education, Cleveland Public Library 

FOR twenty years the Cleveland Public Library 
has cooperated with the local theatres in an 
arrangement wlierein we publicize good en- 
tertainment fihns along with related reading. Ever 
since there have been printed catalogs, we have 
helped informal groups to find where they could 
borrow 16min, educational films. 

It was less than two years ago that we actually 
began to assemble a library of 16mm. films (or 
direct lending to the public. The Board of Trus- 
tees made an appropriation of $1000 for the pur- 
chase of films and, through the cooperation of 
the local OCD and the Council on Inter-American 
Relations, we became a depository for OWI and 
CIAA films. With this as a nucleus we have con- 
tinued to expand, and we now handle films from 
the British, Canadian, French, Belgian, and many 
other governments, and have steadily filled in with 
our own purchases. Thus, in less than two years, 
we have built a collection of 400 documentary 
and other educational films, almost all 16mm. 

Our loans average 800 monthly. During 1943, 
our first full year of operation, we reported 7750 
showings of our films to a total actual audience of 
372,760 and a total per film attendance of 762,474. 
This may seem small to school people. However, 
when you consider that the borrowers are mostly 
adult groups and not formal classes, the figure 
does seem substantial. We lend to industrial 
plants, social agencies, schools and colleges, OCD 
groups, churches, clubs, PTAs, and recently have 
begun to develop quite a business with individual 
borrowers. We make no charge (except fines for 
late returns) to any borrower in the county. Except 
with the few films which we lend outside the 
county, all loans are on a 24 hour basis, and the 
films are picked up and returned by the borrower. 
We take no responsibility for projection. 

A fundamental question which must occur to 
all educational film users' is : Why should a Public 
Library be operating in this field? The answer, 
from the librarian's point of view, is simple. All 
progressive public libraries these days are con- 
vinced that their field of endeavor extends far 
beyond that of merely lending books to those with 
sufficient interest to come to the library to get 
them. A public library is an educational institu- 
tion, with all that term implies, albeit the em- 
phasis is on the dissemination and distribution of 
the materials of education. For years we have 
handled pictures, records, microfilm, and other 

Address at Visual Aids Conference, Cleveland. 

non-book materials. For decades we have been 
trying to find new and more effective means of 
disseminating and recording information. The 16mm. 
educational film is an educational medium and 
it belongs in the library with other printed 
matter. Furthermore, it fits into all the technical 
processes of a library. You can catalog it, give 
it a Dewey decimal number, you can put it on a 
shelf, you can lend it on a borrower's card, you 
can even include it in a bibliography, or you can 
refrain from doing any or all of these things. As 
far as the technical processes are concerned, about 
the only difference is that, when it is returned by 
a borrower, you inspect it by turning a crank rather 
than by leafing over pages. The wide-awake public 
librarv cannot neglect the 16mm. film as one of the 
most effective of all the various kinds of educational 
printed matter. 

From the standpoint of the use of films in adult 
education, and I mean all kinds of informal adult 
group activities, the library is in a peculiarly ad- 
vantageous position to serve. We are non-political, 
non-profit. We have no ax to grind, we are in- 
terested in ideas, not in fees. Our mandate is to 
serve education in any form in which it may ap- 
pear, with whatever materials may be appropriate. 
We took a leading part last fall in organizing an 
institute on visual aids for the Cleveland Church 
Federation. We have frequently spoken before, and 
arranged screenings for, such groups as the Mo- 
tion Picture Council, the PTA, the Federation of 
Settlement Houses, OCD, etc. Finally, we have 
conducted a great many film programs of our own. 
Every Friday noon we have public screenings of 
recent films in the Main Library Auditorium, and 
these meetings are consistently well attended, not 
only by individuals interested in the latest films, 
but by' representatives of groups who come to see 
them with the purpose of using them later in their 
programs. We have conducted film forums and 
various kinds of film meetings at the Main Library 
and in many branch libraries. We are collecting 
films of interest to children and these are now- 
being used as a variant for the ever popular story- 
telling hour by the children's librarians. In all 
cases where films are used in our own programs, 
we try to relate them to books and to the learning 
process, and we have frequent occasion to suggest 
speakers or discussion leaders to borrowers who 
may wish to augment the educational value of 

their films. 

There are a few public libraries in the country 
which render similar service, although Cleveland 
is the only large city library so engaged, as fat as 
I know. For a pubHc library, this kind of service 
is "a natural." In conclusion, I hope the Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction will recognize, more 
fully than is apparent in this program, the enor- 
mous importance of 16mm. films in adult educa- 

Mfl>, 1944 

Page 205 

The Film and International Understanding 

DR. JOHN E. D U G A N, Editor 
Haddon Heights, New Jersey, Schools 

Interchange of Films 
Between Nations* 


Film Officer 

British Information Services 

Tower Bridge London, (from Know Your Ally, Britain) 

BEFORE the war, I taught schdol in England, and 
my main subject was Geograpliy. In fact I 
majored in Geography in College ; and yet the things 
I've seen in the U. S. since I first came to this coun- 
try some eighteen months ago, make me think that 
for a long time I must have been getting my salary 
under false pretenses. I have realized how little I 
knew of America and her people, and also how much 
more real my teaching would have been, if I could 
have used ^some good factual films about America. 

Before the war, we in England had very few teach- 
ing films on any subject, and many of those we had 
were useless from a teacher's point of view, because 
they covered a subject right from the Junior Grades 
to the Junior College stage. In fairness to our own 
teachers and schools, I must say that our woeful ig- 
norance of .\merica and her people is about matched 
by that of the Americans about Britain and the 
British people. 

I believe that a free exchange between the coun- 
tries of all kinds of visual aids and especially of mo- 
tion pictures is one of the surest ways we can learn 
about other people. (I am taking it that no one dis- 
putes my contention that we should know more of 
other peoples and lands.) 

I hope that the international conference of the edu- 
cational departments of the United Nations, soon to 
meet in London, will make real progress toward set- 
ting up simple machinery for a free exchange of edu- 
cational motion pictures. I know that one of the sub- 
committees will deal solely with this question. 

Much progress towards an exchange of ki'>ewledge 
through motion pictures has been made in the 
two years. We, and the United States, have a motion 
picture and film strip service in Chungking ; We — 
and I think the United States, though I am not sure 
about this — make many of our films available in Russia. 

*Talk given at the luncheon meeting of the Northern Ohio 
Visual .\ids Conference, April 4, and broadcast over WJW, 

In England, the British Government distributes many 
Russian films like Soviet School Child and Salute 
to the So'iiet. So that our people could understand 
more about the European peoples who found sanc- 
tuary in England when Hitler swept across Europe, 
and the lands from which they came, and also about 
others of the United Nations, we made and dis- 
tributed films like This Is Poland, The White Eagle 
(Poland), Before the Raid (Norway), Our Fighting 
Allies (Czechoslovakia) and a whole series on the 
British Commonwealth. 

When America entered the war and began to make 
factual films, it was quite natural that we should 
want to show our people about the great war effort 
of the United States. So every OWI film which goes 
to England is shown to the British people by the 
British Government, either through its arrangements 
with the cinematograph trade ( which by the way 
guarantees showing in every cinema in England), or 
by one of its 250 travelling cinemas which go to 
.schools, factories, civil defense meetings, garden clubs, 
and so on. In fact they go to any organization which 
can raise an audience. Films like Henry Broivne- 
Farmcr, Home on the Range. Bomber. Tanks, and 
others, have been shown to more than 5,000 audiences 
in England. 

We have also two films from the very excellent 
"Why We Fight" Series. Frank Capra made these 
films to show the United States service men soinething 
about their allies and about the issues of the war. 
You will find Battle of Britain and Knozv Your Ally 
Britain two first-class films worthy of inclusion in any 

Some of you may dub this exchange of films between 
the nations as propaganda. Who isn't propaganda 
conscious these days? If you feel uneasy about these 
films, all I ask you to do is to look at almost any 
of the films put out by Canadians, New Zealanders, 
Dutch, Norwegians, Poles, Czechs. Russians, and by 
the time you reach the end of your program you'll 
have learned a lot, but even i« your most completely 

Page 206 

The Educational Screen 

A pottery class, with instructor, nurse and patients. 

(irom Psychiatry in Action) 

relaxed state, you'll he just as good an American as 
you were in the beginning. 

I know, when I talk of British films, many will 
say, "Sure, the British films are good, but "the ac- 
cent !" And you will probably say "the accent" in 
such a way as though you thought a British accent 
was some loathsome way of talking which the British 
had acquired after years of hard practice. My mother 
doesn't go to the movies very often. Probably once 
in five years. And when she does go, she says she 
"can't understand a word those Americans say." We 
see and hear so many American films that our ears 
have now become used to what once we thought of 
as your strange way of talking, and we understand 
them readily. I would like the Americans to hear so 
many British films that their ears too become accus- 
tomed to the "British accent," and, of course, when 
that happens I would imagine that there will cease 
to be a "British accent" so far as the Americans are 

Here in America, films about Britain are shown in 
the motion picture theatres by arrangement with the 
motion picture industry. You recall famous films like 
London Can Take It, Target For Tonight and Desert 
Victory, which last by the way was shown in 11,000 
cinemas out of a total of 16,000 cinemas in the United 
States. The OWI distributes others like Message 
From Malta and Listen To Britain. In addition to 
these two outlets we ourselves maintain our own dis- 
tribution service of 16mm. sound films. At offices of 
the British Information Services and also at British 
Consulates we have set up film depositories where you 
can find films on farming and gardening, on the 
United Nations and on the British Commonwealth ; 
science films for high school and junior college ; films 
about our great industries, and films — like the now 
famous Desert Victory — on our armed services. 

Probably one of the most important of our new 
films is Psychiatry in Action, which has been adopted 

by the American Psychiatric Association. It shows 
the ])sychiatric treatment of neuroses in servicemen 
and civilians, and so is of tremendous interest not only 
to hospitals, doctors and nurses and psychiatric work- 
ers, but also to the many adult organizations now study- 
ing the problems of the rehabilitation of the service 
men or women. 

A great beginning has been made during this war 
towards securing a greater and freer exchange of 
knowledge and information about our countries through 
the medium of motion pictures. Let us all work for 
some way to continue and to extend this exchange. 
As I see it, each country's contribution towards the 
building of the Peace can only be in proportion to its 
■people's understanding of the problems and peoples 
involved, and I believe that motion pictures, together 
with all other available media, can best bring about 
this understanding. 

Filmstrips for War Training Classes 

{Concluded from j'agc 203) 

teaching groups of wide ranges in learning ability 
and background (I have asked many of them which 
they like best), the motion picture is too fast in action. 
Narration is likewise too fast for some, and in both 
mediums, the commentary has words and terminology 
not always familiar to the group. When using film- 
strips, the explanations can be tailored to fit the group. 
I prefer to use movies at the beginning of a lesson to 
stimulate interest or at the end to summarize. 

In the selection of filmstrips for the mainstay, I like 
them without captions for use with such groups. Some 
descriptions are too advanced for these learners, and 
may also distract their attention from what the teacher 
is saying in connection with the slide. The photographs 
and diagrams need to be very simple, reduced to basic 
elements as far as possible. As a rule, visual material 
cannot be too simple — more often than not, it is too 

When and if third-dimension views are ready for 
teaching purposes, they will be a big help. Two dimen- 
sional material lacks reality to many who are not 
versed in mechanical drawing. Cross-sections are often 
misleading. I had a woman trainee ask me why the 
pi.stons in the diagram were square shaped and the 
ones I showed her in the engine were round. With 
three-dimension pictures, blueprint reading and me- 
chanical drawing will be easier to teach. 

When using visual aids in any combination and 
singly, I have much faith in the tests or check sheets 
as a follow-up. The test or check sheet is not an ex- 
amination — it is a teaching device. I find it particularly 
useful with adult groups. It is a stimulus for further 
investigation into the subject and usually results in 
heated discussions giving the teacher a splendid open- 
ing for re-teaching. Nothing is so flat as a lesson 
where there are no questions or discussion by the 
group. This device forces out questions and a high 
score is something to compete for. I let them grade 
their own jiapers, or exchange them with the com- 
ment : "Trade with someone you think won't cheat 
you." The higher the intelligence and broader the 
background of the class, the more effective is this 

TAay, 1944 

Page 207 



Installment 57 continues the story oi the first 
important educational talkie program which be- 
gan imder the wing of the Bell Telephone System 

Chapter XIII — Conversation Pieces 

IN THE MEANTIME plans were 
proceeding apace for the making of 
an Erpi educational series. Several out- 
side educators remain individually and in- 
dependently convinced that the intention 
of making a teacher-training series was 
their suggestion during visits of inquiry 
to Col. Devereux and that they have been 
deprived of credit for it. However, I feel 
that the nature of the Erpi educational 
committee, with its strong ties at Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University, is suffi- 
cient to explain a spontaneous origin. At 
all events, the first emphasis ivas on 

Teachers Come First 

Apparently it was felt that those who 
were trying to promote the new ideas in 
education would most cordially welcome 
this obviously useful medium of the talk- 
ing picture and develop it most actively. 
Also, that pictures showing these educators 
and what they were doing would be most 
eagerly sought wherever teachers con- 
gregated for self-improvement and in the 
Parent-Teacher .Association meetings. 
The chief succeeding objective, pictures in 
the classrooms, would follow naturally 
when the teachers had learned the effec- 
tiveness of the talking screen for them- 

Everything was with allowance for the 
time factor. Erpi could afford to wait. 
It was an everyday saying around the 
place then, that, "The Bell System has 
been in existence for fifty years ; it is 
building now for the next fifty." That 
was it. The Bell System was a tremen- 
dous organization commanding the com- 
munications industry. Talking pictures 
from its point of view were a mere 
incidental consideration. They did not 
constitute a drop in the bucket compared 
with the telephone. There was plenty of 
money to spend, and the officers could 
easily and comfortably wait to learn 
from possible, probable mistakes. No 
group like this had ever been seen before 
in either theatricals or non-theatricals. 

Working under the probationary ar- 
rangement with Paramount had its ad- 
vantages. The Paramount News Build- 
ing, in West 43rd Street, over near Tenth 
Avenue, was more inconvenient to reach 
than the Fox Studio, but. once there, 
we were among practical motion picture 
men who were not too abashed by the 
profundities of the sound engineers. They 
had a processing laboratory in the prem- 
ises, and their tiny stage was remarkable 
for its compactness. Fred Waller, man- 
ager of the industrial division and in 
charge of the trick photography for the 
organization (the same who at one time 

not so long before had served in the Film 
Guild) was not only a tireless worker, 
but he was familiar with all of the short 
cuts, including many which he had de- 
vised himself to take advantage of the 
possibilities of sound. His assistant. 
Leslie Rousch, son of a veteran film lab- 
oratory man, had been trained along the 
same lines. 

Waller made an excellent impression 
on the Erpi educational committee in the 
first work he did for them. Even before 
Stokes had returned from Europe to be- 
gin work with Erpi, they had decided 
that nothing could be more convincing 
to teachers in training than to see for 
themselves the actual methods used in the 
modern experimental schoolroom. Ac- 
cordingly, when Stokes had returned from 
the Berlin advertising convention and 

"One-way vision dome" at the Yale 
psycho-clinic. The wire mesh of 
the dome, brightly lighted within 
and dark outside, appears solid to 
the unsuspecting baby in the crib. 

.^rnspiger had been engaged. Waller and 
his camera crews had been sent to an 
experimental school in Bronxville to 
photograph actual situations without re- 
hearsal. If the scenes were not spon- 
taneous, the committee said, they would 
be valueless. Not knowing how the action 
might develop, all Waller could do was 
to light the room in its entirety, set up 
a number of cameras to cover every angle 
of visibility, and shoot. What might be- 
come usable thereafter was just a matter 
of luck. 

Waller, who had been accustomed to 
the' most rigid budget economies in pro- 
duction, stood by helplessly in this fan- 
tastic situation, while, to his everlasting 
disgust, the cameras ground out in one 
afternoon upwards of 16,000 feet. Out 
of this material two tentative two-reel 
subjects, entitled respectively "\ Case 
of Professional Study, Grade I," and "A 
Case of Professional Study, Grade VI." 

were assembled but quietly shelved. More 
than two years afterward a rehash of the 
material was made for its silent values, 
and provided with a lecture spoken by one 
of the teachers at the school. The original 
sound was virtually unusable, as Waller 
very well knew it would be in such un- 
controllable circumstances. With micro- 
phone suspended on high out of screen 
range of the cameras, hard floors, walls 
and ceilings to echo and reecho the noise, 
many of the children seated on kinder- 
garten chairs, low down, and the unpre- 
dictable sounds including hammering and 
sawing as well as differently pitched 
voices, nothing else could have been ex- 

This footage was screened repeatedly 
in its unassembled form as Arnspiger and 
the committee considered what might be 
done with it. But other projects had 
arisen to occupy them, and putting the 
Bronxville reels aside for then, the com- 
mittee turned to the new ones. One of 
these was a two-reeler entitled "Child 
Growth," produced after short notice at 
the Paramount News studio to demon- 
strate some European researches in teach- 
ing psychology of the pre-school child. 
The lecturer and demonstrator was Dr. 
Charlotte Buehler, professor of psychol- 
ogy at the University of Vienna, who 
chanced then to be visiting New York 
in connection with the .American publica- 
tion of one of her books. Excluding the 
unhappily made test films I have just 
mentioned, it probably was the first 
teacher-training talkie ever made. 

Of course, it was my job to make my 
own productions as technically perfect as 
might be ; but, whenever I deplored re- 
sults which had fallen short of their 
intended effect — and in the circumstances 
of the time there were plenty of those — 
Howard Stokes pointed out that the 
most important consideration just then 
was to turn out our subjects as rapidly 
as possible. One or two "perfect" produc- 
tions, as he said quite rightly, could be 
of very little use to the clamoring sales- 
men, whereas they could dispose of com- 
plete sets of even average production 
quality. Accuracy of the basic content 
was of more concern to them, and, na- 
turally, that phase was the responsibility 
of the committee. 

Accordingly, I rushed through my pro- 
duction schedule as Quickly as I dared. 
There was one awful week in which I 
personally made six different subjects, 
most of them single-reelers, however. 
That this may not seem too incredible, I 
should explain that probably four out 
of the six consisted of straight lectures 
by educators who usually started seated 
at a librarx table, and then, as argument 
warmed up, arose and sat on the table, a 

Page 208 

The Educational Screen 

f^ -^ Wm* 

For Varney Clyde Arnspiger oppor- 
tunity never had to knock more than 
once — and occasionally not at all. 
His enterprise has helped the field. 

little further variety being provided by 
shifting camera positions from side to 
side and using two- three- and four-inch 
lenses for varying distances. 

One of these subjects was the presen- 
tation of Mrs. Ina Craig Sartorius, in a 
series of Binet-Sinion tests of children 
ranging in age from about three to 
thirteen. Another was of Hughes Mearns, 
professor of creative education at New 
York University, an especially delightful 
gentleman who matched pennies with the 
cameramen between takes and told me 
horrendous tales of modern youth. Dr. 
Mearns brought his wife a few days 
later to see the "rushes" and, when the 
screening was at an end, I asked Mrs. 
Mearns how she liked her husband's 
performance. She drew a deep breath 
and answered, "Well, it's Hughes all 
right ; but he looks shinier than I've 
ever seen him before." My hectic life, 
you see, was not without its lighter 

One of the most notable of the subjects 
in the early teacher-training category 
came about in an odd way which I think 
may be of some importance to the record. 
An elderly gentleman came to my office 
one morning and stated that he wished 
to talk with me about studio scenery. In 
New Haven, where he lived, he had in- 
quired for information on this subject, and 
had been referred by Roy Phelps, local 
non-theatrical producer, to me. It devel- 
oped that he was Dr. .Arnold W. Gesell, 
celebrated authority on infant behavior, 
founder and head of the Yale Psycho- 
Clinic. In his work he used 16mm motion 
pictures, made by himself, of the babies 
being studied, through what he called a 
"one-way vision screen." By means of 
this device the camera could see the 
babies but the babies could not see the 
camera. Now he wished to expand his 
studies to cover behavior of the toddling 
child, and he desired to build at the 
clinic for this purpose a setting which 

would seem like a real room to the child, 
but which would nevertheless permit the 
use of the cameras from any angle. 

As an Erpi gesture of good will toward 
the Yale University group, I was per- 
mitted to visit Dr. Gesell at New Haven 
and do what I could to assist him. As an 
especial return courtesy I was shown 
in fascinating detail the remarkable 
establishment which he had built and 
headed, and discussed at length with him 
his plans for the proposed new studio 
arrangement. When the conference ended, 
Dr. Gesell wished to know what he 
might do in fulle^ return. He knew, he 
said, that as a man in business, I 
necessarily must have something of the 
sort in mind and what was it? I pro- 
tested our actual friendly intention, but, 
having been greatly impressed with the 
pictorial possibilities of the interesting 
work which he was carrying on. I sug- 
gested the production of a talkie to show 

Dr. Gesell listened with grave courtesy 
and gently shook his head. What could 
be the purpose of such a picture? To 
advertise his work? He needed nothing 
of that sort, and, the clinic being suffi- 
ciently endowed, no publicity was required 
there. Moreover, he had once demon- 
strated in a few scenes for the Pathe Re- 
view. His argument seemed conclusive, 
but I jumped at a straw. The clinic 
surely had been founded, I reminded 
him, with the idea of spreading good. 
.Advertising or no advertising, a film 
made of his work under proper, digni- 
fied auspices, would accomplish that pur- 
pose, and to deny this suggestion would 
be to neglect an unusual opportunity. 
In fact, could he conscientiously ignore 
w hat amounted to a duty to the founders ? 
Upon this point he yielded. He then 
wrote the scenario himself, and I pro- 
duced the picture with Roy Phelps as 
cameraman and with Dr. Gesell speaking 
the running narrative. It became one ol 
the most successful items in the teacher- 
training series, and it led to making 
public an entire set of Dr. Gesell's ex- 
perimental records. 

One of his assistants at the Psycho- 
Clinic then was Dr. Alice V. Keliher, 
who later became well known to the 

visual instruction field. She it was who 
prepared certain teacher's handbooks for 
use with the lantern-slide courses of 
Keystone View, of Meadville, Pennsyl- 
vania. .Another of Dr. Gesell's assistants, 
in charge of his special film laboratory, 
was Jules Bucher, who was to gain 
reputation as a cameraman-director with 
Julien Bryan. Working for Bryan in 
subsequent years, he travelled widely 
through Russia and Latin America, pro- 
ducing some admirable, useful pictures. 

Staff in Hand 

.-\t .'VBOut the time that Stokes had de- 
cided to take on an assistant. Arnspiger 
also had felt the need of one. Accord- 
ingly he summoned from Oklahoma his 
friend James A. Brill, former director of 
high school music at Oklahoma City. 
Brill proved to be a frank, likeable soul 
of the Will Rogers order, with a genuine, 
specialized interest in the profession he 
had left, a love of trout-fishing, and, 
what probably was of high importance, 
too, an excellent sense of humor. It 
doubtless saved him from taking many 
subsequent situations too seriously. He had 
had some experience with amateur dra- 
matics and quickly developed a creditable 
knack of composing pedagogical scenarios. 

Brill was Arnspiger's first assistant 
after Stover, but he was not long the 
only one. Now that we had an im- 
pressive list of teacher-training subjects, 
shown triumphantly at various teacher 
conventions, and the committee was plan- 
ning pictures to be produced in various 
lines of study, there naturally was plenty 
of research to be done in the line of 
curricular needs and subject matter of 
individual units, and in the preparation 
of teaching handbooks to accompany the 
films. This justified staff expansion, and. 
of course, there was at that time plenty 
of money to make staff expansion pos- 

One of the most discussed subjects for 
possible utilization was the study of 
languages, so, after Brill, who had been 
responsible for the well-planned set of 
reels on music appreciation, there was 
engaged as a new research assistant. Max 
R. Brunstetter. He was former principal 
of the high school at Millville, New 

Among Erpi's "research associates" Melvin Brodshaug majored 
in natural science; Edgar Stover in educational experimenta- 
tion; and Howard Gray in social science and teacher training. 
Stover was first to be engaged. Portraits from left to right. 

May, 1944 

Page 209 

Left to right: Max R. Brunstetter, research associate in voca- 
tional guidance; Laura Krieger Eads, tests and measurements 
and elementary social sciences; and James A. Brill, the fine arts. 

Jersey, where he had done interesting 
work in developing techniques for teacli- 
ing French and Spanish. A graduate 
of Dickinson College at Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1922, he had received his M.A. 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1928, and was to gain his Ph. D. from 
Teachers College, Columbia University, 
in 1930. Came ne.xt, in quick succession, 
Howard Gray, specialist in social science 
and teacher-training; Melvin Brodshaug, 
expert in natural science teaching; and 
Laura B. M. Krieger— later Mrs. Eads— 
to make tests and measurements in the 
elementary social sciences. Edgar Stover's 
work was ticketed as the field of ex- 
perimentation, and he was set to work 
with Miss Krieger to devise and to con- 
duct tests. Howard Gray was a native 
of Colorado and, in 1926, a graduate of 
the University of Montana. His M..A.. 
and his doctorate both were gained at 
Columbia, from Teachers College, the 
latter just a few months before his com- 
ing to Erpi. 

These educators were uniformly a sin- 
cere, able, hard-working body. They 
had won schoolmen's accolades. Miss 
Krieger, Howard Gray and Melvin Brod- 
shaug were Ph. D.'s, each with a right 
to be addressed as "Doctor." Brunstetter 
had most of his counts and became a 
Ph. D. in the first year of his presence 
at Erpi. Brill and Stover had mere 
A.B.'s. but both were thinking seriously 
of trying for the hood. Devereux was a 
Ph.D., and even Stokes was an A.B.. well 
on his way to a master's degree from 
Colgate, and listed in Who's Who, be- 
side. .Arnspigcr. at the close of 1931. was 
still only a bachelor of arts, but he went 
to Columbia University during odd times 
during his busy days, and. after meeting 
the inflexible requisite of hours of study, 
became a doctor, too. His thesis. Measur- 
ing the Effectiveness of Sound Pictures 
as Teaching Aids, using the materials 
provided by his current employment at 
Erpi. was issued in book form by the 
Bureau of Publications of Teachers Col- 
lege in 1933. 

All of this learned activity naturally 
provided additional grist for the produc- 
tion department mill, and, of course, it 
never would do in the circumstances to 
have defections there. So Stokes was 

obliged to enlarge his own staff also. 
With his permission and approval I took 
on Don W. Bartlett. who had been work- 
ing fitfully as a free lance film editor 
since his return from his Canadian ex- 
perience with Bruce Bairnsfather ; Rich- 
ard F. Chapman, who had fallen on lean 
times with the receivership of Fox Films 
and the collapse of sponsored pictures at 
Paramount ; and Charles Brooke, who had 
been my assistant in production since my 
association with Carlyle Ellis. Conse- 
quently, the production department be- 
came rather imposing, too. 

Arnspiger was especialy disturbed that 
in making the original educational talk- 
ing pictures at Erpi the production au- 
thority was not completely in his own 
hands. But then, the production depart- 
ment was not without its own ideas on 
education. This is niteresting to remark 
because it represents the recurring situa- 
tion in every educational film enterprise 
that ever existed. The educational head 
of an educational program is generally 
obliged by his own ignorance of film pro- 
cedures to divide his authority with a mo- 
tion picture man. Stokes had known 
non-theatricals for a long time. He had 
been aware that this natural difficulty 
must arise and had anticipated it by in- 
sisting from the first that one of Arns- 
piger's research assistants should be pres- 
ent in every production period to decide 
pedagogical questions which might come 
up. Stokes, with malice towards none 
and sufficient charity for all, believed 
then, as always, in the supreme merit of 
minding his own business and leaving all 
else to the divine course of nature. He 
was quite right. In proper time nature 
was to give Arnspiger a production fa- 
cility of his own and to return Howard 
Stokes to his first love, his office at the 

To be sure, a compromise spirit was 
needed on both sides. We, of the pro- 
duction division, with some practical ex- 
perience in writing and staging films for 
industrial and social service purposes, had 
naturally reached certain conclusions 
about the effectiveness of techniques in 
conveying useful ideas via the screen. 
When a subject was of itself rather com- 
monplace, and could not be given a fresh 
approach in imparting arresting informa- 

tion, we deemed it worthwhile to build 
up the interest by devising an attractive 
form of presentation. But we were to 
discover that our educators wished to 
avoid such additions as injections of ele- 
ments disturbing to the lesson. We were 
to learn that, while modern education 
seeks to integrate new knowledge in the 
pupil's experience, it was frowned upon 
to integrate the pupil's experience in the 
new kncnvledge, as we would do in fol- 
lowing approved methods of the theatre. 
Above all, we discovered that educators, 
as a class, shunned aroused emotion in 
the learning process whether it improved 
attention or not. 

Production Research 

A.x instance, to show the dilemma 
which arose in this respect, was in the 
group of four subjects known as "The 
Music Appreciation Series," planned and 
executed with the supervision of James 
Brill. We began the series with a reel 
on the woodwind choir, a lecturer stand- 
ing with the musicians and frankly ex- 
plaining the instruments individually and 
in combination. This was the very early 
period, when the lecture technique for 
a teaching film was virtually the only one 
generally approved. Brill's interesting 
text for the lecture referred to the piccolo 
as the comedian of the choir, and, when I 
came to the closeup of the piccolo, I 
animated the instrument so that as it 
squealed it apparently wriggled of itself 
on the music rack to the comic conster- 
nation of the lecturer and musicians. 
This touch was well received, and we 
were encouraged to explore possibilities 

.At about the same time I had varied 
the straight lecture technique of Joe 
Coffman and others by having inter- 
polated scenes, consisting of stock film 
and sometimes material especially staged, 
with the lecture continued over them. Of 
course, this had already become familiar 
practice in the industrials, but when I 
thus "illustrated" the long talk of Hughes 
Mearns on "Creative Education," using 
an acted episode, it was an almost sensa- 
tionally new technique for this purpose, 
and the subject was authorized to be 
made only after many qualms and mis- 
givings. But, each time I essayed a new 
way of doing and found it effective. I 
naturally was anxious to explore further 
and to make experimental pictures 
experimental from the production side 
as well. Those early films may seem 
rather quaint now; but, in the light of 
their undeveloped times, some of them 
were distinctly progressive. 

Brill, whose experience witli amateur 
dramatics made him considerably less 
word minded than some other teaching 
authorities we knew, always shared this 
attitude with enthusiasm, and assisted us 
greatly in breaking down the natural 
conservatism of the committee. But we 
had one serious setback which for a time 
put a stop to any developments of this 
nature. It was when we came to the 
second subject in Brill's music series. 
(To Be Continued') 

Page 210 

The Educational Screen 

Summer Courses in Visual and 
Audio- Visual Education, 1944 

The following list supplements that which appeared in April. 
Figures in parenthesis show semester or quarter credits. 


Humboldt State College. Areata 
Workshop in Audio- Visual Aids 


Wheaton CoUeg^e, Wheaton 
Visual Aids (2) 

June 26-July 27 
Mrs. Alma Thompson 

July 24-Aui;. 18 
Robert L. Cooke 


loiva State College. Ames June 12-July 19 

Visual Methods in Education (3) A. P. Twogood-H. L. Kooser 


University of Wichita. Wichita June 5-16 

Workshop in Elementary Education will 

emphasize Visual Education W. A. Bonwell 

Kentucky , 

l]»iversity of Kentucky. Lexington July 20-Aug. 26 

Visual Teaching (4 qr.) Louis Clifton 


Louisiana State University. Baton Rouge June 9- July 22 

Audio-Visual Aids (4 qr.) Mary Clint Irion 


University of Maine, Orono July 5-.Aug. 11 

Motion Pictures in Education (2) Paul S. Miller 

State Teachers College, Hyannis July 6- Aug. 15 

Audio-Visual Aids to Teaching (2) Earle S. Collins 
Central Michigan College of Education, Mount Pleasant 

Visual Education (2) July 3-Aug. 11 W. C. Smith 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor July 3-Aug. 14 

Visual Sensory Aids in Education (2) F. Dean McClusky 


Central Missouri State Teachers College, Warrensburg 

July 3-Aug. 25 
Audio-Visual Education (2) Byron Westfall 

New York 

Chautauqua Summer Schools, Chautauqua July 10-Aug. 18 

Laboratory Course in Visual Aids I and II 
(2 qr. ea.) Mary Molyneaux 

Syracuse University, Syracuse July 3-Aug. 12 

Visual Education (3) To be appointed 


The L'niversity of Oklahoma, Norman July 17-29 

Visual Aids Workshop (2) 

W. B. Ragan — Betty Blanton — Weldon Brown 


Muhlenberg College, Allentown July 5-Aug. 30 

Visual Instruction (2 or 3) John E. Trainer 


Southwest Texas Teachers College, San Marcos July 17-Aug. 25 
Audio-Visual Education (3) Ruby Henderson 


State Teachers College, Farmville July 24-Aug. 26 

Audio- Visual Education (3 qr.) E. M. Johnson 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville July 3-22 

Workshop in Visual and Auditory Aids (2) John A. Rorer 


Central JVashington College of Education, Ellensburg 
Audio- Visual Education (2y2 qr. for 1 -month course, 
or 5 qr. for 2-month course) Edward B. Rogel 

Western Washington Collcgie of Education, Bellingham 

July 20-Aug. 18 
Visual Aids (3 qr.) Fred W. Knapman 

Construction and Use of Visual Aids (3 qr.) Charles M. Rice 


University of Wisconsin, Madison June 24-Aug. 18 

Visual Education (3) W. A. Wittich 

Workshop in Visual Education 
For the Religious Field 

THE first North American Workshop in Visual Edu- 
cation for church ivorkers will be held at Garrett 
Biblical Institute, August 28 to September 2, Evans- 
ton, Illinois. 

There is a rising tide of interest in the use of visual 
method by churches. Despite the shortage of equip- 
ment, there is an increasing use of the film material 
that is now available. After the war when equipment 
is released there will doubtless be an upsurge in the 
use of visual materials and method. Wise guidance 
is essential if the interest and resources of local 
churches are to be used most effectively both now and 
after the war. 

There is great need for persons equipped to teach 
courses in visual education in the 700 schools for 
church workers scattered over the country. Leaders 
are needed to organize and hold conferences and in- 
stitutes, to serve as chairmen of committees of visual 
education in local churches, in state and city councils 
and in denominational staffs. The Workshop to be 
held this summer is encouraging the discovery of 
such potential leadership on the part of denominations, 
state and city councils and local churches. One out- 
come of the Workshop should be the beginnings of a 
field leadership in visual education. 

This conference is being conducted under the aus- 
pices of the International Council of Religious Educa- 
tion which is the official organization through which 
40 denominations and about 110 state and city coun- 
cils work together in Christian education. Its con- 
•stituency includes about 80 per cent of Protestantism 
and it corresponds in the church school field to the 
American Council on Education in the public school 
field. The administrative committee for the Workshop 
includes such persons as Rev. William Rogers and 
Dr. Paul H. Vieth. The persons invited to attend the 
Workshop are : national stafT members, committees 
responsible for visual education, age group workers, 
area and council executives, supervisors of church 
schools, pastors, directors and professors of religious 

Throughout the conference attention will be given 
to all kinds of visual aids including motion picture's 
and slides but, also, including the use of prints, murals, 
school journeys, maps, worship centers and other non- 
projected visual aids. The program will include a 
Seminar on the whole field of visual education in the 
church, "functional work groups" for special group- 
ings of leaders ; production groups in script writing, in 
simple motion pictures and slides and in non-pro- 
jected visual aids. Guidance will be given in operating 
projectors. Demonstrations of methods and review of 
films will be provided. The very best leadership of 
the country is being secured for each item in the pro- 

This first North American Workshop should be a 
foundation stone for an increasingly adequate total 
program of visual education for the churches. Fa- 
cilities are limited so that advance reservation is 
necessary. Inquiries should be addressed to Dr. Mary 
Leigh Palmer, 203 North Wabash .\venue, Chicago 1, 


May, 1944 

Page 211 



Head of the English Department 
Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

Your editor is pleased to present in this column a 
comprehensive account of the University of Minnesota 
Film-making, secured through the cooperation of Paul 
Wendt, visual education director who has supervised 
the production of several unusual films during the past 

University of Minnesota Productions 

ALMOST a year ago the three reel 16mm. color 
sound film on the curricula of the School of 
Nursing called Nurse Student in Wartime was 
released for distribution. This film was designed to 
inform prospective candidates for the School of Nurs- 
ing on the content of both the three-year and five-year 
curricula leading to degrees. 

The first few scenes of the film show a freshman 
liaving conferences with Miss Densford, the director 
of the School of Nursing and outlining her plan of 
study. Then follow in rapid sequence scenes from 
many classrooms, laboratories, and study halls where 
the same student is shown hard at work. Types of 
recreation that nurse students are encouraged to enjoy 
are also shown. Distinction between the two curri- 
cula is clearly made by means of a large wall-size 
course diagram located in the School of Nursing office. 

When the student has completed her ])reliminary 
studies, she enters into fields of specialization such as 
X-Ray Therapy, work with psychiatric patients, com- 
munity nursing, etc. The variety of s])ecializations 
shown here in juxtaposition presents the new student 
with a graphic over-view of the opportunities open 
to her. The last part of the film shows some of the 
other opportunities open to nurises such as employ- 
ment with airlines, industrial nursing, and other fields. 
The film closes with a short sequence on the import- 
ance of nursing to the war eflfort. Several scenes in 
this sequence are devoted to the new Nurse Cadet 
Program and its colorful uniform. 

Before the war the School of Nursing regularly pro- 
vided speakers to visit high schools and other organi- 
zations whose members might be interested in enter- 
ing the School of Nursing. Within a short time after 
the opening of war, it was evident that the School 
of Nursing could not provide staff members for these 
duties, and the color sound motion picture was made 
to do most of this recruitment work. Since the film 
was released, it has been booked solidly without inter- 

The production was under the direction of John 
L. Hamilton, assistant director of the Visual Educa- 
tion Service, and under the technical supervisio